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OF T h E 



Molt Eminent Perfons 



From the Earlieft Accounts of Time to the prefent Period 5 





Correfted, Enlarged, and g-ently Irrproved; with the Addition of many Hundreds 
of New Lives, never Fublifhed before. 

V O L. II. 
L O N D O Nt 







I in 

\ . ' . : .' ' 







Eminent Perfons 




ATE (GEORGE), an eminent phyfician, born at MaicKs 
Morton, near Buckingham, 1608. At fourteen years of age 
he became one of the clerks of New College, in Oxford ; 
from whence he was removed to Queen's College, and after- 
wards to St. Edmund's Hall. When he had taken the degrees of 
bachelor and matter of arts, he entered on the phyfic line, and having 
taken a degree in that faculty in 1629, he obtained a licence, and for 
fome years pra&ifed in and about Oxford : his practice was chiefly 
amongft the Puritans, who at that time confidered him as one of their 
party. In 1637 he took his degree of doctor in phyfic, and became 
very eminent in his profeflion; fo that when King Charles kept his 
court at Oxford, he was his principal phyfician. When the king's 
affairs declined, Dr. Bate removed to London, where he accom- 
modated himfelf fo well to the times, that he became phyfician to 
the Charter -houfe, fellow of the College of Phyficians, and after- 
wards principal phyfician to Oliver Cromwell. Neverthelcfs, upon 
the Reftoratioa he got into favour with the royal party, was made 
principal phyfician to the king, and fellow of the Royal Society ; and 
this, we are told, was owing to a report raifed on purpofe by his 
friends, according to Mr. Wood, that he gave the protector a dofe 
which haflened his death. Dr. Bate wrote in Latin an account of 
the late commotions in England, and fome other pieces. He died 
t his houfe ia Hatton-garden, 1669. 


-_!!--? -^ ' ' -A 

BATE (JULIUS), tvas an intimate friend of the celebrated 
Hutch in fon (as we learn from Mr. Spearman's life of that remark- 
able author); by whofe recommendation he obtained from Charles 
duke of Somerfet a piefentation to the living of Sutton in Suilex, 
near his grace's feat at Petworth. His publications were, i. An 
ElTav towards explaining the firjl Chapter of Geneffs, in Anfwer to 
Mr. Warburton, 1741. 8vo. 2. The Philofophical Principles of 
Mofes afferted and defended againft the Mii'reprefentations of Mr. 
David Jennings, 1744, 8vo. 3. Remarks upon Mr. Warburton's 
Remarks, fhewing, that the Ancients knew there was a Future 
State, and that the Jews were not under an equal Providence, I"j4^' 
Svo. 4. The Faith of the Ancient Jews in the Lav/ of Mofes, and 
the Evidence of the Types, vindicated in a Letter to Dr. Stebbing, 
1747, 8vo. 5. Micab, v. 2. and Matthew, ii. 6. reconciled, 1749* 
Svo. 6. An Hebrew Grammar, formed on the Ufage of the 
Words by the infpired Writers, ij$o, Svo. 7. The Ufe and In- 
tent of Prophecy, and Hiftory of the Fall cleared, 1750, Svo. 
This was occalioned by MiddJeton's Examination of Sherlock. 

8. The Blelling of judah and Jacob cnniidered, and the Mrs. of 
Daniel's Weeks afcertained, in two Diflertations, 1753, Svo. 

9. The Integrity of the Hebrew Text and many Paffages of Scrip- 
ture vindicated from the Objections and Mifconftructions of Mr, 
Kennicot, 1755? 8vo. 10. A Reply to Dr. Sharp's Review and 
Defence of his Diflertations on the ScriptureMeanihg of Eloim and 

Bcrith, 1755, Svo. i J. A Reply to Dr.. Sharp's Review and De- 
t^.ice of his DilTertation on tht- Scripture Meaning of Berith ; with 
an Appendix in Anfwer to the Doctor's Difcourfe on Cherubim* 
Part II. 175?. 8vo. 12. Remarks upon Dr. Demon's Sermon on 

.the Gofpel Method of Juflifieatidn, 1755. Svo. 13. Critica He- 
brses, or a Hebrew- Englifh Dictionary without Point?, &c. 1767, 

.410. 14. A new ami literal Tranflattun from the original Hebrew 
of the Pentateuch of Moles, and of the Hiuoiu-a! Books of theOid 
Ttllament, to the End of the Second Book of Kings ; with Notes 
critical and explanatory, 1737, 4to. 

Mr. Bate attended Hntchinfon in his laft illnefc, 1737. and was 
by him, in a mofl finking manner, recommended to the protection 
of an intimate friend, " with a flridl charge r.ot to fnfrcr his labours 
to become ufe'efs by neglect." It having been reported that Hutchin- 
fon had recanted the publication of his writings to Dr. Mead a little 
before his death, that circumftance was flatly contradicted by a letter 
from Mr. Bate, dated Arundel, January 20, 1759. This learned 
writer died April 7, 1771. 

BATE fJoH.O, pt'or of the monaitcry of Carmelites, at York, 
3n the I5h century, v, as bom in Northumberland, and educated at 
York in the lludy ot the liberal arts ; in wnich he was greatly en- 
couraged by il.c favour, of iuuie pi?;icns, hi* pstryiis, who were at 



the expence of fending him to Oxford, to finifh his fhidies in that 
univerfity. Bate abundantly anfwered the hopes conceived of him, 
and became an eminent philofopher and divine, and particularly re- 
markable for his ikill in the Greek tongue. He took the degree of 
doctor in divinity at Oxford, and afterwards diftinguimed himfelf as 
an author. -The Carmelites of York \vere fo fenfible of his merit, 
that upon a vacancy they offered him the government of their houfe 5 
which he accepted, and difcharged that office with great prudence 
-and fuccefs. He died the 26th of January, 1429, in the beginning 
of the reign of Henry VI. 

mathematician, is fuppofed to have rlouriflied about the year 1420, 
in the reign of Henry V. He fhidied at Oxford, where he applied 
himfelf to natural philofophy in general, but chiefly to the mathe- 
matics, in which he made a very great proficiency, as is evident by 
his writings in that fcience, which introduced him to the ac'quaint- 
ance and intimacy of the greateft men of thofe times. His mathe- 
matical writings confiil of, i. Of the Formation and Ufe of the 
Concave Sphere. 2. Of the Solid Sphere. 3. Of the Ufe of the 
Aftrolabe. 4. Philofophical Conclusions. 

BATEMAN (WILLIAM), bifhop of Norwich in the fourteenth 
ctntury, and founder of Trinity-hall, in Cambridge, was born at 
Norwich, being the fon of a citizen of good repute in that place. 
He was from his tendered years of a docile and ingenuous difp->- 
f ition : having therefore made a good proficiency in learning, wherein. 
he furpaiTed all his equals, he was fent to the univerfity of Cam- 
bridge. After having gone through the ufual circle of the fciences, 
he applied himfelf to the (ludy of the civil law, in which he took the 
degree ot doctor, before he was thirty years of age, a thing then un- 
common. On the 8th of December, 1328, he xvas collated to the 
archdeaconry of Norwich : t > ,n after this he went and ftudied at 
Rome, for his farther improvement; and fo diftinguifhed himfelf 
by his knowledge and exemplary behaviour, that he was promoted 
by the pope to the place of auditor of his palace. He was likewifg 
advanced by him to the deanery of Lincoln ; and fo great an opinion 
had he of his prudence and capacity, that he fent him twice as his 
nuncio, to endeavour to procure a peace between Edward III. king 
of England, and the king of France. Upon the dea^h of Anthony 
-de Btck, biihop of Norwich, the pope did, by his ufurped provi- 
fional authority, confer that bifhopric upon our William Bateman, 
on the 23d of January, 1343, and confecrated him with his ov\ n 
hands. He was confirmed the 23d of June, 1344. Being inverted 
with that great dignity, he returned into his native country after 
many years abfence, and lived in a regular, and withal in a generous 
and holpi table manner. Of Pope Clement VI. he obtained for 


. -._- -_,^ T_~ .-""_ ."71^ ' !"" ' !_l*f_""!_ -''Tf*'* 

himlllf and fucceflors the firft fruits of all vacant livings within his 
dioccfe; which occafioned frequent clifputes between himfelf and his 
clergy. In the year 1347 he founded Trinity-hall in Cambridge, 
for the ftudy of the civil and canon laws; and another hall dedi- 
cated to the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary, for the ftudy of phi- 
lofophy and divinity. 

Being a pcrfon of great wif-iom, eloquent, and of a fine addrefs, 
he was often employed by the king and parliament in affairs of the 
higheft importance ; and particularly was at the head of feveral em- 
ballies, fent on purpofe to determine the great difFerejices between 
the crowns of England and France. In 1354 he was by orcbr of 
parliament difpatched to the court of Rome, with Henry duke of 
Lancafter, ar*i others ; to treat (in the pope's prefence) of a peace, 
then in agitation between the two crowns above mentioned. This 
journey proved fatal to him ; for he died at Avignon, where the 
pope then refided, on the 6th of January, 1354-5, and was buried 
with great folemnity in the cathedral church of that city. With 
regard to his per fan, he was of an agreeable countenance, tall, hand- 
fome, ami well made. lie was likewife a man of ftric~L juftice and 
piety, punctual in the difcharge of his duty, and of a friendly and 
cornpaifionate difpoiition. 

BATES (WILLIAM), an -eminent nonconformift divine, born 
November, 1625, and educated at Cambridge. Ke was entered at 
Emanuel college, and thence removed to K'ng's, in 1644. He took 
the degree of bachelor of arts in 1647, and was admitted doctor of 
divinity by the king's letters, dated November Q, 1660. Soon after 
the Reftoration he was appointed chaplain to Charles II. and was 
alfo for fome tune mmifler of St. Dunftan's in the Weft, but ejeded 
thence by the acl of uniformity. He was one of the commiffioners 
at the conference at the Savoy, in 1660, for reviewing the public 
Liturgy, and aiiiiicd in drawing p the exceptions againlt the Com- 
mon Prayer. He was likewiie chofen on the part of the minifters, 
together with Dr. Jacornb anci Mr. Baxter, to manage the difpute 
again ft Dr. Peru Inn, afterwards bifhop of- Chefier, Dr. Gunning, 
attci wards biiiip oi Ely, and Dr. Sparrow, afterwards bifhop of 

Dr. Bntes bore an excellent character, and was honoured with 
trie friendihip of the lord keeper BriHgman, the lord chancellor 
pinch, the curl ofN^fiingham, 2nd archbifliop Tiilotfon. He had 
been offered at the Reftoration the deanery of Coventiy and Lich- 
field, which lie refufeci ; .n.-d, according to Dr. Calamy, might 
have been afterwards raiied to any biihopric in the kingdom, if he 
woiiid have coniormed to the eitabHihxd church. He refided for 
the latter part of his life at Hackney, Rear Loiidon, and died \n 
1699, aged 73. 


BATHE (Henry dc). 

BATHE \HENRY DE), a learned knight, an eminent and fkilful 
judiciary of the 13th century, was born at that ancient feat of this 
family, called Bathe-houfe, in the county of Devon. Being a 
younger brother, it is not unnatural to imagine he might, upon that 
account, apply himfelf to the ftudy and profeffion of the laws of his 
country, in the knowledge of which he grew fo eminent, that he 
was advanced by King Henry III. in 1238, to be one of the juflices 
of the Common Pleas, and in 1246 was ccnftituted one of the 
juftices itinerant (as they were then called) for the county of Hart- 
ford, and in 1248 he was appointed the fame for EfTex and Surry, 
in 1249 for Kent, Berks, Southampton, and Middlefex, and in 1250 
for Lincolnfhire ; at which time he had allowed him out of the Ex- 
chequer, by a peculiar favour, an hundred pounds a year for his fuf- 
tentation in the difcharge of his office. But the year following he 
fell from the king's grace and favour, the occanVn of which were 
certain crimes laid to his charge ; viz. that he had not exercifed his 
office uprightly, but to his own private gain, having perverted juftice 
through bribes, upon an occafion of a fuit betwixt him and one Eve- 
rard Trumpington, which was chiefly fupported againll him by one 
Philip de Arcis, Knight, who alfo added treafon to that of infidelity 
3n his office. The accufed was attached in the king's court; but one 
Manfel, who was now become a great favourite at court, offered bail 
for his appearance. King Henry refilled this; the cafe, as he al- 
ledged, not being bailable, he terming him guilty of high treafon. 
Fulk Baffet, however, then bifhop of London, and a great many of 
De Bathe's friends interceding, the king at lair, gave orders that he 
fhould be bailed, twenty-four knights becoming fureties for his ap- 
pearing, and {landing to the judgment of the court. But De Bathe 
feems to have been confcious of his own demerits, or the prepof- 
feflion of his judges againft him ; for he was no fooner fet at liberty, 
than he wrote to all his relations either by blood or marriage, -de- 
firing that they would apply to the king in his favour, at fir ft by 
fair Ipeeches and prefents, and that if thefe did not prevail, they 
fhould appear in a more warlike manner, thereby to intimidate the 
court. This they faithfully and unanimoufly promifed to do, upon 
the encouragement given them by a bold knight, one Nicholas de 
Sandford : but the king, imagining that his own power, and the 
intereft of De Bathe's accufers, infinitely outweighed all the pre- 
parations of the others, appeared the more inexorable upon the in- 
timation oi thefe proceedings; he rejected all prefents from the 
friends of the accufed, and put on an air as if nothing but his pu- 
nifhment mould faiisfy his and the nation's juftice. De Baths 
knew well to what all this outward inflexibility tended ; but was cer- 
tain, that if Henry perfifted in his refolution, he himfelf muft perifh. . 
He therefore had recourfe to a more prudent meafure; he applied 
himfelf to the bifiiop of London, and other his fpecial friends, and 
with a great polTe of thefe goes to Richard e^rl of Cornwall (after- 
4 wardji 


Bt ^m^^ aaM ^ ML1Ma -ai^irm^>i M-^-M'-- /~i-t-> i -i-m \r-Li -"- - --_. i- -fM -- r --r-_m_-_- --' r i- _r - j- i ' i - T -^:- r | f< , a^mg 

wards king of the Romans), whom by prayer and fine promifes.he 
won over to his interelh The king continued deaf to all his remon- 
flrances, anci about the end of February De Bathe was furnmoned, 
and obliged to appear to anfwer what fhnuld be laid to his charge. 
This he accordingly did, but ftrongiy defended by a great retinue of 
armed knights, gentiemen, and others, viz. his own and his wile's 
friends and relations; among whom was the family of the Ballets 
and Sandfords, a band as undaunted as his perfecutors were violent. 
We may, from what our hiftorian has delivered upon this occafion, 
conclude that the alTembly was divided between thofe who depended 
upon the king for their ports and preferments, and thofe who, 
though a great majority, were fo thorougniy exafperated at the 
meafures of the court, that they were retblved not to find Ds Bathe 
guilty. It was not long before the king perceived this, and upon 
that occafion he made an unjuft and impolitic ftretch of his prero- 
gative, in an unheard-of proclamation. A new charge was now 
brought againft De Bathe, and perhaps the chief and only one, at 
lealt that had exafperated King Henry, viz,, he was impeached not 
nly on the former articles, but particularly for alienating the affec- 
tions of the barons from his majeily, and creating fuch a ferment all 
over the kingdom, that a general (edition was now on the point of 
breaking out. This fpeech was enforced from Bathe's brother judi- 
ciary, who declared to the affembly, that he knew the accufed to have 
<lil milled without anycenfure, for the fake of lucre, a convicted cri- 
minal. Many other complaints were urged againft De Bathe ; but 
they feem to have been difregarded by all but the king and his party, 
who was fo much exafperated to fee De Bathe likely to be acquit- 
ted, that he mounted his throne, and with his own mouth made 
proclamation, That whofoever fhould kill Henry de Bathe, mould 
have the royal pardon for him and his heirs; after which fpeech he 
flung out of the room in a great paffion. Many of the royal party, 
who were exceedingly ke^n upon this occafion, would readily have 
executed the king's terrible doom, and were for difpatching De 
Bathe in court ; but his friend Manfel, one of the king's council, 
and Fulco Ballet, bifhop of London, interpofed fo effectually, that he 
was faved ; and afterwards, by the powerful mediation of his friends 
(among whom was the earl of Cornwall, the king's brother, and the 
bifhop of London], and the application of a Aim of money, viz. two 
thoufand marks to the king, he obtained not only a pardon, but all 
his former places and favour with the king, who re-efhblifhed him 
in the fame feat of judicature as he was in before, and rather ad- 
vanced him higher, for he was made chief juftice of the King's 
Bench, after about three years difcontinuance from his office of a 
judge, in which honourable port he continued for eight years after, 
till the time of his death, which happened in i 261. 



^ ." ; ' ||| ^ | | ; i : ..,,.1-' ..,..," ', " 

BATHE (WILLIAM), was born in Dublin, in 1564. We have 
it by tradition, that he was of a fullen. faturnine temper, and dif- 
turbed in his mind that his family was reduced from i/s ancient 
fplendour. His parents, who were Proteftant?, had a greater regard 
to the learning of their child, than his religion ; and therefore put 
him, in his green years, under the tuition of an arninent Popifh 
fchoolmafter, who thoroughly corrupted his principles, and fitted 
him for that ftation of life which he afterwards embraced. Fie re- 
moved to Oxford, where he fhidied feveral years with indefatigable 
induflry ; but the inqufitive Anthony Wood could not difcover in 
what college or hall he fojourned, or whether he took any uni- 
verfity degree. The fame writer alledge?, that growing weary of 
the herefy profeffed in England (as he ufually called the Proteftant 
faith), he quitted the nation and his religion together, and the year 
1596 was initiated among the Jefuirs, being then between thirty 
and forty years of age ; though one of his own order fays he was but " 
twenty-five, which certainly is erroneous. Having fpent fome time 
among the Jefuits in Flanders, he travelled into Italy, and com- 
pleted his ftudies at Padua; from whence he paffed into Spain, 
being appointed to govern the Irifh feminary at Salamanca. He is 
faid to have had a moft ardent zeal for the gaining of fouls, and was 
much efieemed among the people of his perfuafion for his extraor- 
dinary virtues and good qualities, though he wa? of a temper not 
very fociable. At length, taking a journey to Madrid to tranfadl: 
fome bufinefs of his order, he died there 'on the i^th of June, 

BATHURST (RALPH), an eminent Latin poet, phyfician, and 
divine, born in 1620, was educated at Trinity college, Oxtord, 
%vhere he at firfl applied himfelf to divinity, but afterwards to phylic, 
and was employed as phyfician to the fick and wounded of the 
navy. After the reftoration of Charles II. he returned to the fludy 
of divinity; and having taken orders, was appointed chaplain to the 
king, and admitted fellow of the royal fociety. September, 1664, 
he was elected prefident of Trinity college, June 1670 was inftalled 
dean of Wells, and 1673 and 1674 ferved the office of vice-chan- 
cellor of the univerfity of Oxford. April 1691, he was nominated 
by King William and Queen Mary to the fee of Briftol, but refufed 
it, chufing rather to refide in his college, the chapel of which he af- 
terwards rebuilt in a very elegant manner. He was a perfon of 
great learning, and particularly celebrated for his poetical genius. 
He died 1704, in the 84th year of his age, and was buried in the 
chapel of Trinity college. Dr. Bathurft wrote, i. Newes from the 
Dead, or a true and exadl Narration of the miraculous Deliverance 
of Anne Creen, who being executed at Oxford, Dec. 14, 1650, 
afterwards revived. 2. A Poem on the Death of Mr. Selden. 3. 
Several Latin Poems, 



BATHURST(ALLEN),earl, an Englifli nobleman of diftinguifhed 
abilities, was Ton of Sir Benjamin Bathurft, of Pauler's Perry, in 
Northampton (hi re, and born in St. Jarnes's-fquare, Weftminfter, 
Nov. 16, 1684. His mother was Frances, daughter of Sir Allen 
Apfley, in Suffex, knight. Aiier a grammatical education, he was 
entered, at fifteen, in V;inity college, Oxford, of which his uncle, 
Dean Bathurft, was prefident. I 17951 when juft of age, he was 
chofen for Cirenceiter, in Gloucefterlhire, which borough he repre- 
fented for two parliaments. He a<3ed, in the great opposition to 
the duke of Marlborough and the Whig?, under Mr. Harley and 
Mr. St. John ; and in December, 171 1, at that memorable period in 
which the adminiftration, to obtain a majority in the upper houfe, 
introduced twelve new lords in one day, was made a peer. On the 
acceffion of George I. when his political friends were in difgrace, 
and fome of them expofed to perfecution, he continued firm in his 
attachment to them ; he united, particularly, in the p rot efts againlt 
the acts of the attainder againft Lord Bolingbroke and the duke of 
Ormond. We have no fpecch of his recorded, till on February 21, 
1717-18 ; from which period, for the fpace of twenty-five years, we 
find that he took an active and diftinguifhed part in every im- 
portant matter which came before the upper houfe, and that he was 
one of the mofi eminent oppolcrs of the meafures of the court, and 
particularly of Sir Robert Walpole'sadmimftration. 

In 1704 he married Catherine, daughter of Sir Peter Apfley, fort 
and heir of Sir Allen aforefaid, by whom he had four Tons and five 
daughters. In 1738, when Frederic prince of Wales was at Bath, 
he paid Lord Bathurlt a vifit of fome days at Cirencefter. In 1742 
lie was made one of the privy council. I.: 1757, upon a change in 
theminiftry, he was conflituted treafurer to the prefenr king, then 
prince of Wales, and fo continued till the death of George 11. On 
his majefty's accefuVn, in 1/60, he was continued privy conn fe! lor,, 
but on account of his age declined all employments ; he had, how- 
ever, a penfion of two thoufand p"unds per annum. In 1772116 
was advanced to the dignity of Earl Bathurft. He lived to fee his 
eldeft furviving Ion, Henry Earl Bathurft, feveral years chancellor 
of England, and promoted to the peerage by the title of Baron 
Apfley. He died, after a few days illnefs, at his feat near Ciren- 
cefter, Sept. 16, 1775, aged 90. 

BATMANSON (JcHN), a per (on of great piety and learning in 
the fixteenth century, was at firft a monk, and afterwards prior of 
the Carthufian monaftery or Cbarter-houfe, in the fuburbs of Lon- 
don. For fome time he ftudied divinity at Oxford ; but it does not 
appear that he took any degree fhere in that faculty. He was inti- 
mately acquainted with, and a great favourite of Edward Lee, arch- 
bifhop of York; at whofe requeft he wrote again it Erafmus ^ind 
Luther. H died on Nov. 16, 1531, and was buiied in the chapel 
a belonging 

B ATTIE (Dr. William ) . it 

belonging to the Charter- houfe. Pits gives him the charter nf a 
man of quick and difcermng genius ; of great piet), and learning, 
and fervent zeal; much converfant in the ftuciy of the fcriptures ; 
and that led an angelical life among men. Bale, on the contrary, 
reprefents him as u proud, forward, :tnd arrogant perfon ; born as it 
-were for difputing and w'rangling: ana fays, that Erafmus, in one 
of his letters to Richard bifliop o f Winchester, ftiles him an ignorant 
fellow, encouraged by Lee, an.i vain glorious even to madnefs. So 
oppofite are the characters given by the zealots of different parties ! 

BATTIE ("Dr. WILLIAM), an Englifh phyfician,was born in De- 
vonfhire, 1704. He received his education at Eton; and, in 1722, 
was fent to King's college, Cambridge. Hi sown inclination prompted 
him to the profeffion of the law; but his finances would not fup- 
port him at one of the inns of court. He had two coufins of the 
name of Coleman, old bachelors and wealthy citizens, to whom, 
upon this occafion, he applied for affiftance ; but they declined in- 
terfering in his concerns. Upon this he turned to phyfic, and firft 
entered upon the practice of it at Cambridge; where, in 1729, 
he gave a fpecimen of an edition of " Ifocrates," which he after- 
wards, 1749, completed in twovols. 8vo. 

He afterwards removed to Uxbridge, and then to London ; where, 
meeting with fuccefs and flourifhing, his relations the Colemans, 
who had now left off bu fine is and retired, grew fond, or rather 
proud of him, and behaved to him with cordiality and friendship. 
In 1738, or 1739, he fulfilled by marriage a long engagement to a 
daughter of Barnham Goode, the under-mafter of Eton (chool, who 
is honoured with a place in the " Dunciad," tor having abufed 
Pope in a piece called " The Mock /Efop." Againft Goode, it 
feems, the Colemans had a political antipathy : however, they be- 
haved well to Mrs. Battie, and the furvivor o'f them left the dodtor 
3p,ocol. In the difpute which the college of phyficians had with 
Dr. Schomberg, about 1750, Dr. Battie, who was at that time one 
of the cerifors, took a very active part againfl that gentleman. 
In 1751, he publifhed " De Principiis Animalibus Exercitationes 
in Coll. Reg. Medicorum," in three parts ; which were followed, 
the year after, by a fourth. In 1757, being then phyfician to St. 
Luke's hofpital, and mafter of a private mad- houfe near Wood's 
clofe in the road to Iflington, he publifhed in 4to, ' A Treatife on 
Madnefs :" in which, having thrown out fome cenfures on the me- 
dical practice formerly ufed in Bethjem hofpital, he was replied to, 
and feverely animadverted on, by Dr. John Monro, whofe father 
had been lightly fpoken of in the forementioned Jreatife. In 1762, 
he publilhed " Aphorifmi de cognofcendis et curandis morbis non- 
nullis ad principia accommodati." February 1763, he was examin- 
ed before a committee of the Houfe of Commons, on the itate of 

B 2, the 


.-^i .-.. -JTJ-** .^v. . A-i-nfa. ~'m%..^b-i i* U i ^.J ! T -i mn .-!> .aa^j^cin I 'amn >* iJ*^*^^^. 

the ; mate mad houfes in tM- kingdom ; and received in thtir print- 
ed rt-.port a teftimony, very honourable to his abilities. 

In I '776, Dr. Bi'tie was ft? i zed with a paralytic fhoke, of which 
he died 'June the i3th, m his feventy-fifth year. 

BAUDIUS (DoMixic), p-o eifor of hiftory in the univerfity of 
Leyden, was b rn at Lifle, Auguft 8, 1561. He began his ftudies 
at Aix laChapelle, and continued them ai Leyden. He removed 
thence to Geneva, where he ftudied divinity : aft^r refiding here 
fome time, he returned t<> Ghent, thence to Lejden, where he ap- 
plied to the civil Jaw, and was admitted doftor of law, June 1585, 
Soon after, he accompanied the a^baffadors from the States to Eng- 
land, and during his refidence here bee-am-. acquainted with feveral 
perfons of difhndtion, particularly the famous Sir Philip Sidney. 

He was admitted advocate at the Hague, the 5th ot January, 
1587 ; but being foon tired of the bar, went to France, where he 
remained ten years. He was much efteerm-d in that kingdom, and 
gained many friends. Achilles de Harlai, firft president of the par- 
liament of Paris, got him to be admitted advocate of the parliament 
of Paris in 1592. In 1602, he went to England with Chriftopher 
de Harlai, the prefident's fon, who was fent ambaffador thither by 
Henry the Great. 1 his fame year, having been named profeffor of 
eloquence at Leyden, he went and fettled in that univerfity. He 
read lectures on hiftory after the death of Morula, and was permit- 
ted alfo to do the fame on the civil law. In 1611, the States con^ 
fcrred upon him the office of hiftoriographer in conjunction with 
Meurfius ; and in confequence thereof he wrote " The Hiftory of 
the Truce." Bauditis is an elegant profe-writer, as appears from his 
*' Letters," many of which were publifhed after his death. He 
was alfo an excellent Latin poet: the firft edition of his poems was 
printed in 1,587 ; they confift of verfes of all the different meafures : 
he publiihed feparately a book of iambics in 1591, dedicated to Car- 
dinal Bourbon. Some of his poems he dedicated to the king of 
England ; others to the prince of Wales, in the edition of 1607, 
and went over to England to prefect them. 

Baudius was a ftrenuous advocate for a truce betwixt the States 
and Spain : two orations he publilhed on this fubje6l, though with- 
out his name, had very nigh proved hisdeftrution: Prince Maurice 
vvas made to believe he was affronted in them, and the author was 
faid to have been bribed by the French ambaffador to write upon 
the truce. He was obliged to write to the prince and his fecretary, 
in order to vindicate himfelf : and in his vindication he laments his 
unhappy fate in being expofed to the malice of fo many flanderers, 
who put wrong interpretations on his words. Some verfes, which 
he wrote in praife of the marquis of Spinola, occafioned him alfo a 
good deal 01 trouble: the marquis came to Holland before any 



thing was concluded either ol the peace or 4 truce ; and though Baud i us 
had printed the poem, yet he kept the copies of it, till it might be 
feen more evidently upon what account this minifler came : he gave 
them only to his molt intimate friends. It being known however 
that the poem was printed, he was very near being baniflied for it. 

Baudius was add idled to women as well as wine, to fuch a degree 
as expofed him to the public ridicule; and feveral farcaftical jokes 
were printed againft him on this account. He died at Leyclen, 
Auguit 22, 1613. 

BAUTRU, a celebrated wit, and one of the fir ft members of the 
French academy, was born at Paris, in 1588, and died there in 
1665. He was the deligh' o f all the miniiters at court, of all the 
favourites, and of all the great in general. He was indeed a kind 
of a fool among them; who, while he played the buffoon, took the 
ufual privilege of faying what he pleafed. Many of his bons mots? 
are preferved. Once, when he was in Spain, having been to fee 
the famous library of the Efcurial, where he found a very ignorant 
librarian, the king of Spain afked him he had remarked? To' 
whom Bautru replied, that " the library was a very fine one ; but 
your majefty," adds he, " fhonld make your librarian trealurer of 
your finances." " Why for" " Becaufe," fays Bautru, " he never 
couches what he isentrufted with." 

BAXTER (RICHARD), an eminent nonconformift divine, born 
Nov. 12, 1615, at Rovvton, near High Ercal, in Shropshire. He 
was unlucky as-to his education, by falling into the hands of ignorant 
fchoolmafters ; neither had he the advantage of an academical edu- 
cation, hjs parents having accepted of a propofal of putting him 
under Mr. Wickftead, chaplain to the council of Ludlow : but this 
did not anfwer their expectation. When he had remained in this 
fituation about a year and a half, he returned to his father's. la 
1633, Mr. Wickftead perfuaded him to lay afide his (Indies, and to 
think of making his fortune at court. He accordingly came to 
Whitehall, and was recommended to Sir Henry Herbert, matter 
of the revels, by whom he was very kindly received ; but, in the 
fpace of a month, being tired of a court life, he returned to the 
country, where he refumed his fhidies, and Mr. Richard Foley of 
Stourbridge got him appointed matter of the free fchool at Dudley, 
with an afliltant under him, In 1638, he applied to the bilhop of 
Winchefter for holy orders, which he received, having at that time 
no fcruples about conformity to the church ot England. 

In 1640, he was invited to be minifter of Kiddermintter, which 
fce accepted ; and had been here two years when the civil war broke 
out. He was a favourer of the parliament, which expofed him to 
fome inconveniencies, and obliged him to retire to Gloucester, but 
Joeing /trongly fo.lidj.ed he returned to Kiddcrmjnftcr. However, 


Dot finding himfclf fall- i;i this place, he again quitted it, and took 
j!p his refjtiunce at Coventry: here he lived in perfect quiet, preach- 
ing once e\ ;;duy to the garrifbn, and once x tb the town's people. 
After Nail-by tight, he was appointed ctiaplain to Colonti Whaliey's 
F; qhnent, and vsas prefent at feveral (ieges. He. \\-is obliged to leave 
the army in 1657, by a ftidden illnefs, and retired to Sir Thomas 
Roufc's, where he continued a long time in a languishing flate of 

ilth. i : . ..:,.. r.vards returned to Kidderrninfter, where he' con- 
tinued to with great fuccefs. When Cromwell gained the 
i'iperi'.'rify, Mr. Baxter expreiYed his dilFatisfadlion to h s meafures, 
Init did not think proper to preach againrt.him from the pnlpit. 

Mr. Baxter came to London a little before the depofition of 
Richard Cromwell, and preached before the parliament the day pre-- 
ceding that on which they voted the king's return. He preached 
Iikewife before the lord mayor at St, Paul's a thankfgiving-fermon 
fur General Monk's fuccefs. L : pon the king's reftoration he was 
appointed ore of his chaplains in ordn;arv. j^Ie a/Tiffed at the con- 
ference at the Savoy as one of the commitiioners, when they drew 
i;p a reformed liturgy. He was offered the bifhopric of Hereford 
by the lord chancellor Clarendon, which he reiulcd, and gave his 
lord (hip his reafons for not accepting of it, in a letter: he required 
r,o favour but that of being permitted to continue minifter at Kid- 
derminftcr, but could not obtain it. thus disappointed, he 
preached eccafionally about the city of London, having a licencd 
irom Bii' Sheldon, upon his fubfcribing a promife not to preach 
any thing .-.gainft the doclrine or ceremonies of the church. May ij, 
1662, he preached his farewell fermon at Blackfriars, and after- 
wards retired to Aclon in Middlefex. In 1665, during the plague, 
he went to Richard Hampden's,efq. in Buck'mghamfhire, and when, 
it ceafed returned to Aclon. HP continued here as long as the act 
againft conventicles was in force, and when that was expired, had 
fo many auditors that he wanted room: hereupon, by a. warrant, 
figned by two juftices, he was committed for fix months to New 
Prifon gao! ; but having at length procured an habeas corpus, he 
was difcharged, and removed to Totteridge near Barnet, 

After the indulgence in 1672, he returned to London, and the 
limes appearing more favourable about two years after, he built a 
meeting houfe in Oxenden-ilreet, where he had preached but once, 
v,he;i a resolution was formed to take him by furprize, and fend 
him to the county gaol, on the Oxford adt ; which misfortune he 
efcapcd, b-ut the perlo-i who happened to preach for him was fent to. 
the Gate-houfe, where he was confined three months. After having 
been three years kept on: of his mecting-houfe, he took another in 
Swallow-ftreet, but was !ikc\vife prevented from pleaching there, a 
guard ha-.:ng been place<i for n.riny Sundays to hinder his entrance. 

In 1682, he was feiz-:d by a warrant, for coming within five 
1 Its of a corporation, ar:I five more warrants 'were ferved upoi\ 
liirn tod;flraiaTor 195!, as a penalty for five ferr^ons he had prea'ch- 


BAXTER (William). j 5 

ed, fo that his books and goods were fold. He was not, however, 
imprifoned on this occafion, which was owing to Dr. Thomas Cox, 
who went to five juftices of the peace, before whom he fsvorc that 
Mr. Baxter was in fuch a bad Hate of health, that he could riot go 
to prifon without danger of death. In the beginning of 1685, he 
was committed to the King's Bench prifon, by a warrant fr.Mn the 
Lord Chief Juftice Jeffries, for his Pafaphrafe on the New Teftit- 
.ment ; and on May iSth, of the fame year, he was tried in the 
court of King's Bench, ami lound guilty. He was condemned to 
prifon for two years-; but, in 1086, King James, by the mediation 
of the Lord ] , granted him a pardon ; and on November rive 

24.:::, IK; was difcharged out of the King's Bench. He died De- 
cember 8, 1691. 

Mr. Baxter wrote a vaft number of books ; Mr. Long of Exeter 
fays foui.fcore'; Dr. Calamy, one hundred and twenty ; and others 
lay more. His practical wo.ks have been publilhed in fonr vo- 
lumes folio. Bilhop Burnet, in the Hiftory of iiis Own Time-, 
calls him " A man of great piety; and fays, that if he had not 
meddled with too many things, he would have been efteemed one of 
the moil learned men of the age." 

BAXTER (WILLIAM), nephew to the above, an eminent: gram- 
marian and critic, was b \>rn in 1650, at Lanlugany in Shropihir-. 
His education was much neglected in his younger years; tor, at 'lie 
age of eighteen, when he went to the fchpol at Harrow on the Hill. 
in Middlefex, he knew not one letter in a book, nor luiderftood oi.c 
word of any language but Welfh: but loon retrieved his loft time, 
and became a man of great learning. He applied chiefly to thv: 
ftudy of antiquities and philology, in which he com poled" f.veral 
books. In 1679, he publiihed a grammar on the Latin tongue; 
snd in 1695, an edition of Anacreon, afterwards reprinted in 1710, 
with improvements; in 1710, an edition of Horace ; and, in 5719, 
his Dictionary of the Britiih Antiquities. His Gloffary, or D.c- 
tionary of the Roman Antiquities, which goes no farther than th"e 
letter A, was publiihed in 1726, by the reverend Mr. Mofes Wii- 
liams ; and, in 1732, he put out propofals for printing his N 
on Juvenal. Mr. Baxter had alfo a fhare in the Englilh tranlLtkm 
of Plutarch by feveral hands. He was a great mailer of the ancivnt 
Britifn and Irifli tongues, and well fkilled in the Latin and Grccic 
as well r.:i the northern and eaftern languages. He kept a a^rd- 
pondcnce with moil of the learned men of his time, efpecially with, 
the famous antiquarian Mr. Edward Lhwyd. Some of Mr. Baxter's 
letters to him are published in his " GloiTariuin antiquitatum Ro- 
manarum." There are likewife in the " Philofophical Traniac- 
tions" two letters of his to Dr. Harwood, one concerning the town 
of Veroconium, or Wroxeter in Shropflbire, and the other concern- 
fug the 'hypocauita, or fweating-houfcs of the ancients j and 



to Dr. Hans Sloane, fecretary to the Royal Society, containing an 
ah (trait of Mr. Lhwyd's " Archaeologia Britannica." 

Mr. Baxter fpent mo ft of his life in educating youth : for fome 
yi he kept a boarding fchool at Tottenham High-crofs in Middle- 
iVx, wh'.re he remained till he was chofen mailer of the Mercer* 
fi.hool in London. In this fituation he continued above twenty 
years, but refigned before his death j which happened on the 3 lit 
of May, 1723. 

BAXTER (ANDREW), a very ingenious writer of Scotland, was 
born in 1686, or 1687, at Old Aberdeen, of which city his father 
was a merchant, and educated in King's college there. His prin- 
cipal employment was that of a private tutor to young gentlemen ; 
and among others of his pupils were Lord Grey, Lord Blantyre, 
and Mr. Hay of Drummelzier. About 1724, he married the daugh- 
ter of a clergyman in the (hire of Berwick. A few years after he 
publiihed in 4to, " An Enquiry into the Nature of the Human Soul, 
wherein it's Immateriality is evinced from the Principles of Reafon 
and Philofophyj" without date. In- 174.1, he went abroad with 
Mr. Hay, and refided fome years at Utrecht ; having there alfo 
Lord Blantyre under his care. He made excurfions from thence 
into Flanders, France, and Germany; his wife and family refiding, 
in the mean time, chiefly at Berwick upon Tweed. He returned 
to Scotland in 1747, and refided till his death at Whittingham, in 
the (hire of Eaft Lothian. He drew up, for the ufe of his pupils 
and his fon, a piece, entitled, " Matho : five, Cofmotheoria puerilis, 
Dialogus." This was afterwards greatly enlarged, and publifhed 
in Englifh, in two volumes, 8vo. In 1/50, was publifhed, " An 
Appendix to his Enquiry into the Nature of the Human Soul}" 
wherein he endeavours to remove fome difficulties, which had been 
frarted againft his notions of the " vis inertias" of matter, by Mac- 
laurin, in his " Account of Sir Ifaac Newton's Philofophical Dif- 
coveries." To this piece Mr. Baxter prefixed a dedication to Mr. 
John Wilkes, with whom he had commenced an acquaintance 
abroad. He died this year, April the 23d, after fuffering for fome 
months under a complication of diforders. He was a very ingenious 
and knowing man: the French, German, and Dutch languages were 
fpoken by him with much eafe, the Italian tolerably ; and he wrote 
and read them all, together with the Spanifh. He was a man alfo 
of great integrity, humanity, and candour. 

BAYLE (PETER), author of the Hiftorical and Critical Dic- 
tionary, born November 18, 1647, at Carla, a fmall town in the 
county of Foix, was the fon of John Bayle, a Proteftant minifter. 
Peter gav'e early proofs of a fine genius, which his father cultivated 
with the utmolt care: he himfelf taught him the Latin and Greek 
languages, and fent him to the Proteftant academy at Puylaurens 



in 1666. The fame year, when upon a vilit to his father, he ap- 
plied fo clofely to his ihidies, that it brought upon him an illnefs 
which kept him at Carla above eighteen months. Upon his recovery 
he returned to Puylaurens to profecute his Itudies: afterwards went 
to Touloufe in 1669, and attended the letures in the Jefuits college. 
The controverfial books which he read at Puylaurens raifed feveral 
fcruples in his mind with regard to the Proteftant religion ; his 
doubts were increafed by fome difputes he had with a prieft, who 
lodged in the fame houfe with him at Touloufe. He thought the 
Proteftant tenets were falfe, becaufe he could not anfwer all the ar- 
guments raifed againrt them, fo that about a month after his arrival 
at Touloufe he embraced the Roman catholic religion. This was 
matter of great concern to all his relations. Mr. Bertier, bifhop of 
Rieux, rightly judging, that after this ftep young Bayle had no rea- 
fon to expedr. any ailiitance from his relations, took upon him the 
charge of his maintenance. They piqued themfelves much at Tou- 
loufe upon the acquifition of fo pvomifmg a young man. When it 
came to his turn to defend thefes publicly, the mod diftinguifhed per- 
fons of the clergy, parliament, and city aflifted there, fo that there 
had hardly ever been feen in the univerfity a more fplendid and nu- 
merous audience. The thefes were dedicated to the Virgin, and 
adorned with her pidture, which was ornamented with feveral em- 
blematical figures. 

Some time after Mr. Bayle's converfion, Mr. Naudisde Bruguiere, 
a young gentleman of great wit and penetration, and a relation of 
his, happened tocome toTouloufe, where he lodged in the fame houfe 
with him. They difputed warmly about religion, and after having 
pufhed the arguments on both (ides with great vigour, they ufed to 
examine them over again coolly. Thefe familiar difputes often. 
puzzled Mr. Bayle, and made him diftrult feveral opinions of the 
church of Rome, fo that he fecretly condemned himfelf for having 
embraced them too precipitately. Some time after Mr. de Pradals 
came to Touloufe, whom Mr. Bayle's father had defired to vifit 
him, hoping he would in a little time gain his confidence; and this 
gentleman fo far fucceedcd, that Bayk ,>.ie day owned to him his 
having been too hally in entering into the church of Rome, fince he 
now found feveral of her dolrints contrary to reafon and fcripture. 
Auguft 1670, he departed fecretly from Touloufe, where he had 
Itaid eighteen months, and retired to Mazeresin the Lauragais, to a 
country houfe of Mr. da Vivie. His elder brother came thither 
the day after, with fome miniilers of the neighbourhood; and next 
day Mr. Rival, minifterof Saverdun, received his abjuration in pre- 
fence of his elder brother and two other minifters, and they obliged 
him inftantly to fet out for Geneva. Soon after his arrival here, Mr. 
de Normandie, a fyndic of the republic, having heard of his great 
character and abilities, employed him as tutor to his fons. Mr. 
Bafnage at that time lodged with this gentleman, and it was here 

VOL. II. C Mr. 


Mr. Bayle commenced his acquaintance with him. When he had 
been about two years at Geneva, at Mr. Bafnage's recommendation 
he entered into the family of the count de Dhona lord of Copet, as 
tutor to his children ; but not liking the folitary life he led in this 
iamily, he left it, and went to Roan in Normandy, where he was 
employed as tutor to a merchant's fon : but he loon grew tired of 
this place alfo. His great ambition was to be at Paris ; he went 
accordingly thither in March 1675, and, at the recommendation of 
the marquis de Ruvigny, was cholen tutor to meffieursde Beringhen, 
brothers to M. de Beringhen, counfellor in the parliament of Paris. 

Some months after his arrival at Paris, there being a vacancy of 
a profeiformip of philofophy at Sedan, Mr. Bafnage propofed Mr. 
Bayle to Mr. Juritu, who promifed to ferve him to the utmcfl of 
his power, and de fired Mr. Bafnage- to write to him to come im- 
mediately to Sedan. But Mr. Bayle excufed himfelf, fearing left if 
it Ihould be known that he had changed his religion, which was a 
fecrct to every body in that country but Mr. Bafnage, it might bring 
him into trouble, and the Roman Catholics from thence take occa- 
fion to difturb the Proteftants at Sedan. Mr. Jurieu was extremely 
furprized at his refufal ; and even when Mr. Bafnage communi- 
cated the reafon, he was of opinion it ought not to hinder Mr. 
Bayle's coming, fince he and Mr. Eafnage being the only perfons 
privy to the lecrct, Mr. Bayle could run no manner of danger. Mr. 
Bafnage therefore w:ote again to Mr. Bayle, and prevailed with him 
to^come to Sedan. He had three competitors, ail natives of Sedan, 
the friends of whom endeavoured to raife prejudices againft him, be- 
caufe he was a ftranger. But the affair being left to be determined 
by difpute, and the candidates having; agreed to make their thefes 
without books or prepararicr Mr. Bayle defended his thefes with 
iuch perfpicuity and ftrengt., i ..nent, that, in fpite of all the 

intereft of his adverfarie*, the fenaie of the imivcriity determined it 
iti his favour; and notwithftanding the oppofition he met with upon 
hit, firft coming to Sedan, his mtrit foon procured him univerfal 

In 1680, an affair of the duke of Luxemhnrgh made a great 
noife: he had been acoifcd of impieties, forcery, and poifonings, 
but was acquitted, and the procefs sgainfi him fuppreiTed. Mr. 
Bayle, having been at Paris during the harveft- vacation, had heard 
many particulars concerning this affair. Kecompofed an harangue 
oii the fubjtcr, wherein the mntfhal is fuppofed to vindicate himielf 
before his judges. This, ipeech is a ("mart (atiie upon iheduke and 
fome other prrfons. He aiterwards wrote one more fatirical, by 
\vuy of criticifm upon the harangue. He fent theie two pieces to 
Mi. Minutoli, deflring his opinion of them; and, that he might 
{peak. hi mind more Ireely, !;e concealed his being the author. 
About this time father de Vaiuis, a Jeliiit of Caen, publifhed a 
ii. he maiiiiuiaed that the Comments of M. Des Cartes 


BAYLE (Peter}. 1-9-. 

concerning the effence and properties of body, were repugnant to 
the doctrine of the church, and agreeable to the errors of Calvin on 
the fubjecl: of the eucharift. Mr. B-iy!e read this performance, and 
judged it well done. He \vas of opinion the author had incon- 
teftibly proved the point in qiieilion, to wit, that M. Des Cartes's 
principles were contrary to the faith of the church of Rome, and 
agreeable to the doctrine of Calvin. He took occafion from thence 
to write his " Sentimefls delvl. Des Cartes touchant 1'Effence," &c. 
wherein he maintained Des Cartes's principles, and anfwered all 
the arguments by which Father de Valois had endeavoured to con- 
fute them. 

The great comet, which appeared December 1680, having filled 
the generality of people with fear and aftonithment, induced Mr. 
Bayle to think of writing a letter on this fubjecl:, to be inferred in 
the *' MercureGalant;" but finding he had fuch abundance of mat- 
ter as exceeded the bounds of a letter for that periodical work, he 
refolved to print it by itfslf, and accordingly fent it to M. de Vife. 
He dedred M. de \ ife to give it to his printer, and to procure a 
licence for it from M. de la Reynie, lieutenant of the police, or a 
privilege from the king, if that neceffary ; but M. de Vife 
having returned for anfwer, that M. de la Reynie being unwilling 
to take upon him the confluences ot printing it, it would be necef- 
fary to obtain the approbation of the doctors before a royal privi- 
lege could be applied for; which being a tedious and difficult affair, 
Mr. Bayle gave over all thoughts of having it printed at Paris. 

The Pfoteftants in France were at this time in a diftreffed fitua- 
tion ; not a year paifed without fome infringement of the edicl of 
Nantz, and it was at length refolved to fhut up their academies* 
That at Sedan was accordingly fuppreffed by an arret of Lewis 
XIV. dated the gth of July, "1681. Mr. Bayle (laid fix or feven 
weeks at Sedan atter the iuppreffion of ihe academy, expecting letters 
of invitation from Holland ; but not receiving any during that 
time, he left Sedan the Ccl of September, and arrived at Paris the yth 
of the fame month, not being determined whether he fhouldgo to 
Rotterdam or England, or continue in France; but whilit he was 
in this uncertainty, lie received an invitation to Rotterdam, for 
which place he accordingly fet out, and arrived there the 3oth of 
October, 1681. He was appointed profelfor of philofophy and 
hiftory, with a falary of five hundred guilders per annum. The 
year following he publi'hed his " Letter concerning Comets;" and 
Father Maimbourg having published about this time his " Hiftory 
of Calvinifm," wherein he endeavours to draw upon ti-e Protestants 
the contempt and refenttnent of the Catholics, Mr. Bayle wrote a 
piece to contuie his Hiftory: in this he has inferted feveral circum- 
ftances relating to the. life and difputes of Mr. Maimbourg. 

The reputation which Mr. Bayle had now acquired, induced the 
{tatcs of. Friezland, in 1684, to offer him a profeflbrfhip 1:1 then 

C 2 A tiniverilty ; 


univerfity ; but he wrote them a letter of thanks, and declined the 
nffer. This fame year he began to publ^fh his ' Nouvelles de la 
Republique des Lettres ;" and the year following he wrote a fecond 
part to his " Cenfure on the Hiftory of Mr. Maimbourg." 

In 1686 he was drawn into a difputc in relation to the famous 
Chriftiana queen of Sweden. In his " Jodrnal for April," he 
took notice of a printed letter, fuppofed to have been written by her 
Swedift majefty to the Chevalier de Terlon, wherein (lie condemns 
the perfecution of the Proteftants in France. He inferted the letter 
itfelf in his *' Journal for May," and in that of " June" following he 
fays, " What we hinted at ini our lad month is confirmed to us from 
day to day, that Chriftiana is the real author of the letter concerning 
the perfections in France, which is afcribed to her ; it is a re- 
mainder of Proteftantifm." Mr. Bayle received an anonymous 
letter, the author of which fays, that he wrote to him of his own 
accord, being in duty bound to it, as a fervant of the queen. He 
complains that Mr. Bayle, fpeaking of her majefty, called her only 
Chriftiana, without any title; he finds alfo great fault with his calling 
the letter " a remainder of Proteftantifm." He blame's him likewife 
for inferring the words " I am," in the, conclufion of the letter. 
" Thefe words,'" fays this anonymous writer, " are not her ma- 
jefty 's; a queen, as (he is, cannot employ thefe words but with re- 
gard to a very few perfons, and Mr. de Terlon is not of that num- 
ber." Mr. Bayle wrote a vindication of hirnfelf as to thefe parti- 
culars, with which the author of the anonymous letter declared him- 
felf fatisfied, excepting what related to " the remainder of Pro- 
teftantifm." He would not admit of the defence with regard to 
that exprefiion ; and. in another letter, advifed him to retrad: that 
exprefllon. Mr. B.tyle accordingly did retract it, after he had 
received a letter from the queen, deliring him to do fo. 

The perfecution which the Proteftants st this time fuffered in 
France arrecT.ed Mr. Bayie extremely. He made occafionajly fome 
reflections on their fufrenngs in his " Journal," and he wrote a 
pamphlet alfo on the fubjc6l. Some time after he published his 
*' Commentaire Philofophique," upon thefe words, " Compel them 
to come in :" but the great application he g?.ve to this and his other 
works threw him into a fit of ncknefe, v, liich obliged him to difcon- 
tinue his " Literary Journal." Being advifed to try a change of 
air, he left Rotterdam, ami went to Cleves, whence, after having 
continued fome time, he removed to Aix la Chap^lle, and thence 
returned to Rotterdam. In 1690 the famous book entitled "Avis 
an\ Rcfugiez," cc. made it's appearance: Mr. Jurieu, who took 
Mr. Bayle for the author, wrote a piece againft it, and prefixed an 
advice to the public, wherein he calls Mr. Bayle a profane perfoiij. 
and a traitor engaged in a con/piracy againfl. the ftate. As ioon as 
Mr. Bayle had read this libel againit him, he went to the Grand 
Sch'-ut of Rotterdam, and offered to go to prifon, provided his ac- 
cufcr would accompany him, and undergo the punishment he deferve-.l 


BAYLY -Levls). 21 

if the accufation was found unjuit. He publifhed alfo an anfwer 
to Mr. Jurieu's charge; and as his reputation, nay his very life, was 
at flake, in cafe the accufation of treafon was proved, he therefore 
thought himfelf not obliged to keep any- terms with his accufer, and 
attacked. him with the utmoft feverity. Mr. Jurieu loft all patience: 
he applied himfelf to the magillrates of Amsterdam, who advifed him 
to a reconciliation with Mr. Bayle, and enjoined them not to pub- 
lifli any thing againlt each other till it was examined by Mr. Boyer, 
the penfioner of Rotterdam. Bur, notwithftanding this prohi- 
bition, Mr. Jurieu attacked Pylr. Bayle again with fo much paf- 
fion, that he forced him to write a new vindication of himfelf. 

In November, 1690, Mr. de Beauval advertifecfin his "Journal," 
a fcheme fora " Critical Dictionary/' This was the work of Mr. 
Bayle. The articles of the three rirft letters of the alphabet were 
already prepared ; but a diipute happening betwixt him and Mr. 
de Beauval, obliged him for fome time to lay afide the work : nor did 
he resume it till May 1692, when he publilhed his fcheme; but the 
public not approving of his plan, he threw it into a different form, 
and the firft volume was publifhed in Auguft 1695, and the fecond 
the October following. The work was extremely well received by 
the public, but it engaged him in frelh difputes, particularly With 
M. Jurieu and the Abbe Renaudot. Mr. Jurieu publifhed a piece 
wherein he endeavoured to engage the ecclefiaitical affemblcs to 
condemn the Dictionary : he prefenttd it to the fenate fitting at 
Delft, but they took no notice of the affair. The confiftory of Rot- 
terdam granted Mr. Bayle a hearing; and after having heard his 
anfwers to their remarks on his Dictionary, declared themfelves 
futisfied, and advifed him to communicate this to the public. 

Mr. Bayle was a moil laborious and indefatigable wfiter. In 
one of his letters to Des Maizeaux, he fays, that fince his twen- 
tieth year he hardly remembers to have had any leifure. His in- 
tenfe application contributed perhaps to impair his conllitution, for 
it foon began to decline. He had a decay of the lungs, which 
weakened him confiderably ; and as this was a difternper which had 
cut orf feveral of his family, he judged it to be mortal, and would 
take no medicines. He died the 28th of December, 1706, after he 
had been writing the greateft part of the day. He wrote feveral 
books Jieiidcs what we have mentioned, many of which were in his 
own defence, again ft attacks he had received from the Abbe Renau- 
dot, M. le Clerc, M. Jaquelot, and others. 

BAYLY (LEWIS 1 , author of that molt memorable book entitled 
" The Practice of P.ety," was bora at Caermarthen, in Wales, 
educated at Oxford, made miniiter of Evefham, in Worcefterlhire, 
about 1611, became chaplain to King fames, and promoted to the 
fee of Bangor in 1616. His book "is dedicated " to the high and 
miehtv prince, Charles Prince of Wales:" and the author tells his 

O J I i i 


hishnefs, that " he had endeavoured to extraft out of the chaos of 


cndlefs controverfies the old praftice of true picrv, which fiou- 
rifhed before thefe controverfies were hatched." The defign was 
good; and the reception this book has met with may be known 
irom the number of it's editions, that in Svo, 1734, feeing the fifty- 
ninth. This prelate died in 1634. 

BAYLY (THOMAS), for. of the preceding, was educated at 
Cambridge, and having commenced bachelor of art?, was prefented 
to the fubdeanery of Wells by Charles I. in 1638. In 1644 he 
retired, with other loyalifts, to Oxford ; and two years afrer we 
find him, with the marquis of Worcefter, in Ragland caftle. 
When this was fin-rendered to the parliament army, he travelled 
into France and other countries; but returned the year after the 
king's death, and published at London, in Svo. a book, entitled 
' Certarr-en Religiofum ; or, A Conference between King Charles 
I. and Henry late Marquis of Worcefter, concerning Religion, in 
Ragland Calt'e, Anno 1646." But this conference wa? believed to 
have no real inundation, and confidered as nothing elfe than a pro- 
logue to the declaring ot himfelt a Papift. The lame year, I 649, 
he publiihed " The Royal Charter granted unto Kings by God 
himfelf,"&c. to which is added, " A Treatife, wherein is proved 
that Epifcopacy is T'.ire divine, " Svo. Thefe writings giving of- 
fence, occasioned him to be fearched out, and committed to New- 
gate; whence efcaping, he retired to Holland, and became a flaming 
Roman Catholic. During his confinement in Newgate, he wrote 
a piece, entitled " Herba Parietis ; or, The Wall Flower, as it 
grows out of the Srone Chamber belonging to the Metropolitan 
Prifon." k Some time after he left Holland, and fettled at Dotiay; 
where he puolilhe.l another book, entitled, " The End to Contro- 
verfy between the Roman Catholic and Protefhnt Religions. At 
hft this Angular perfon went to Italy, where he lived and died ex- 
tremely poor. 

BAYNES (Sir THOMAS), an eminent phyfician, and profeflfor of 
mufic at Grelham college, in London, was born about the year 
1622, and educated at Chrift's college, in Cambridge, under the 
tuition of the learned Dr. Henry More, where he took the .legrce 
of bachelor of arts about the year 1642. In 1649 he" took the de- 
;ac ot maftf-r of arts, after which time he applied himfeif to the 
ft ud y of phyfic. He went into Italy in company with Mr. Finch 
(afterwards Sir John), with whom he had contracted the greateft 
friend/hip.; end at Padua they were both created doctors of phyfic'J 
Upon^the reftoraticn of King Charles II. in 1660, Mr. Baynes and 
Mr. Finch returned into England, and the fame year their grace 
was patted at Cambridge, for creating them doctors of phyfic in that 
; i'i y. On the 26th of February following, Mr. Hiynes, toge- 


ther with Sir John Finch, was admitted a fellow extraordinary of 
the College of Phyficians of London. Dr. Petty having refigned 
his profeiiorfhip ot mufic in Grefliam college, Dr. Baynes was 
chofen to fucceed him, the 8th of March, 1660; and the 26th of 
June following, he and his friend Sir John Finch were admitted 
graduates in phyfic at Cambridge, in pmfuance of the grace paije'd 
in their favour the year before. The winter following, this infe- 
parable pair of friends deigned to have made a fccond tour into 
Italy, but did not execute their defign. The 2oth of March, 1663, 
they were defied fellows of the Royal Society, upon the fir ft choice 
made by the council, after the grant of their charter, of which they 
had been members before, and May 15, 1661, had, with feveral 
others, been nominated a committee for a library (at Greiham col- 
lege), and for examining of the generation of infects. In M trch, 
1664, Dr. Baynes accompanied Sir John Finch to Florence, where 
that gentleman was appointed his majefty's reficlent, and returned 
back with him into England in 1670. Towards the end of the 
year 1672, Sir John being appointed the king's ambafiador to the 
grand feignior, Dr. Baynes was ordered to a'tend him as his phy- 
fidan, and before he left England received from his majefty the ho- 
nour of knighthood. Nine years after, Sir Thomas ftill continuing 
in 1 urkey, the Grefham committee. Taking into confidefation his 
long abfence without fupplying the duty of his place, thought fit to 
difmifs him from his profeiibn'hip, and on thepth of Auguft, 1681, 
chofeMr. William Perry in his room. The news of this difmif- 
iion could not reach Sir Thomas Baynes j for he died at Conftan- 
tinople the fth of the following month. 

BEALE (MARY), a portrait jxiinter in the reign of Charles IT. 
was daughter of Mr. Cradock, rninifter of Walton-upon-Thames, 
but born in Suffolk, in 1632. S'le was affiduous in copying the 
works of Sir Peter Lely and Vandyke. She painted in oil, water 
colours, and crayons, and had much bufinefs. She was little infe- 
rior to any ot her contemporaries, either for colouring, ftrength, 
force, or life. In the manufcriprs of Mr. Oldys, Ihe is celebrated 
for her poetry, as well as for her painting ; and is ftyled " that maf- 
culine poet, as well as painter, the incomparaole Mrs. Beale." In 
Dr. S. Wooufurd's trinflarion of the Pfalms, are two cr three ver- 
iions of particular. Piahrs by Mrs. Beale ; whom in h'is preface he 
calls " an absolutely compleat gentlewoman." She died Dec. 28. 
1697, in her 66th year. She had two fon?, who both exercifed the 
art of painting f< me little time ; one of them afterwards ftudied 
phyfic uruier Dr. Sydenham, and practifed at Coventry, where he 
and his father died. 

BEATON, or BETON, (DAVID), archbifhop of St. Andre-.vV, 

in Scotland, and cardinal of the Roman chuich, was born 1494-, 

4 ajiJ 


and educated in the univerfity of St. Andrew's. He was afetrwards 
lent over to the univerlity of Paris, where he ftudicd divinity; and 
when he attained a proper age, entered into holy orders. In 1519 
he was appointed relident at the court of France; about the fame 
time his uncle, James Beaton, archbifhop of Glafgow, conferred 
upon him the rec~lory of Camplay ; and in 1523 his uncle, being 
then archbifhop of St. Andrew's, gave hitn the abbacy of Aberbro- 
thock. David returned to Scotland in 1525, and in 1528 was made 
lord privy feal. In 1533 he was fent again to France, in conjunc- 
tion with Sir Thomas Erikine, to confirm the leagues fubfitting be- 
twixt the two kingdoms, and to bring about a marriage for King 
James V. with Magdalene, daughter of his Chriflian majefty ; but 
the princefs being at this time in a very bad date oi health, the mar- 
riage could not then take effecT:. During his refidence, however, at 
the French court, he received many favours from his Chriflian ma- 
jefty. King James having gone over to France, had the princefs 
Magdalene given him in perfon, whom he efpoufed Jan. I, 1537. 
Beaton returned to Scotland with their majefties, where they ar- 
rived the 29th of May ; but the death of the queen having happened 
the July following, he was fent over again to Paris, to negociate a 
lecond marriage for the king with lady Mary, daughter to the duke 
of Guife ; and during his ftay at this time at the court of France, 
he was confecrated bifhop of Mirepoix. All things being fettled in 
regard to the marriage, in the month of June he embarked with the 
new queen for Scotland, where they arrived in July, and the nup- 
tials were celebrated at St. Andrew's. 

Beaton, though at this time only coadjutor of St. Andrew's, yet 
had all the power and authority of the archbifhop ; and in order to the Catholic intereft in Scotland, Pope Paul III. raifed 
him to a cardinalfhip, by the title of St. Stephen in Monte Ccelo, 
December the 2oth, 1538. King Henry VIII. having intelligence 
of the ends propofed by the pope in creating him a cardinal, fent a 
very able minifter to King James, with particular inftruftions upon 
a deep fcheme to procure the cardinal's dilgrace ; but it did not take 
effecl. A few months after, the old archbifhop dying, the cardinal 
fucceeded, and it was upon this promotion that he began to fhew his 
warm and perfecuting zeal for the church of Rome. When the 
king died, there being none fo near him as the cardinal, it was from 
thence fuggefted by his enemies that he forged his will ; and it was 
fet afide, notwithftariding he had it proclaimed over the crofs of 
Edinburgh, in order to elbblifh the regency in the earls of Argyle, 
Huntley, Arran, and himftlf. He was excluded from the govern- 
ment, and the earl of Arran was declared fole regent during the mi* 
r.ority ot Queen Mary. This was chiefly effected by the noblemen 
in the Englilh intereft, who, after luiving fent the cardinal prifoner 
to Blackntfs caflle, managed the public affairs as they pleafed. 
Things did not remain long, however, in this fmiation ; lor the am- 


bitious enterprifing cardinal, though confined, raifed fo ftrong a 
party, that the regent, knowing not how to proceed, began to diflike 
his former fyftem, and having at length refolved to abandon it, re- 
leafed tne cardinal, and became reconciled to him. Upon the young 
queen's coronation, the cardinal was again admitted of the council, 
and had the high office of chancellor conferred upon him ; and fuch 
was now his influence with the regent, that he got him to folicit the 
court of Rome to appoint him legate a latere from the pope, which 
was accordingly clone. His authority bein^ now firmly eitabiifhed, 
he began agam to promote the Popifli caufe with his utmoft efforts. 
Towards the end of 1545 he vifited fome parts of his diocefe, at- 
tended with the lord governor, and others ot the nobility, and ordered 
feveral perfons to be executed for herefy, among whom was Mr. 
George Wifhart. 

Soon after the death of Mr. Withart, the cardinal went to Fin- 
haven, the feat of the earl of Crawford, to folemnize a marriage 
between the eldell fon of that nobleman and his daughter Margaret. 
Whilit he was thus employed, intelligence came that the king or." 
England was making great preparations to invade the Scdttifn coafts. 
Upon this he immediately returned to St. Andrew's, and appointed a 
day for the nobility and gentry of that country, which lies much 
expofed to the Tea, to meet and consult what was proper to be done 
upon this occaiion. He likewife began to fortify his own caftle 
much ftronger than ever it had been before. Whilft he was bufy 
about thefe matters, there came to him Norman Leiley, eldeft fon 
to the earl of Roihes, to folicit him for fome favour, who, having 
met with a refufal, was highly exafperated thereby, and went away 
in great difpleafure. His uncle, Mr. John Lefiey, a violent enemy 
to the cardinal, greatly aggravated this injury to his nephew, who 
being paflionate, and of a daring fpirit, entered into a confpiracy 
with his uncle, and fome others, to cut off the cardinal. The 
accomplices met early in the morning, qn Saturday the 29th of May. 
The firft thing they did was to feize the porter ot the caftle, and to 
fecure the gate ; they then turned out all the fervants, znd feveral. 
workmen. This was performed with fo little noife, that the car- 
dinal was not waked till they knocked at his chamber-door, upon 
which he cried out, " Who is there?" John Lefiey anfwered, 
" My name is Lcfley." Which Lefleyr" replied the cardinal ; " Is 
it Norman r" It was anfwered, that he muft open the door to thofe 
who were there; but being afraid, he fecured the door in the beft 
manner he could. Whilft they were endeavouring to force it open, 
the cardinal called to them, " Will you have my lifer" John L-:fley 
anfwered, " Perhaps we will." t( Nay," replied the cardinal, 
*' fwear unto me, and I will open it." Some authors fay, that 
upon a promife being given, that no violence' (hou'd be offered, he 
opened the door: but however this be, as loon as they entered, John 
Lefiey fmote him twice or thrice, as did likewife Peter Carmichael, 
Voi. II. D but 


but James Melvil, as Mr. Knox relates the fair., perceiving them to 
be in choler, faid, " This work, and judgment of God, although it 
be fecret, ought U be done with greater gravity ; and, prefei.'ting the 
point of his iword, faid, Repent thee of thy wicked life, but efpe- 
cially of the fhedding the blood of that notable inftrument of God, 
Mr. George Wifhart, which albeit the flame of fire confumed be- 
fore men, yet cries it for vengeance upon thee; and we from God 
are fent to revenge it. For here, before my God, I proteft, that 
neither the hatred of thy perfon, the love of thy riches, nor the fear 
of any trouble thou could!!: have done to me in particular, moved or 
moveth me to ftrike thee ; but only becaufe thou haft been, and re- 
maineft an obftinate enemy againft Chrift Jefus and his holy gofpel." 
After having fpoken thus, he fhbbed him twice or thrice through 
the body: thus fell that famous prelate, a man of great parts, but of 
pride and ambition boundlefs, and withal an eminent initance of 
the inftability of human grandeur. 

BEAUCHAMP (RICHARD DE) earl of Warwick, and one of 
the mod confiderable perfons in this kingdom in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, was born Jan. 28, 1381, at the manor-houfe Salwarpe in the 
county of Worcefter, and had for his god-fathers, King Richard II. 
and Richard Scroope, then bilhop of Coventry and Litchfield, and 
afterwards archbifhop of York. He was made Knight of the Bath at 
the coronation of King Henry IV. in the year 1399, and in the fourth 
year of the fame reign he had livery ot his lands, and was retained 
to ferve the king one whole year, with one hundred men at arms, 
jnd three hundred archers. The next year, which was 1404, on 
the coronation of the queen, he kept, according to the cuitom of 
thofe timeN, jufts, in which he behaved himfelf very gallantly. He 
was called the fame year to do the crown more lerious fervice, in 
that dangerous rebellion raifed by Owen Glendower, again/I whom 
he behaved bravely, and took his ftandard in open battle. He was, 
likewife, in the famous battle at Shrewsbury, againft the Percies, 
where he gained great honour, and vva>, not long alter, made Knight 
of the Garter. In 1408, he obtained a licence from King Henry 1 V. 
to vifit the holy lepulchre at Jeruialern, in purfuance of a vow he 
had made. From Jerufalem he came back to Venice, and was there 
nobly received. Thence he travelled into RufTia, Lithuania, Po- 
land, Prufiia, Weftphalia, and fome countries of Germany, (hew- 
ing great valour in' divers tournaments whilft he was in thofe parts. 
No fooner was he returned into England, than he was, by indenture, 
dated s.d Odlcber, 12 Henry IV. retained with Henry Prince of 
Wales, afterwards king by the name of Henry V. to ferve him as 
well in times of peace as war, both in this realm, upon, and be- 
yond the fens. At the ceremony of the new king's coronation, he was 
couftituted lord high fteward. In the fame year 1413, we find him 
n of the king's commiifioncrs into France, to treat oi a iolid peace 


BEAUCHAMP (Henry de). 

between the two kingdoms, to be ftrengthened and cemented by a 
marriage between the king his matter and the Princefs Catherine, 
daughter to the king of France. In the year 1415, he was de- 
clared captain of Calais, an office of great truft and honour in thofe 
days, and never conferred but upon a man of known abilities as a 
foldier, and of a clear unqueftionable character in point of fidelity. 
In May I4i7 King Henry fent him to the king of France, attend- 
ed by a thouf?nd men at arms, to treat of a marriage between him 
and that king's daughter, the Lady Catherine: but the dauphin 
knowing that this marriage was intended to defeat his fucceffion, 
lie fent a body of five thoufand men, under the command of the 
earls of Vendofme and Lymofin, to obftrudt his pafiage, to whom 
the earl gave battle, in which both thofe noblemen were killed, and 
one of them fell by the earl of Warwick's own hand, and about 
two thoufand of their troops were either (lain or taken. He then 
proceeded on his embaffy, in which, notwithstanding the difficulties 
he had to ftruggle with, he very happily fucceeded, to the king's 
great fatisfaction. In the firft of Henry VI. he was by indenture 
retained to be captain of Calais for two years ; which fortrefs be- 
ing befieged by Philip duke of Burgundy, now reconciled to the 
French, this noble earl, afliited by Humphrey duke of Gloucefter, 
and Humphrey earl of Stafford, fo gallantly defended it, that, after a 
long fiege and great lofs, the duke of Burgundy was forced to rife 
from before it. Upon the death of the duke of Bedford, who was 
regent of France for King Henry, the earl of Warwick was con- 
ftituted lieutenant-general of the realm of France and duchy of Nor- 
mandy, the higheft honour a fubject of England could receive. He 
executed this great and difficult employment with his ufual wifdom 
and diligence, tor the four laft years of his life, and died in poflef- 
iion thereof in the caftie of Roan, April the 3Oth, 1439. 

BEAUCHAMP (HENRY DE), fon to Richard earl of Warwick, 
was born at Hanley caftie in Worcefterfhire, on the 22d of March, 
1424. Being a young nobleman of great fpirit and courage, he 
offered his fervice before he- was full nineteen for the defence of 
Normandy, with which the king was fo well pleafed, that, by his 
charter, bearing date the fecond of April, in the twenty-fecond year of 
his reign, he created himPrimier Earl of England, and for adiftinc- 
tion between him and all other earl*, he farther granted him, and the 
heirs male of his body, leave to wear a gold coronet upon his head, 
as well in his own prefence aselfewhere, in all fuch afTemblies, and 
upon all feafts in which the like ornaments were worn. Within 
three days after this he advanced him to the rank of duke of War- 
wick, in confideration of the many virtues and great fervices of his 
father, granting him place in parliament and at all other meeti; gs, 
next after the duke of Norfolk, before the duke of Buckingham; 
beftoiving likewife a penfion of forty pounds per annum, to be paicl 

D 2 by 


by the fherifi.s of Warwickshire and Leicefterlhire out of the re- 
. venues of thofe counties, towards the better fupport of that honour. 
But this extraordinary mark of the royal favour was not more k:ndly 
and gratefully received by the you.;g duke of Waru ick, than it v, as 
hatefully and looked upon by the duke of Buckingham, 
who thought himfelf extremely injured thereby. In that reign 
every tiling was apprehended from the feuds and difputts of the no- 
bility ; and therefore, to prevent any ill confeqcences that might arife 
from t'-e differences between thefe two. noblemen, this point was 
fettled by an aft of parliament ; which declared, that from the fe- 
cond ot December then next enluing, they fhouid take place ot each 
other by turns, one that year, and the other the next, and fo on as 
long as they fhouid live together; the duke of Warwick to have 
the hrft ytar's precedency, and he which fhouid furvive, to take 
place of the other's heir male as long as he lived; and from that 
time the heir male of each was to take place of the other, accord- 
ing as it fhouid happen, that he had livery of his lands before him. 
Befides thefe additional titles and marks of honour, the kiny gave 
Henry duke of Warwick more fubilantial proofs of his sfTec/tion 
and gratitude, by granting him the reverfion after the death of the 
duke of Gloucelter, of the iflands of Guernfey, Jerfey, Sark, Erin, 
and Alderney, for the yearly tribute of a rofe, to be paid at the feaft 
jof St. John the. Baptilf, as alfo of the manor and hundred of Bnftol 
in Glouceileilhire, for the yearly farm of fixty pounds, as alfo the 
caftles and manors of the king within the foreft of Dene, yielding 
and paying the yearly rent of one hundred pounds. But, as if 
all thefe honours and grants had been ftiil inefficient to exprefs the 
king's affcclion for this young nobleman, and his remembrance and 
refpecl for hi? father's fervices, Henry VI. went ftill farther, even 
to the utmoU verge and extent of his prerogative, by declaring the 
faid Henry duke of Warwick king of the ifland of Wight, and 
placing the crown upon his head with his own hands. As this was 
the higheft honour the king could beftow, fo it proved the laft favour 
the duke could receive; fince he was taken off in the flower of his 
3ge, at the caftle of Hanley, where he was born, on the nth of 
June, 1445, in the twenty-fecond year oi his age. 

BEAUCHAMP QOHN DE) baron of Kidc'erminfter, in the 
reign of liichard II. and the firft baron created by patent in this 
kingdom. Ke was the fon of Sir Richard Beauchamp of Holt, 
who was the ^randfon of William de Beauchamp of Elmeley, and 
brother to William de Beauchamp, the firft earl of Warwick of 
that family. He was born in the year 1320, and by the death 
of his father inherited the lands of Hoit in Worcefterfhire, i Ed- 
ward III. He was early in the fervice of his prince; for 12 Ed- 
ward III. when he was not more than twenty, he was in the expe- 
dition to Flanders, and in 20 Edward III. in France, and acquired 
icpuiaticn in both. In 1353, he was in Gafcoigne, in the rttinue 


BEAUCHAMP (John de). 29 

of Thomas earl of Warwick, and continued there all th next year. 
In the thirty-third of the fame reign he ferved again in F-ance with 
much honour. In the forty-fecond of that king, he went over into 
that realm on the fame account; and in 46 Edward Hi. he at- 
tended the king's foil, John duke of Lancafter, in his expedition into 
Spain. By thefe long and faithful Cervices to the crown, he fo raifed 
his credit at court, that in the fixth of Richard II. being ihen one of 
the efquires of the king's chamber, he had a grant of twenty marks 
per annum, out of the manor of Sutton, in the foreft of fvlacc'lesfield 
in Chefhire. But growing more and more into the king's favour, 
he, in the ninth of the fame reign, from the like confideration>, and 
becaufe he had received the honour of knighthood, under the king's 
banner ciifplayed again'!: Scotland, had an annuity granted him of 
one hundred marks, out of the king's rents and revenue in North 
V/ales. But foon after he made a furrender of this annuity, and, 
inftead thereof, had a coniiderable grant made him in Caertnarthen- 
ihire, and was alfo appointed chief-juftice of North Wales, both for 
term of his life. He had alfo a fpecial charter of divers liberties 
and privileges, as, we!! in vert and venifon, as other things, in his 
lordihip of Kidderrhinfter, in the county of Worcefter, granted him, 
much about the fame time. By thefe repeated teftimonies of royal 
kindnefs, Sir John Beauchamp, who was now advanced to be 
ftewflrd of the king's hcufhold, and one of his chief favourites, was 
encouraged to procure new gjhs from the crown ; and, therefore, in 
the eleventh year of King Richard, laying hold of the breaking out 
of a French war, Sir John Beauchamp obtained for himfelf, a grant 
of all the manors and lands belonging to the priory of Deerhurft in 
the county of Gloueefter, then feized into the king's hands; as all 
other priories-alien were. By fuch grants he acquired a good eftate; 
and to add an augmentation of honour to thofe of fortune, he pro- 
cured himfelf to be created Baron Kidderminfter by patent, limit- 
ing that honour to his heirs male ; which became the precedent for 
future creations. It was thought that the king intended him far- 
ther honours, had not a fudden reverfe of fortune put a flop to his 
matter's power, and to his profperity. This happened in the year 
1388, when the duke of Gloucester, and other powerful lords, hav- 
ing firft defeated the army raifed by the king's favourite, whom he 
had created Duke of Ireland, marched on to London, and forced 
him to call a parliament. Amongft other noble pe'rfons then called 
to account for their pad behaviour, our Lord Beauchamp was one, 
who was firtt removed from his office of treafurer of the king's 
houfliold, then fent prifoner to Dover-cattle, and laftly condemned 
and executed tor hi^h treafon upon Tower-hill. 

O 1 

BEAUCHAMP (JOHN DE), ion to Sir William de Beauchamp, 
cosftable of the cattle of Gk.uccfter, was, on the death of Richard 
de Beauchamp earl of Warwick, conftitured one of the guardians 
of his fon Henry. He purchased from Thomas dc Eotr^ax, the 



moiety of the manor of Aiceflor, and obtained from King Henry VI. 
a charter for various privileges and immunities to that place, as alfo 
the grant of another fair to be held thereon the eve of St. Dunftan, 
and to continue for two d-;ys following. He was in fo great credit 
\vith that n.onarch, that in the twenty-fifth year of his reign, he 
was advanced by him to the dignity of Lord Beauchamp of Powyke, 
and had an annuity of fixty pounds, out of the fee-farm of the city 
of Gloucefter. He was alfo conftituted juftice of South Wales, 
with power to execute that office by himfelf, or his fufficient de- 
puty. About three years after tins, by the kindnefs of the fame 
prince, he was promoted to the office of lord high-treafurer of Eng- 
land, which he did not hold full two years, but retiring to a private 
life, died at a good old age, in the year 1475- 

BEAUCHAMP (WILLIAM DE), Lord Bergavenny, was t-ie 
younger fon of Thomas de Beauchamp, earl of Warwick. He 
feems to have made his firft campaign in 1366, under the famous 
John of Gaunt, duke ol Lancafter, in his expedition into Caftile. 
He ferved continually after this through that whole reign, fome- 
times in Spain, fometimes in France, by land fometimes, and 
fometimes by fea. For thefe great fervices and others expect- 
ed from him, we find that in the firft of Richard II. he was 
appointed governor of the caftie and county of Pembroke, and 
in the fourth of the fame king, lord chamberlain, with an annual 
penfion of two hundred pounds for life. The fame year he was 
retained to ferve by indenture with two hundred men at arms, and 
two hundred archers, under Edmund de Langley, earl of Cambridge, 
in Spain. In the ninth of King Richard, he attended the duke of 
Laricafter into Spain, to fupport his pretenfions to the crown of 
Caftiie. He was the next year conftituted captain of the caltles of 
Pembroke and Kil^aran in Wale?, and holding ftill his command of 

O ' O 

Calais was appointed the king's commiffioner to treat with the 
earl of Flanders. It was at this juncture he diftinguifhed himfelf 
in a manner fo particular, that it deferves to ba for ever remembered. 
Amongft other bafe fchemes put into the head of King Richard II. 
by his favourites, one was, to retire, when the duke of Gloucefter 
y\\d the other lords were near London with an army, to France, and 
tSiere psirchafe the afliftance of that monarch, bv giving up to. him 
molt of the fortreffes he then held in that realm, if it be fome 
fcar.dal to our country, that it produced men bafe enough to betray 
a young and inconfuierate prince into fo foul a contrivance; we 
rrn;;l allow that it is no lefs honourable for us, that this gallant 
L<>rd Bergavenny had the courage to Hand in the gap to fecure our 
pofleflions from being fo fhamefully given up, and, at the hazard of 
his life, to ferve the king againrt his will, and merit his confidence 
by a noble act of difobedience. For when all things were ready at 
hme lor carrying this dark defign into execution, and the king fent 
orders to this lord to quit his command, and tranfmit certain letters 


BEAUFORT f 7^;;;. 31 

Himjfgirr^xt**** ^-^IL^KM^-MTT- nrwr - i r-rn TT^I iri MHTIT T rarnri^- .^y^-- ^-TT T ->n am i*mm-tiifmm-m*i_-i_ ^i-~m _^ 

to the court of France, he ftoutly refufed both. He declared with 
refpedl to the former, that he was intruded with this important for- 
trete, with the advice and confent of the nobility, and without their 
confent he would not render up his command. As for the letters 
(guefling at their tenorj, inftead ot fending them to Paris, he tranf- 
mitted them to the duke of Gloucester in England. He went ftill 
farther than this: ior when John de la Pole, brother to the great 
favourite Suffolk, came with the king's orders to take from him the 
command of Calais, he not only refufed to yield it into his hands, 
but feized him and carried him over prifoner to England, which at 
that time incenfed the King to fuch a degree, as it entirely ruined 
the fcheme of his minifters, that he caufed the Lord Bergavenny, 
immediately after his arrival, to be arrefted and committed to clofe 
cuftody ; but foon after, either through fear or choice, caufed him 
to be fet at liberty again. In the firft of Henry IV. we find hint 
conftituted juftice of South Wales for life, and reftored to the go- 
vernment of the town and caftle of Pembroke and lordfhip of 
Tineby, with the addition of the cafde and lordfhip of Kilgaran, and 
county ot Olterlowe alio for life, paying into the Exchequer feventy 
marks per annum. He died about the year 1411. 

BEAUFORT (JOHN), eUbft fon of John of Gaunt duke of 
Lancafter, was born in Beaufort-eallle in Anjou. In 1394, being 
then a^knight, he accompanied his father into Gafcoigne. Ka was 
advanced lo the honour of earl of Somerfet, in a parliament held at 
Weftminfter, by creation, bearing date 1396-7; and on September 
29th, in a parliament held at the fame place, was created marquis 
of Dorfet ; but this lad honoajr being vacated, he was created the 
fame day, September 29th, marquis of Sornerfet : notvvuhilanding 
which, he was fmiimoned to parliament by the title only of marquis 
of Dorfet ; and by that denomination was made conitable of Wal- 
lingford cafHe, and fteward of the honour of Waliingford, Novem- 
ber 22, 1397 ; as alfo conftable of Dover-cattle, and warden of the 
Cinque-ports, on the 5th or February following; and not long after, 
King Richaid the Second's lieutenant in Aquitain. He was like- 
wife, on the 2d of February the fame year, conftituted admiral of 
all the king's rleet, both to the no-. -a and weft. In I397> he was 
one of thofe lords, who, at the ^r-.-it council at Nottingham, im- 
peached Thomas duke of Giouceitcr, <xc. of treafon ; for which he 
and the reft of them were adjudged, in the h'rft parliament of King 
Henry IV. to lofe their titles, and the eftates that had been given 
them, at or fince the iaft parliament, belonging to any of thofe per- 
fons they had impeached, or fuel) as they enjoyed at the time of the 
duke of Gloucefter's impfifonment, By this rrean?, John Beau- 
fort loll the title of marquis or Dorfet, and retained only that of 
earl of Somerfet; but foon ingratiating himfelf with the new king, 
v t 'ho v,as his brother by the father's fide, he was conitituted by h:rn 
chamberlain of England for life, February 9* 1399-140- I" 



1401, he was retained by indenture to ferve the king as governor of 
the town of Caermardhyn, and had his eftate reftored to him. He 
was alfo made captain- of Calais, with it's marches. In 1401, 
or 1402, he was commifiioned with others, to treat of a league 
of amity between the king of England and the duke of Gueldres. 
In 1402, the commons in parliament petitioned for his reftitu- 
tion. to the dignity of marquis ; Avhich he feemed unwilling to 
refumc, becaufe that title was new in this kingdom, he being the 
fecond on whom it was conferred: however, he accepted. ot it at 
laft. In the year 1404, he had an utiignation of the ifle of Thanet, 
for the fupport of himfeif, and the g:irrifon ot Calais, which con- 
fifted of his foldiers ; and was appointed ambaffador to treat of a 
peace with the French. He alfo was one of the com mi Hi oners 
empowered to receive fuch futr.s of money as then remained unpaid 
for the ranfom of John, king of France, taken prifoner at the battle 
of CreiTy. And finally, in the eighth year of King Henry IV. was 
conftitmed admiral of the king's whole fleet, ss well for the north 
as weft. Having thus paffed through many honourable employ- 
ments, he departed this life on the 2ift of April, 1410. 

BEAUFORT (HENRY), bilhop of Winchefier, and cardinal 
prieft of the Roman church, was the foil of John of Gaunt, duke 
of Lancafter, by his third wife, Catherine Swinford. He fludied 
for ibme years at Oxford, but had his education chiefly at Aix la 
Chapelle, where he applied him fell' to the civil and common law. 
Being of royal extraction, he was advanced very young to the pre- 
lacy, and \vas elected bifhop of Lincoln in 1397, in the room of 
John Buckingham, who reiigned. In 13991 he was chancellor of 
the univerfity of Oxford, and at the fame time dean of Wells. He 
was lord high chancellor of England in 1404, the fifth of his brother 
Henry IV. The next year he fucceeded William of Wickharn, 
by papal proviiion, in tiie fee of Winchester, and received the fpi- 
litualities from the archbifhop of Canterbury, in the bifhop of Lon- 
don's pa'ace, the iStb of March. He was again lord chancellor in 
1414, the K-e.'ml of his nephew King Henry V. This prelate was 
one ot King Henry the Sixth's guardians ci:irir.g his minority; and 
in 1424, the third of the young king's reign, lie was a fourth time 
lord chancellor of England. There were perpetual jealoufies and 
quarrels between the bifhop of Winchefler, and the protector, 
Humphrey duke of Gioucclter, which ended in the ruin and death 
of the latter. About two years after, the bifhop of Winchefter receiv- 
ed with great folemnity, in the church of Our Lady at Calais, a car- 
dinal's hat, with the titk of St. Eukoius, fc;,t him by Pope Martin V, 
In September I428>the new cardinal returned into England, with the 
character ol the Pope's Legate lately conferred on him. ; and in'his 
way to Lcr.don, lie was met by the lord mayor, aldermen, and the 
principal citizens on hoi feback, who conducted him with great ho- 
nour to his lodging* in Southwark. He died june.ii, 1447. 


BEAUFORT (Joan, and Margaret). 33 

BEAUFORT (JoAx), queen of Scotland, .was the eldeit, dangh- 
ter of J>hn Beantort, earl of Somerfet, fonofjohn of Gaunt,"by. 
Margaret, daughter of Thomas Holland, earl of Kent, and niece to 
the famous Henry Beaufort, cardinal of St. Eulebius, and bilhopof 
Winchdrer. In February 14.2] fhe was married, with great fo- 
lemnity, in the church of St. Mary Overrey, in South war k, to James 
the Firft, king of Scotland, who had been prifoner in England ever 
fince the 3oth of March, 1404.. Her portion was forty thoufand 
marks. This match was procured by lier uncle, the bifhop of 
Winchefter above mentioned, in order to ftrengthen and fupport his 
family by an alliance with the kingdom of Scotland. She fet out, 
with the king her hufband, fur Scotland, in March 1423, being 
attended as far as Berwick by her father, and her ur.cle the cardinal ; 
and on the 2cth of that month arrived at Edinburgh. She was 
crowned with him the 22d of May, 1424. Through her merciful 
intercellion with the king in 1427, file faved the life of Alexander 
lord of the ifles, who had committed fome acts of hoftility ; and in 
1431 that of Archibald earl of Douglas, who was fufpe&ed of trea- 
fon. The i6th of October, 1430, fhe was delivered at Stirling of 
two fons at one birth, which were baptized by the names of Alex- 
ander and Jame-s. Alexander died young, but James lived to fuc- 
ceed his father. In .the year 1437 me received an information of a 
confpiracy forming againft the king her himband's life; upon which 
fhe went port to him to Roxburgh, and informed him thereof: but 
notwithftanding her precaution, the king was moft cruelly murdered 
in the Dominicans abbey at Perth, by the faction of Walter earl of 
Athol, his uncle, on the sift of February, 1436-7, in the thirteenth 
year of his reign. When the ruffians entered the room, the queen, 
to her everlalting honour, f.i long Ihrouded the king tro.n the af- 
faflins with her own body, tiiat (Tie received two. wounds before me 
could be drawn off him. She married to her fecond hufband, James 
Stewart, called the Black Knight, fon to the lord of Lome; and 
dying in the year 1446, was buried at Perth, near the king her firft 

BEAUFORT (MARGARET), the foundrefs of Chrift's and Sr, 
John's colleges, in Cambridge, was the only daughter and heir of 
John Beaufort, duke of Somerfet (grandfon of John of Gaunt, duke 
of Lancafter), and of Margaret Beauchamp, his wife. She was 
born at Bletlhoe, in Bedford ih ire, in the year 1441. About the 
fifteenth year of her age, Ihe was married to Edmund of Haddam, 
earl of Richmond, by whom fhe had a fon, named Henry, who was 
afterwards king, by the title of Henry VII. S >me tiroe after, fhe 
took for her fecond hnfband Sir Henry Stafford, fecond fon to Henry 
duke of Buckingham, by whom ihe had no children. He dying 
about the year 1481, Ihe had for her third huiband Thomas Lord* 
Stanley, afterwards earl of Derby. 

On the 8th of September, 1502. fhe inftituted two perpetual pub- 
Voi. H. E 


lie le&ures in divinity, one at Oxford, and the other ut Cambridge ; 
each of which (he endowed with twenty miks a year. In 1504, 
October 30, fhe founded a perpetual public preacher at Cambridge, 
with a falary of ten pounds a year, whofe duty Was to prtach at lea ft 
fix fermons every year, at feveral churches ffpecified in the founda- 
tion) in the diocefes of London, Ely, and Lincoln, She alfo founded 
a perpetual chantry in the church of Wmburne-mintter, in Dorfet- 
Ihire, for one prieft to teach Grammar freely to all that would come, 
while the world mould endure, with a ttipend .of ten pounds a year. 
But her nobleft foundations were, the colleges ot Chriil and St. John, 
in Cambridge ; the former, founded in the year 1505, for one matter, 
twelve fellows, and forty- feven fcholars; the latter, in the year 
1508, for a matter, and fifty rellows and fcholars. The worthy 
foundrefs was eminent not only for her charity, but alfo for her 
exemplary piety, according to the manner of thofe fuperftitious 
times; and after having lived fixty-eight years, an ornament to her 
fex, and a public benefit to mankind, (he departed this life at Weft- 
minfter, the 2Qth ot June, 1509, in the firft year of her grandfon 
King Henry the Eighth's reign. 

BEAUMONT (Sir JOHN), fon ot Francis Beaumont, one of the 
judges of the Common Pleas in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
and brother to the celebrated dramatic poet, Francis Beaumont. 
He was born in 1582, at Giace Dieu, in Leicetterihire, and was 
admitted gentleman commoner of Broadgate-hall, in Oxford, 1596. 
After having fpent three years at the univerfity, he removed to one 
of the inns of court, but foon quitted the ftudy of the law, and re- 
tired to Leicefterfhire, where he married a lady of the Fortefcue 
family. In 1626 he was knighted by King Charles, and died in 
the winter of 1628. In the youthful part of his life he applied 
himfelf to poetry, and publifhed feveral pieces. He wrote " The 
Crown of Thorns," a poem, in eight books: there is likewife ex- 
tant a mifcellany of his, entitled " Bofworth Field." He has It-It 
us alfo the following tranflations from the Latin poets, viz. Vir- 
gil's fowrfch eclogue, Horace's fixth fatire of the fccond book, his 
twenty-ninth ode of the third book, and his epifode; Juvenal's tenth 
fatire, and Perfius's fecond fatire; Atifonius's fifteenth idyll, and 
Claudian's epigram of the Old Man of Verona. The rett of his 
pieces are either on religious fubjtts, or ot a moral kind. 

BEAUMONT fFRANCis), brother of the preceding, and acele- 
brated dramatic writer, was born at Grace Dieu, in Leicefterfhire, 
about the year 1586. He was educated at Cambridge, and after- 
wards admitted of the Inner Temple; but it does not appear that 
he made any proficiency in the law, his paffion for the Mufes being 
hich, as made him entirely devote himfelf to poetry. He died in 
March 1615, before he was thirty years of age, and was buried in 
the entrance of St. Benedi&'s chapel, within St. Peter's, Weftmin- 



fter. Btfides the plays in which he was jointly concerned with 
Kletclier, he <wrote a little dramatic piece, entitled, " A Mafque 
of Gray's Inu Gentlemen';" " The Inner Temple, a poetical 
Epiitle to Bon Jonfon ;" and " Verfes to his Friend Mafter John 
Fletcher, upon his Faiihhil S'lepherdefs ;" and other poem*, printed 
together in 1653, 8vo. Beaumont was efteemed fo goc,d a judge of 
dramatic compoliiion?, that Ben Jonfui fubmitted his writings to 
.his correclion, atid it is thought \vc.: much indebted to him f\jr the 
contrivance, ot his plots. 


BEAUSOBRE (!SAAC DE). a very learned ProteQant writer, of 
French original, was born ai Niort, in 1659. He was forced into 
Holland, to avoid the execution of a fentence upon him, which 
condemned him to make the amende honourable ; and this for hav- 
Mg broken the royal isgnet, which was put upon the door of a church 
of :h.e Reformed, to prevent the public prcfeffion of their p:iigi< :i. 
He went to Berlin in 1694, was made chaplain to the ki; 1 *: of 
Piuula, and counfellor of the royal confiftory. He died in 17 '.8, 
ag<.d 79, after having publifhed feveral works: i. Defenfe clc la 
DocV me des ' 2. A Trar.flation of the New '[ eflar :=nt, 
and Notes, jointly with M. Lenfant. 3. Dtffertation fur le Va- 
mites de Boheme. 4. Hiftoire Critique de Manichee et du Ma- 
nicheifme, 2 torn, in 4to. 5. Several Differtations in the Biblio- 
theque B.ritannique. 

BEAVER (JOHN), a Benedi6tine monk in Weftminfter abbey, 
fiouri(hed about the beginning of the fourteenth century. He was 
a man of quick parts, and of great diligence and ingenuity ; but he 
applied himfelf particularly to the fludy of the hiJtory and anti- 
quities of England, and became a great mafter of both. Among 
other things, he wrote " A Chronicle of the Britifh and Englifh 
Affairs, from the coming in of Brute to his own Time. He alfo 
wrote, a book, " De Rebus coenobii Weltmonanenfis ; ofWeftmin- 
fter abbey, and the feveral' Traniactions relating thereto." Leland 
commends him as an hiftorian of good credit; and he is alfo cited 
with refpecl by J. Stow, in his Su'rvey c i London and Wefhrnnfter. 

BECKET {TnoM AS), archbifhop of Canterbury in the reign of 
Henry II. was born in London u 19, and received the firfl part of 
bis education at Merton abbey, in Surrey; from whence he went ro 
Oxford, and afterwards Itudied at Paris. He became in high favour 
with Theobald archbilh -p of Canterbury, who fent him to ftuHy the 
civil law at Bononia in Italy, and at his return marlc him archdeacon 
of Canterbury. This pre'ate recommended him alfo to Kin^. H<~-nry 
II. in fo cffe&ual a manner, that in 1158 he was appointed 
chancellor, and preceptor to the prince. Bev - k?t now lair' a'i-'-e 
churchman, and affected the courrit-r; he conformed himfelt in 

E 2 


thing to the king's humour, ne partook ot all his diverfions, and ob- 
fcrved the- fa". hours of eating and gomg to bed. He kept fplen- 
did levees, c >urted popular applaufe, and the expences of his table 
exceec'-.d thole ot the fnft nobility. In 1159 he made a campaign 
with King Henry int" Touloufe, having in his own pay twelve hun- 
dred iicrie, be fides a retinue of fcven hundred knights or gentlemen. 
In 1 160 he was fent by the king to Paris, to treat of a marriage be- 
tween Prince Henry and the king oi France's eldeft daughter, in 
which he fucceeded, and returned with the young princefs to Eng- 
land. He had not enjoyed the chancelmrfhip above four years when 
Archbiihop Theobald died; and t'ie king, who Was then in Nor- 
mandy, immediately ftnt over fome trufty perfons to England, who 
managed matters fo well with the monks and clergy, that Becket 
was almoft unanimoufly elected archbimop. After'he had received 
his pall from Pope Alexander III. then redding in France, he im- 
mediately fent meift-ngers to the king in Normandy, with his r6- 
fignaiion of the (ea! and office of chancellor. 

Becket now betook himfelf to a quite different manner of life, 
and put on all the gravity and aufteriry of a monk. He began 
likewife to cxerr himfelf with great zeul in defence of t he rights 
and privileges of the church of Canterbury, and in many cafes pro- 
ceeded v, ith fo much warmth and obftinacy, as raifed him many 
enemies. In a fhort time the king and he came to an open rupture ; 
Henry endeavoured to recal certain privileges of the clergy, who had 
greatly atuftd their exemption from the civil courts, concerning 
which i\\c king had received feveral complaints, while the archbi- 
feopftood up for the imm unities of the clergy. The king con- 
vened a fynod of the bifhops at Weftminfter, and here demanded 
that the clergy, wht'i accufed of auy capital offence, might ^ake 
their trials in the court:, of juftice. The queition put to the bifhdps 
was, whether, in confideration of their duty and allegiance to the 
.king, and of the inu reft and peace of the kingdom, they were wil- 
ling to prorniic 1 a iubmiflion to the laws of his grandfather, King 
Hrnry. To tnis the archbifhop replied, in the name of the whole 
b.'.ly, that they were willing to be b-iund by the ancient laws of the 
kmgd m, as far as the privilege-': of the order would permit. The 
kin^ vas highly difpleafed with this anfwer, and infifted on having 
an abf'-lute, without any refervation whatever; but the 
aK'hbiihon wonic oy no nr-ans fubmit, and the reft of the bifhops 
aahered for Icrre nme to their pnmate. Several of the bifhops be- 
ing at length gained over, and t;ie pope interpofmg in the quarrel, 
Bucket wa- prt\di!*d on to acquiefce j but afterwards repenting of 
.hi? comp'iance, retired from court, nor would officiate in the church 
till he fhou'.d receive abl" 'iution from the pope. He went aboard a 
ihip, in order to iruke his efcape beyond fea; but before he could 
reach the coaft of France, the wind (Lifting about, he was driven 
back to England. The king fummoned a parliament at Northamp- 

BECKET (Thomas). 37 

ion, 1-165, wiurr tli? archbiihop, having been accufed of failure of 
duty and allegiance to the king, was fentenced to forfeit all his goods 
and chattel?. Becker made an appeal to the pope ; but this having 
availed nothing, and rinding himlelt deferred by his brethren, he 
withcten privately from Northampton, a.-ui went aboard a fhip 
for Gnveline, in Holland, from whence he retired to the monaf- 
tery "t S>. Berlin, in Flanders. 

The king feized upon the revenues of the archbi<hop, and fent an 
-ambaflad'T to the French king- I'-'irmg r:m r.ot to give (heifer to 
Becket : but the French court dpouf-d ' is .,' ife, in hopes that the 
mifur.dtHt <nd"ng betwixt him and HUnrv might embarnu's the af- 
fairs it England^ and accordingly, when Becket Cdme from St. 
Berlin to S'>ilfbns, the French kii.g paid him a vifu, and offered him 
his protection. Soon after the archbiihop went to Sen?, where he 
was honourably received by the p< pe, into whofe hands he in form 
refigned the archbiihoprick of Canterbury, and was prefeatiy re- 
inftated in his dignity by the pope, who promifed to efpoufe his 
interefh The archbiihop removed from Sens to the abbey of Hon- 
tigny, in Normandy, from whence he wrote a letter ro the b>:fh ops 
of England, informing them, that the pope had annulled the " C -a- 
ftitutions oi" Clarendon." From hence, too, he iffued out ex~ ::n- 
munications againft feveral perfons who had violated the rights of 
the- church. This conduct of his raifed him many enemies. 7 e 
king was fo enraged agamlt him for excommunicating feveral of 
his officers of ftate, that he banilhed all Becket's relations, and com- 
pelled them to take an oath that they would travel direl!y to P .- 
tigny, and iT.ew themfelves to the archbilnop. An oirVi w.?s 
likewife publifhed, forbidding all perfons to conefpond uith him 
by letters, to fend him any money, <>r fo much as to pray for hifn in 
.the churches. He wrote alfo to the general chapter of the Citfcr- 
cians, threatening to feize all their elhtes in England if they allowed 
Beckct to continue in the abbey of PontUny. The archbiihop 
thereupon removed to Sens, and from thence, upon the king of 
-France's recommendation, to the abbey of St. Columba, where he 
remained four years. In the mean time, the biihops of the pro- 
vince of Canterbury wrote a letter to the ar .. > ip, intreruing him. 
to alter his behaviour, and not to widen the breach, f as to render 
an accommodation impracticable betwixt him and the king. I his, 
however, had no efFecl: on the archbifhop. The pope alfo fent two 
cardinals to try to reconcile matters, but the legates found both parties 

The beginning of the year 1157, Becket was at length fo far 
prevailed upon as to have an interview with Henry and the king of 
France, at Mount Miral, in Champaigne. He made a fpeech to 
Henry in very fubmillive terms, and concluded with leaving him the 
umpire of the difference between them, favm^ the honour of God. 
Henry was provoked at this claufe oi" refcrvation, and f-iu!, thut 



whatever Becket did not relifh, he would pronounce contrary 10 the 
honour of God. The interview, however, ended without any 

In 1169 endeavours were again ufed to accommodate matter?, 
.but they proved ineffectual, i he archbiihop refufed to comply, 
becaufe Henry would not give him the cuftomary falute, or kifs of 
peace, which his majefty would have granted, had he not once fv/oce 
in a paflion never to falute the i.n hjbHhop on the cheek. ; but he de- 
clared he would bear him no ill-wi'l for the omiflion of this cere- 
mony. H^nry became at l-. j ngt'> To irritated againfl this prelate, 
that he ordered all his Enghih. fnbje&s to take an oath, .whereby 
they renounced the suthoii'y ot ;}ca -t and Pope Alexander : moft 
.of the laity complied with this order, but few of the clergy ac- 
quiefced. The following year King Henry, upon his return. to 
England, ordered his fun, Prince Henry, to be crowned at Weft- 
rninfter, and the ceremony was performed by the archbiihop of 
..York: this cake belonged to the fee of Canterbury, and Becket 
complained of it to the pope, who fufpended the archbiihop qf 
York, and excommunicated the bifhops who alfifted him. 

This year, however,- an accommodation was at length concluded 
betwixt Henry and Bucket, upon the confines of Normandy, where 
the king held the bridle of Becket's hnrfe, while he mounted and 
difrnounted twice. Soon after the archbiihop embarked for Eng- 
land; and upon his arrival received an order from the young king to 
abiblve the lufpended and excommunicated bifhops ; but refilling to 
comply, the arohbiilu'p of \ork, and the bithops of London and 
Salisbury, carried their complaint to the king in Normandy, ( - v ho 
was highly provoked at this frefh inftance of obflinacy in Becket, 
and faid on the occafion, " That he was an unhappy prince, who 
maintained a great number of lazy infignirkant perfons about him, 
none of whom had gratitude or fpirit enough to revenge him on a 
fingle infolent prelate, who gave him fo much difturbance." Thefe 
words of the king put tour gentlemen of his court on forming a 
defign againfr. the archbilhop's life, which they executed in the ca- 
thedral church of Canterbury, n the 29th of December, 1171. 
They endeavoured to drag him out of the church ; but finding 
they could not do this without difficulty, killed him there. King 
Henry was much difturbed at the news of Becker's death, and im- 
mediately difpatched an embafiy to Rome, to clear himfelf from the 
imputation ol being the caufe of it. Immediately all divine offices 
ceafed in the church of Canterbury, and this for a year, excepting 
.nine days, at the end ot which, by order of the pope, it was re-con- 
fccrated. Two years after Becket was canonized; and the follow- 
ing year, Henry, returning to England, went to Canterbury, where 
}K did penance, as a tellimony of his regret for the murder of 
Becket. When he came within fight of the church, where the 
archbifhop was buried, he alighted off his Ijorfe, and walked bare- 



foot, in the hai)it of 4 pilgrim, till he came to B ikct's tomb, where t 
after he had proflrated himfelf, he fubmitted to be fcourged by the 
monks, and pa fled all that day without any refrefhment, and kneel- 
ing upon the bare (lone. In 1221 Beckei's body was taken tip, in 
the prefenee of King Henrv III. and feveral nobility, and depofited 
in a rich fhrine, on the eaft fide of the chinch. 

BECK'NGTON (THOMAS), was born in the parifh of Beck- 
ington, in Somerfetihire, towards the end of the fourteenth century. 
He was probably educated in grammar learning at Wykeham's 
fchool, near Winchester, and admitted fellow of New College, in 
Oxford, in 1408 ; though fome fay he had alfo part of his education 
in Merton College. However, he continued fellow of New Col- 
lege about twe've years, and took his doctor of law's degree. 
Within this period, moft probably, he was preft-nted to the rectory 
of St. Leonard's, near Hidings, in Suffex, and to the vicarage of 
Sutton Courtney, in Btrkfhire. He was alfo prebendary of Btclwin, 
York, and Litchfield, archdeacon of Bsackingham, arKl mafter of St. 
Catherine's hofpital, near the Tower, in London. About the year 
1429 he was dean ot the Court of Arches ; and a fynod being then 
held in St. Paul's church, London, which continued above fix 
months, Beck-ngtori was employed, jointly with William Linwood, 
official of the Court of Arches, and Thomas Brown, vicar-general 
to the archbifhop of Canterbury, to draw up a form of law, accord- 
ing to which the Wickliffites, or Lollards, were to be proceeded 
againft. Before our author was made dean of the Arches, he was 
advocate in Doctor's Commons: but thefe preferments were incon- 
fiderable, in companion of the honours to which he was a r terwarJs 
raifed, for having been tutor to King Henry VI. and written a bock, 
wherein, inoppofition to the Saliq-ie law, he ftrenuoufiy aiierted the 
right of the kings of England to the crown of France, he arrived to 
a great degree of efteem and favour with that prince ; and, in conle- 
quence of that, was made fecretary of date, keeper of the privy feal, 
and at laft bifhop of Bath and Wells. He was con ("--crated Oct. 
13, 1443, in the new chapel of Eton college, which was not yet 
finifhed, and was the firft that officiated in that chapel. His cha- 
racter is thus reprelented : he was well fkilled in polrte learning and 
hiftory, and very converfant in the Holy Scriptures ; a good preacher, 
and fo generous a patron and favourer of all learned and ingenious 
men, that he was called the Maecenas of his age. As for his works 
of munificence and charity, they were numerous. He finifhed Lin- 
coln colic ^e, wh'.ch rud been left imperfect by it's founder, Richard 
Fleinming, bifhop of Lincoln, and got the manor oi Newton 
Lon^ville ft-trled upon New College, Oxon, in 1440. Moreover, 
he bid (iut fix thoufand marks upon the houf.s belonging to his 
fee, built an rdirice called New Buildings, and the \\elt fide of jfc'6 
cloifters at Wells, and erected a cunduu'm "the market-place of ih..t 



city. He ciicd at Wells, January 14, 1464-5, and was buried in 
his cathedral, where his monument is ttiil to be feen. 

BED A, or BKDE, fiur.amed the Venerable, an Englifli monk, 
an^. an eminent wMtt-r, born 672, or 673, at Wermoulh and Jarrow, 
in the bilhopric o; Durham. In 679 he was fent to the monaftery 
of St. Peter, under the care of Abbot Benedict, under whcm, and 
his fucceifor Ceolfrid, he uas educated for tvelve vean,. He was 
ordained deacon at ninetetn years of aer, and pncit at thirty, by 
John of Beverlry, then bifhop of Huguiihd, or Hexham. He ap- 
plied to his ftutiies with Ib much diligence an<t fuccefs, that he foon 
became eminent for his learning: hi? fame fpre^d even to foreign 
countries, fo that Pope Sergius wrote t*> Abbot Ceolfr.d, in very 
preffing terms, to fend Bede to Rome, to give his opinion upon 
fome important points. But, notwithstanding this invitation, B"de 
remained in his cell; and beini( contented with the pleafures of a 
monadic life, had hereby time and opportunitv to <r;ake himfelf 
matter of almoft every branch of li-erature. He fpcnt feveral years 
in making collections for his eccldiafHcal hiftory, the materials for 
which he drew from the lives of particular p^'fons, annais in con- 
vents, and fuch chronicles as were written before his time. He 
publifhed his hiftory in 731, when he was fifty-nine years of age. 
He had written other books before; but this work eftabliihed his 
reputation in fuch a manner, that he wa? con fill ted by the greatelt 
prelates of that age in their moft important affairs, and particularly 
by Egbert bifhop of York, a man of very great learning. He ad- 
drefTed an epiftle to this prelate, which is elteemed a curious per- 
formance, as it furnifhes us with fuch a picture of the (lute of the 
church at that time, as is no where elfe to be met with. This 
epiftle is fuppofed to have been amongft the lafi of Bede's writings. 
It appears from what he fays himfelf, that he was much indifpofed 
when he wrote it. and it is not improbable th.n he began at this 
time to fall into a confumption. William of Malmefbury tells us, 
that, in the la(t A x age of his diltemper, he fell into an afthma, which 
he fupported with great firmnef? of mind, though in much weaknefs 
and pain, for fix weeks together. During this time, however, he 
did not abate of his ufual employments in the mona(ttry, but con- 
tinued to inftru<3: the young monks, and to profecute fume works 
under hand, which he was very defirous to finifh. He was parti- 
cularly felicitous about his tranflation of the Gofpel of St. John 
into the Saxon language, and fome paffages he was extracting from 
the works of St. Ifidore. The particulars which William of 
Malmefbury gives relating to his death, were taken from an account 
by Cuthbert, one of Btde's difciples, who fays, that he died on 
Thurfday the 26th of May, being the feaft of Chrift's afcenfion, 
which fixes it in the year 735, this circumftance agreeing with that 
year, and no other. There have been, however, different opinions 

l about 

BEDELL ( ' William). 4 i 

about the time of his death, but as the matter is not of any o-reat 
importance, we fhall not trouble the reader with the controverfies 
on this point. His body was at firft interred in the church of his 
own monaftery at Jairow, but afterwards removed to Durham, and 
placed in the fame coffin with that of St. Cuthbert. 

BEDELL (WILLIAM), a very famous prelate and bifhop of 
Kiltnorein Ireland, born 1570, at Black- Notley in the county of 
Ellex. After having gone through his fchool education, he was 
fent to Emanuel college in Cambridge, where he was chofen fellow 
in 1593, and took his degree of bachelor in divinity in 1599. He 
left the univerfity upon his being prefenfed to the living at St. Ed- 
mondfbury in Suffolk, \v|-,.-re he continued till 1604, when he was 
appointed chaplain to Sir Henry Wotton, ambaHador to the republic 
of Venice. He was eight years at Venice, during which time he con- 
tracted an intimate acquaintance with the famous father Paul Sarpi, 
of .whom he learnt Italian; and of this language he became fo much a 
mailer, that he translated into it the Englifll Common Prayer Book. 
Nnr was helefs ferviceable to father Paul, for whofeufehe drew up 
an Englifh grammar, and in many refpcfts greatlv affifted him in 
his fiudics, infomrch that Paul declared he had learnt more from 
h;in in ail parts of divinity, than from any perfon he had ever con- 
verfed with. Whilfi Bedell refided at Venice, he greatly improved 
himfelf alio in the Hebrew language, by the affiitance of the fa- 
mous Rabbi Leo, who taught him the Jewifh pronunciation, and 
other parts of rabbinical learning. Here he allb became acquainted 
with the celebrated Antonio de Dominis, archbiibop of Spalata, 
whom he affifted gonfiderably in correcting and fmiihing his famous 
bo< k ' De Republica Eccleliallica." Father Paul was much con- 
cerned-when Bedell left Venice; at his departure he made him a 
prefcnt of his picture, together with a Hebrew bible without points, 
and a fmall p falter. He gave him alfo the manufcript of his hiftory 
of the " Council of Trent," with the hi (lories of the interdict and 
inquifition, and a large collection of letters he had received from 
Rome, during the difpute between the Jeluits and Dominicans, con- 
cerning the efficacy of grace. 

Mr. Bedell, upon his return to England, retired to his charge at St. 
Edmonfbury ; and here he trairflated into Latin the hiilories of the 
interdict and inquifition, which he dedicated to the king. He alfo 
translated into the fame language the two lad books of tne " Hiftory 
of the Council of Trent," the two full having been done by Sir 
Adam Newton. In 1615, he was prefented to the living of Ho- 
ringfheath, in the diocefe of Norwich, by Sir Thomas Jermyn. 
In 1627, he was tinanimoufly elected provott of Trinity college in 
Dublin ; he at firil declined this office, but :;t lad accepted of it, 
Defng enjoined thereto by the politive commands of his miiitfty. He 
difcharged his duty in this- employment wnh great fidelity; and 

VOL. 1 1. F w hcn 


i MI ! MMTI n r *i J~~T r-" .~- - : . ^*+-** . *-? w+*i~r .-**.. *^tv'* m ,,L'- " 

when he had contim'cd in it two yea;s, by the intereft of Sir Thomas 
Jermyn, and Laud billvp of Lrrvion, he was y.r^moted to the fees 
of Kiimore and Ardagh. He found thefe two diocefc-s in great dif- 
order, and applied himfelf with great vigour to reform the abufes 
there. He began with that of plurality of benefices. To this end 
he convened his clergy: and, in a fermon, laid before them the in- 
fiituticn, natcre, and duties, of the minifterial employment, and 
after fermon difcourfed to them up*.n the fame fubjeil in Latin, and 
exhorted them to reform that abui'e. To prevail on them the better, 
he told them herefolved to (hew them an example by parting with one 
of his bi fhi pries; and accordingly refigned Ardagh. He made feveral 
regulations with refpect to refidence, was extremely watchful of the 
condul of the clergy, and no lefs circumfpedl in his own behaviour. 
His ordinations were public and folemn, he preached and gave the 
/acrament on fuch occafions himfelf. He never gave any perfon 
prieft's orders till a year after his deacon's, that he might know how- 
he behaved during that time. He wrote certificates of ordination and 
other inftruments with his own hand, and fuffered none who re- 
ceived them to pay any fees. When Jie had brought things to fuch 
a length, that his clergy were willing to alTifl him in ;he great work 
of reformation, he convened a fynod in September, 1638, in which 
he nude many excellent canons that are Itill extant. There were 
fome who locked up* n this fynod as an illegal affembly, and that 
his prefurning to m~kt canons was againft law, fo that there was 
talk of bringing him before the ilar-crurnber, or high-commiffion 
court ; but nis archdeacon, afterwards archbifhop of Cafhell, gave 
fucb, an account of the matter as fatisfied the Itate. Archbiihop 
U(htr faid on this occafion to thofe who were very earnelt for bring- 
ing him to anfwer for his conduct, " You had better let him alone ; 
left, v, hen provoked, he fhould fay much more for himfelf, than any 
of his accufers can fay againit him." Bedell, having obferved that 
the court in his diocefe was a great abufe, it being governed by a 
lay chancellor who had bought the place from his predeceflbr, and 
for that rtafi.n thought he had a right to all the profits he could 
raife, removed the chancellor ; and, refuming the jurifdiflion of a 
bifhop, fat in his own courts, and heard caufes with a felett number 
of his clergy, by whofe advice he gave fentence. The chancellor 
upon this brought a fuit againft the bifhop into chancery, for in- 
vading his <>fiice. Bolton, the lord chancellor of Ireland, confirmed 
the chancellor's right, and gave him a hundred pounds c-^ib againft 
the bithop ; and when Bedell afked him how he could give fuch an. 
unjuit decree ? he anfwered, That all his father had left him was a 
regiftf-r's place ; and therefore he thought he was bound to fupport 
fhole courts, which muft be ruined if fome check was not given to 
the biihop's proceedings. The chancellor however gave him no 
further difturbarre, nor did he ever call for his colls, but named a 
forrogate with orders to obey the bifhop. 




T'IK-. prelate was no periccutor of Papifts, nor did he approve of 
thofo who made life of har(h and palfiunate expreffions againlt 
Popery. He laboured to convert the better fort of the Popilh clergy, 
and in this had great fnccefs. He procured a tranflation of th.e 
common-pra\er into Irifh, and caufcd it to be read in his cathedral 
every Sunday. The New Teflament had alfo been tranflated by 
William !)aniel, archbiftiop oi Tuam ; and at the bifhop's defire, 
the Old Teftament was firtt tranflated into the fame language by 
one King ; but as he was jgnorant of the original tong;:e, and did 
it from the Englifh, Bedell reviled and compared it with the H brew, 
and the belt tranflations. He took care likewife to have lome of 
Chryfoitom's and Leo's Homilies, in commendation of the fcrip- 
tures, to be rendered both into Enghlh and Iri(h, t> (hew the com- 
mon people, that, in the opinion of the ancient fathers, they had 
not only a right to read the fcriptures as well as the clergy, but that 
it was their duty fo to do. When he found the work was finifhed, 
he refolved to be at the expence of printing it, but his defign was 
interrupted by a cruel and unjuft profecution carried on againft the 
frahflator, who not only jolt his living, but was alfo atttacked in his 
character. The bilhop fuppofted Mr. King as much as he could, 
and the tranflation being finifhed, he would have printed it in his 
houfe, at his own expence, if the troubles of Ireland had not pre- 
vented it : it happened luckily however that the tranflation efcaped 
the hands of the rebels, and was afterwards printed at the expence of 
Mr. Robert Boyle. The biihop was very moderate in his fenti- 
nients ; he was indeed a fincere friend to the church of England, 
but he loved to make profelytes by perfuafion, and not cohl-piiuioh ; 
and it was his opinion, that Proteltants would agree well enough, 
if they could be brought to understand each other. There were fome 
Lutherans at Dublin, who, for not coming to church and taking 
the facrament, were cited into the archbilhop's confiiiory, up;n 
which they delired time to write to their divines in Germany> which 
was granted ; and when their aniwers came, they contained feme 
exceptions to the doctrines of the church, as not explaining the 
prefence of Chnlt in the Eucharilt, fuitable to their fentiments: to 
which Bifhop Bedell gave fuch a (olid anfwer, that the German 
divines, who faw it, advifed their countrymen to join in comnlunion 
with the church, which they accordingly did. 

When the rebellion broke out in Ireland, in October, 164.1, ths 
bilhop at firft did not feel the violence of it's efFels ; for the very 
rebels had conceived a great veneration for him, and declared he 
fliould be the laft Englilhman they wou'd drive out of Ireland. His 
was the only houfe in the county of Cavan that was unviolated, and 
it was filled with the people who fled to him for Ihelter. About the 
middle of December, however, the rebels,, purfuant to orders re- 
ceived from their council of ftate at Kilkenny, required him to dif- 
mifs the people that were with him, which -he refuted to do, declar- 

F 2 ing 


ing he fhould mare the fame fate with the reft. Upon .this they 
lei zed him, his two Tons, anil Mr. Clogy, who had married his 
daughter-in-law, and carried them prifimcrs to the cauMe of Clough- 
boughter, furrounded by a deep water, where they put them all, ex- 
cept the bilhop, in ir.n?. After being confined for about three 
weeks, the bifhop and his two fons, and Mr. Ciogy, were exchang- 
ed for two of the O'Rorrkes ; but though it was agreed that they 
fhould he fafely conducted to Dublin, yet the rebels would never 
fufrer them to be carried out of the country, but Tent them to the 
houfe of Denis Sheridan, an Irifh minilter, and convert to the Pro- 
teftant religion. The bifnop died Iboa after he came here, on the 
jth of February, 1641, his death being chiefly occalioned by his 
late imprifonment, and the weight of furrows which lay upon his 

BEDERICK (HENRY), a celebrated preacher in the fourteenth 
century, was a monk ot the order ot St. Auguftin at Ciare ; and 
furnamecl de Bury, becaufe he was born at St. Edmund's -bury in. 
Suffolk. Having from his youth fhewn a quick wit, and a great in- 
clination to learning, hi? fuperiors took care to improve thefe ex- 
cellent faculties, by fending him not only to our Englifli, but alfo 
to foreign universities : where clofely appl)ing himfelf to his (Indies, 
and being a conftant difputant, he arrived to fuch fame, that at 
Paris he became a dodtor of the Sorbonne. Not long after he re- 
turned to England, where he was much followed, and extremely 
admired for his eloquent way of preaching. This eminent qualifi- 
cation, joined to his remarkable integrity, uprightnefs, decent beha- 
viour, prudence, and dexterity in the management of affairs, fo re- 
commended him to theefteem of the world, that he was chofen pro- 
vincial of his order throughout England ; in which Ration he be- 
haved in a very commendable manner. He flourifhed about the 
year 1380, in the reign of King Richard II. fie wrote fcveral 
things, namely, I. Leclures upon the Mafter of the Sentences, /. e. 
Peter Lombard, in tour hooks. 2. Theological Qudtions, in on 
book. 3, Sermons upon the BlefTed Virgin. 4. A Courfe of Ser- 
mons for the whole year. 

BEDFORD (HiLKiAH), of Sibfey, in Lincolnihire, a quakcr, 
same to London, and fettled there as a ftationer, between the years 
1600 and 1625. Ke married a daughter ol Mr. NVilliam Piat of 
Highgate, by whom he had a fon Hilkbh, a matfiematiwal ini'bu- 
nicnt-maker in Hofier-lane, near \Veft Smilhfield. In this houfe 
(which was afterwards burnt in the great fire of London 1666) was 
born the famous Hilkiah, July 23, 1663 ; who in 1679 was admit- 
ted of St. John's college, Cambridge, the firft fcholar on the founda- 
tion of his maternal grandfather William Plat. Hilkiah was after- 
wards elected fellow of his college, and patronized by Heneags 


Finch earl ot Winchelfeai but deprived of his preferment ('which 
was in Lincoln (hi re) for refilling to take the oaths at the Revolu- 
tion, and afterwards kept a boarding-honfe for the Weftmn.fler 
f-holar^. In 1714, being tried in the court ot King's Bench, he 
was fined 1000 marks, and imprifoned three years for writing, print- 
i''g, and publifhing ' The Hereditary Right of the Crown of Eng- 
-Mui aliened, 1713," folio; the real author of which was G age 
Harbin, a nonjining clergyman, whom his friendship thus fcreeneo. 
snd cm account of his fufrerings he received lool. from the late Lord 
VVeymouth, who knew not the real author. His other publications 
were, a translation of " An Anfwer to Fontenelle's Hiitory of 
Grades," and a Latin " L'feof Dr. Barwick," which he afterward 
traniiated into Engliih. He died Nov. 26, 1724. 

BEDFORD (THOMAS), lecond Ion of Hilkiah, was educatdf 
at Weihrunfter fchooj ; and was afterwards admitted of St. Joiurs 
-college, Cambridge ; became matter's fizar to Dr. Robert Jenkin, the 
mailer; and was matriculated December 9, 1730. Being a JNoa- 
juror, he never took a degree ; but going into orders in that p^rty, 
officiated amongit the p.'opie of that mode of -thinking i:j Derby- 
Ihire, fixing his refid ;;ce at Compton near Afhbourr.e, where he 
became much acquainted with Ei!i5 Farneworth, and was indeed a 
good fcholar. Having fome fortune, and withal being a 
very frugal man, and making alfo the moil of his money for a length 
of years, Mr. Bedford died rLh at Cornptoa, in February, 17731, 
where he was well refpecled. As loon as he took orders, he v.rat 
chaplain into the family of S ; r John Cotton, bart. then at / \ - 
in France. From thence, having a fift-jr married to George Smith, 
efq. near Durham 'who publifhed his father Dr. John Smith's fins 
edition of Bcde), Mr. Bedford went into the North, an i ':'ure pre- 
pared his edition of " Symeonis monachi Dnnhelmcniis Jibtlius de 
exordio atque procurfn Diinhelmenlis ecclefis ;" with a continua- 
tion to I 154, and an account of the hard ufage Bifhop William re- 
ceived from Rutus ; which was printed by fublcription in 17 j2, Svo. 
from a very valuable and beautiful MS. in the C2ti;tdr?.i libirai 
which he Aippoles to be either the original, or copied in the 

life-time. He was living at Afhbourne, 174^, and about that iunt 
publiihed an " Hiftorical Catechifm," containing, in brief, the fa: i 
hiltory and doctrines of chriitianity, and an explanation of die b 
.and fails of the church, the fecond edition corrected and tnlarg< 1 

BEHN (APHARA;, a celebrated Englifh poetefs, defer n '..-.' fj-o:T> 
Si good family in the city of Canterbury. She was born in the r-.^gn 
of Charles I. but in what year is not cer'ain : her lather's narne 

Tohnfon : who beine related to the Lord Willduehby, n]!i iv 
v . , ... , ,- c 

v . , ... , ,- c 

intereir having oc-en appointed lieutenapt-generai t ^ : T>, ; 

fix and thirtv uiands, embarked with his i-uniiiy al-^arJ a ihip, t-r 


the Weft In. lies; at which time Aj>hara was very young. Mr. 
Johnfon died in his paffage, but his family arrived at Surinam, 
where our poetefs became acquainted with the American Prince 
Oroonoko, whofe ftory (he has given us in her celebrated novel of 
that name. 

The difappointments (he met with at Surinam, by lofingher pa- 
Tents and relations, obliged her to return to England: where, foon 
after her arrival, (he was married to Mr. Bchn, an eminent mer- 
chant of London, and of Dutch extraction. King Charles II. 
whom flic highly pleafed by the entertaining and accurate account 
fhe gave him of the colony of Surinam, thought her a proper perfon 
to be intruded with the management of fome affairs during the 
Dutch war, which was the occafion of her going over fo Antwerp. 
Here (he difcovered the defign formed by the Dutch, of failing up 
the river Thames, in order to burn the Englifh fhips ; fhe made this 
difcovery by means of one Vander Albert, a Dutchman. This man, 
who, before the war, had been in love with her in England, no 
fooner heard of her arrival at Antwerp, than he paid her a vifit; 
and, after a repetition of all his former profefllons of love, prelfed 
her extremely to allow him by fome fignal means to give undeniable 
proofs of his paflion. This propofal was fo fuitable to her prefect 
aim in the fervice of her country, that fhe accepted of it, and em- 
ployed her lover in fuch a manner as made her very ferviceable to 
the king. The latter end of the year 1666, Albert fent her word 
by a fpecial meffenger, that he would be with her at the day ap- 
pointed, at which time he revealed to her, that Cornelius de Witt, 
and de Ruyter, had propofed the above-mentioned expedition to the 
States. Albert having mentioned this affair with all the marks of 
iincerity, Mrs. Behn could not doubt the credibility thereof; 2nd 
when the interview was ended, fhe fent an exprefs to the court of 
England ; but her intelligence (though well grounded, as appeared 
by the event) being difregarded and ridiculed, fhe renounced all 
ftate affairs, and amufed herfelf during her flay at Antwerp, with the 
gallantries of the city. After fome time fhe embarked at Dunkirk 
for England, and in her pafTnge was near being loft ; for the (hip was 
driven on the coafl for four days within fight of land, but, by the af- 
fiftance of boats from that (bore, the crew were all faved ; and Mrs. 
Behn arrived fafely in London, where fhe dedicated the reft of her 
life to pleafure and poetry. She publifhed three volumes of mif- 
cellany poems ; the firft in 1684, and the fecond in 1685, and the 
third in 1688. They confift of fongs and other little pieces, by the 
earl of Rochefter, Sir George Etherege, Mr. Henry Crifp, and 
others, with fome pieces of her own. To the fecond mifcellany, 
is annexed a tranflation of the duke de Rochefoucault's Moral Re- 
flections, under the title of " Seneca unmafked." She wrote alfo 
Seventeen plays, fome hiftories and .novels. She tranflated Fon- 
teneile's " Hiitory of Oracles," and " Plurality of Worlds," to 

I which 


which lafl llie annexed an effay on tranflation and tranflated profe. 
The " Paraphrafe oi CEnone's Epiftk to Paris," in the Englifh tran- 
flation of " Ovid's Epiftles," is Mrs. Behu's. She was allb the au- 
thorefs of the celebrated " Letters between a Nobleman and his 
Sifter," printed in 1684; and we have extant of hei's eight love let- 
ters, to a gentleman wnom (he paflionately loved, and with whom 
(lie correlponded under the name of Lycidas. She died after a long 
indifpofition, April 16, 1689. 

BEK (DAVID), a famous painter, born at Delft in the Nether- 
lands, was Trained under Vandyke, and other celebrated martens. 
Ski!' iii his profeflion, joined to p jiitenefs of manners, acquired him 
efteem in aloioft all the courts of Europe. He was in great favour 
with Charles I. k ; ng of England, and taught the principles of draw- 
ing to his Ions, Charles and James. He was afterwards in the fer 
vice of the kings of France and Denmark; he went next into 
the fervice of Chriftina qireen of 'Sweden, who efteerned him at a 
high rate, gave him many rich prefents, and made him firft gentle- 
man of her bedchamber. She fent him alfo to Italy, Spain, France, 
England, Denmark, and to all the courts of Germany, to take the 
portraits of the different kings and princes, and then prefented each 
of them with their pictures, which rendered the painter very famous, 
who, we are told, received nine golden chains with medals from fo 
many princes. His manner of painting was extremely free and 
quick, fo that King Charles I. told him one day, " he believed he 
rode on horfeback when he painted." The painters of Rome gave 
him the title of" The Golden Sceptre." He died at the Hague, in 

BEKINSAU (JOHN), author of a book entitled " De Supremo et 
Abfoluto Regis Imperio," was born at Broadchalke, in Wiltihire. 
He had his education in grammar learning at Wykeham's fchool, 
near Winchester, from whence he was fent very early to New Col- 
lege, in Oxford; where, having ferved two years of probation, he 
was admitted perpetual fellow in the year 1520. In 1526 he took 
the degree of mailer of arts. In his college lie diftinguiihed himfelf 
by his extraordisary fkill in the Greek language, in 1538 he re- 
figned his fellowlhip, and married. What preferment or employ- 
ment he had afterwards is uncertain. He was familiarly acquainted 
with, and highly efteemcd by, the moft learned men ot the nation, 
particularly the famous antiquarv and hiftr>rian John Leland. He 
was in good efteem with King Henry VIII. and King Edward VI. 
When Queen Mary came to the crown, and endeavoured to deftroy 
all that her father and brother had done towards the reformation of 
the church, Bekinfau wheeled about with the times, and became a 
zealous Roman Catholic. After Queen Elizabeth's acceffion, 
when Protelhntifm again took place, he retired to an obfcure village 



til: '- ^A - ^n-*~nh A -i ujf-.^'-.-.jriiirt- "i -3i.^Jna.Ta*i*: ivum ' > ' \\timn IITTI iiitn MI !.! 

in Harnpfhiie, called Sherbourne, where he fpent the remainder of 
bis life in great difcnntent, and was buried in the church of that 
pface, the 2oth of DeeernLer, 1559, aged about fixty-three years. 

BF.KKER fBALTHASAP;, a Dutch divine, was born in 
at Warthuifen, a v'nhge in the province ofGroningcn. Pie 
fcarned the Latin tongue at Frome, under his {at!,er, and at fixteen 
years of age was entered at the univerlity of Groningen, where he 
applied hirofeJf to the ftudy of the Greek and Hebrew language?, 
and made alfo a conlider.ihle proficiency in hiftory and philoiophy. 
He went afterwards to Franeker, where he (tudied divinity. He 
continued here four years and a half, when he was chofen'minifterat 
Oolierlingen, a village about iix miles from Franeker. He difcharged 
liis duty with great diligence, and found time to read and examine 
%r?e writings ol the moft eminent philoiophers and divines. He 
kept a conltant correfpondence with James Alting, under whom he 
Ir.skf fludied the Hebrew tongue, and with the famous Cocceius^ 
Yet he was not blindly attached to their opinions, but, when he 
thotrght they were miitaken, freely propdfed his difficulties and 
objettions. In 1665 he tock his degree of doctor of divinity at 
Franeker, and the next year was rhofen one of the miniiiers of that 
city. When he was mimfter at CX'fterlingen, he compoled a fhort 
caJechifm for children, and in 1670 ne publilhed another, for per- 
ftns ci a more advanced age. This lift being loudly exclaimed 
againft by feveraF divine?, the author was profecuted before the 
eccfefiafjical atlcmblie?. Bekker appealed to the next fynod, which 
met at Franeker, in July, 1^72, who chofe a cf)mmittee of twelve 
depsities, to inquire into this ?-ffair, and to finilh it in fix weeks. 
They examined Bekker's catechifm very carefully, and at laft fub- 
icj-ir>ed an a6l, in which they faid it might be printed and publifhed, 
as it contained feveral wholefome and ufeful inftrulions. 

In 1674. he was chofen minifter at Loenen, a village near 
Utrecht ; but he did not continue here long, being about two years 
sftrr called to \Vefop, and in 1679 chofen minifler at Amfterdam. 
The comet which appeared in 1680 and 1681, gave him an oppor- 
tunity of publishing a fmall book in low Dutch, entitled, " Onder- 
' ;; over de Korrietei," i. e. " An Enquiry concerning Comets,'* 
ivl'c-rtin he endeavoured to iFew, that comets are not the prefages or 
forep?riners of any evil. This piece gained him great reputation, as 
<>:d !ike\vife his " ExpoHtion on the Prophet Daniel," wherein he 
gave many proofs oi his learning and found judgment, but the 
work which rendered him molt famous is his " De betoverWereld, 
cr -he World bc-witchc.i." He enter? into an inquiry of the com- 
T;-r-:i opinion ccince;ni:ii; faints, their nature and power, authority 
j:ui uctio.'is; .-.S':)lfo v. men can ;!:> hv their ;-o-.ver and afiulance 
Jells us. in i.i> urci^ce, that it grieved him to fee the great ho- 
, a.,d iriiracivs, vvhich r.reafcjibej to the devil. This 


BELCHIER (Join). 49 

work raifed a great clamour againft Bekker: the confiftory at Am- 
fterdam, the clafles and fynod*, proceeded againft him ; and, after 
having fufpended him from the holy communion, depofed him at 
laft from the office of a minifter. The magiftrates of Amflerdam 
were fo generous, however, as to pay him his falary as long as he 
lived. A very odd medal was (truck in Holland on his deposition; 
it reprefented a devil cloathed like a miniller, riding upon an afs, 
rind holding a banner in his hand, as a proof of the vidlory which 
he gained in the fynods. With the medal was publiihed a fmali 
piece in Dutch, to explain it, in which was an account of what had 
been done in the confiftory, clafFes, and fynods. Bekker died of a 
pleurify, June n, 1698. 

BELCHIER (JOHN), was born in the year 1706, at Kingfton, 
in Surry. He received his education at Eaton; and, difcovering an 
inclination for furgery, was bound apprentice to Mr. Chefelden, by 
far the moft eminent man of his profeffion. Under this great 
mafter he foon became an accurate anatomift. His preparations 
were next efteemed to Dr. Nicholls's, and allowed to exceed all 
others of that time. 

Thus qualified, his practice foon became extenfive ; and in the 
year 1736 he fucceeded his fellow- apprentice, Mr. Craddock, as 
furgeon to Guy's hofpital. In this fituation, which afforded fuch 
ample opportunity of difplaying his abilities, he, by his remarkably 
tender and kind attention to his pauper patients, became as eminent 
for his humanity as his fuperior flcill in his profeflion. Like his 
mafter Chefelden, he was very reluclant before an operation, yet 
quite as fuccefsful as that great operator. He was particularly ex- 
pert in the redudion of the humerus, which, though a very fimple 
operation, is frequently productive of great trouble to the furgeon, 
as well as excruciating pain to the patient. 

He was elected fellow of the Royal Society, to which learned 
body he communicated feveral curious cafes that fell within his 
cognizance; particularly a remarkable cafe of an hydrops ovarii, 
publifhed in the Philofophical Tranfadlions, No. 423 ; an account 
of a miller whofe arm was torn off by a mill, Auguft 15, 1737* No. 
449; and a remarkable inftance of the bones of animals being 
turned red by aliment only, No. 442. The greateft difcoveries fre- 
quently are owing to trifling and accidental caufes. Such was the 
cafe in the laft-mentioned circumfrance, Mr. Lielchier being led to 
make his inquiries on that fubje& by the bone of a boiled leg of 
pork being dilcovered to be perfectly red, though the meat was well- 
flavoured, and of the ufual colour. 

On his refignation as furgeon of Guy's, he was made governor 
both of that and St. Thomas's hofpital, to which he was parti- 
cularly ferviceable, having recommended not lefs than 140 go- 

VOL. II. G Mr. 


Mr. Bi-lchier in private life was a man of drift integrity, \varrr1 
and zealous in his attachments, fparing neither labour or time to 
ferve thofe for whom he profeifed a friendship. He was a great 
admirer of the fine art?j andjived in habits of intimacy with the' 
principal arlifts of his time. He enjoyed a great (hare of healthy 
though far advanced in years, when he died. His body was interred 
in the chapel at Guy's h'ofpital. 

BELGRAVE (RICHARD), a writer of the i-j-th century, of the 
ancient family of the Eeigra'ver- in Leiceftermire, was born at the 
jtown of BeTgrave", about a mile from Leicefler, and educated in the 
univerliiy of Cambridge, where he applied himftlf with, great 
diligence, and the like fuccefs, to his (Indies, and afterwards took 
the degree of doctor of divinity. He entered himfelf into the order 
of Carmelite friars, and diftingmihed himfelf by his great fkill in 
the Ariftotelian philofophy, and fchool divinity. However, he was 
more remarkable for the itrength and (ubtilty of his leclures, than 
the elegance of his ftyle, the ihidy of polite literature being gene- 
rally neglected in that age. Pits gives him the character of a man 
of eminent integrity and piety. He flouifhed in the year 1320,- 
tinder the reign of King Edward II. and wrote, among other works, 
" Theological Determinations, ' moneBojk; the fubjeft of which 
was, Whether the Divine Eilencc could be (sen ? and, " Ordinary 1 
Qneit.ions/' in one Book. 

? -- a^nA ' ' ' . 

BELING (RICHARD), was born in the year 16:3, at Beling. 
flown, in the barony of Balrothery, and county of Dublin, the an- 
cient feat of his family, which was of conOderable rank in the 
Englifh pale. He was the (on of Sir Henry Beling, knight, and was 
educated in his younger years at a grammar fchool in the city of 
Dublin, but afterwards put under the tuition of forr.e priefts of his 
own religion, which was Popim ; who fo well cultivated his good 
genius, that they taught him to write in a fluent and elegant Latin 
ffyle, as appears by feveral of his pieces hereafter mentioned. Thus 
grounded in the polite parts of literature, his father removed him to 
Lincoln's Inn, to ftudy the municipal laws of his country, where 1 
he abode fome years, and relumed home a very accomplilhed gen- 
tleman; but it does hot appear that he ever rnade the law a profef- 
fion. His riatural inclination turning to arms, he early engaged in 
the rebellion of 1641, and though but about twenty-eight years of 
age, was then an officer of confiderable rank: for in February that 
Vear, he appeared at the head of a (bong body of the Irifh before 
Lifmore, and fummoned the caftle to furrender ; but the lord Brog-*. 
hill, who commanded in it a (mall body of one hundred new-raifcd 
forces, flighted the fufnmcns, and another party corning to his aid 
Mr. Beling thought fit to draw off, and quitted the fiege. He after* 
\vurds became a leading member in the fupreme council of the confer 


BELL (Beaupre). 

Derate Roman Catholics at Kilkenny, to which he was principal 
fecretary; by whom he was fent amhaifador to the pope, and other 
Italian princes, in 1645, to crave aid for the fupport of their caufe, 
He brought back with him a fatal prefent, in the perfon of the 
jiuncio, John Baptift Rinuccini, archbifhop and prince of Fermo, 
who was the occafion of reviving the diftinclions between the old 
Jrifh of blood, a.nd the old Englifh of Irifh birth, which fplit that 
party into factions, prevented all peace with the marquis of Or- 
mond, and ruined the country which he was fent to fave. When 
Mr. Beling had fathomed the niifchievotis fchemes of the nuncio an4 
his faction, and perceived that they had other views jthan merely to- 
obtain a toleration for the free exercife of their religion, as in the 
beginning they pretended, nobody was more zealous than he in op- 
pofing and clogging their meafures, or in promoting the peace then 
in agitation, and fubmitting to the king's authority, which he did 
'with fuch heartinefsand fincerity, that he became very acceptable to 
the marquis of Ormond, who entrufted him with many nego- 
tiations, both before and after the Restoration, which he ^executed 
with great fidelity and fufficiency.. When the parliament army 
had fubducd the Irifh, Mr. retired to France, where he con- 
tinued feveral years, and in that time employed himfelf in writing fe- 
veral books in Latin, in oppofition to fuch writers of the Romifh 
party as had endeavoured to clear themfelves from being the inftru- 
knents of the rebellion, and to lay the blame thereof on the feyerity 
oi the Englifh government. His account of the tranfadions of 
Ireland, during the period f the rebellion, is efteerned by judicjous 
men as being more worthy of credit than any written by the Ro- 
milh party; and yet he is 'not free from a partiality to the caufe he 
>vas at fir It embarked in, and his credulity has been taxed in the cafe 
.of Father Finachty. He returned home upon the Refloration, and 
>vas repoUeiTed of his eftate, by the favour and interest of the duke of 
Qrmond. He dted jn Dublin, in September 1675, and was buried 
jn the church-yard of JyTalahidert, about five miles from that city. 

BELL(BEAjj;pRE), fon of Beaupre Bell, Jfq. of Beaupre hall in 
Upwell and Outwejl., in Clackclofe hundred, Norfolk, where the 
Beaupre family had fettled early in the fourteenth century, and en- 
joyed the eilate by the name of Beaupre (or de Belio pra'to) till Sir 
Robert Bell intermarried with them about the middle of the fix- 
teenth. Sir Robert was fpeaker of the Houfe of Commons .14 
Eliz. and chief baron of the Exchequer, and caught his death at the 
black affize at Oxford, 1577,. Beaupre Bell, his fourth lineal 
.clefcendant, married Margaret, daughter of Sir Anthony Oldfield, of 
Spalding, bart. who died I72o,.a^nd by whom he had ififue his name- 
^ake, the fubjel of this article, and two daughters, of whom the 
youngeft married William Graves, Efq. of Fulborn, in Cambridge- 
jikire, who thereby inherited the family eftate near Spalding, with. 


l he fite of the abbey, and has a (Inking likenefs of his brother-in- 
'aw. Mr. Bell, junior, was educated at Weftminfter fchool, ad- 
mitted of Trinity college, Cambridge, 1723, and foon commenced 
a genuine and able antiquary. He made confiderable collections of 
church notes in his own and the neighbouring counties, all which he 
bequeathed to the college where he received his education. Mr. 
Blomrield acknowledges his obligations to him for collecting many 
evidences, feals, and drawings, of great ufeto him in his " Hiftory 
of Norfolk." The old gentleman led a miferable life, hardly al- 
lowed his fon necefiaries, and dilapidated his houfe. He had five 
hundred horfes of his own breeding, many above thirty years old 
unbroke. He took his fon home from college, where his library 
was left to mould. On his death, his fon fucceeded to his eflate, 
of about 1500!. a year, which he enjoyed not long, and dying of a 
confumption unmarried, on the road to Bath, left the reverfion, 
after the death of his fifter (who was then unmarried, and not likely 
to have iflue), with his books and medals, to Trinity college, under 
the direction of the late vice-mafter, Dr. Walker. But his fifter 
marrying (as above) it is faid the entail was cut off. He was buried 
in the family burying-place, in St. Mary's chapel, in Outwell 
church, for the paving of which, and for a monument, he left 150!. 
The regifters of the fociety abound with proofs of Mr. Bell's tafte 
and knowledge in ancient coins, both Greek and Roman, befides 
many other interefting difcoveries. 

BELLAI (WILLIAM DU), lord of Langei, a French general, 
who fignalized himfelf in the fervice of Francis I. He was alfo an 
able negociator, fo that the Emperor Charles V. ufed to fay, " that 
Langei's pen had fought more againft him than all the lances of 
France." He was fent to Piedmont, in quality of Viceroy,, where 
he took feveral towns from the Imperialifts. His addrefs in pene- 
trating into the enemy's defigns was furprizing. In this he fpared 
no expence, and thereby had intelligence of the moft fecret councils 
of the emperor and his generals. He was extremely ative ia 
influencing fome of the univerfities of France, to give their judg- 
ment agreeably to the defires of Henry VIII. king of England, 
when this prince wanted to divorce his queen, in order to many 
Anne Boleyn. He was fent feveral times into Germany to the 
princes of the Proteftant league, and was made a knight of the or- 
der of St. Michael. He was alfo a man of learning, having given 
proois of his abilities and genius as a writer. He compofed feveral 
works, the moft remarkable of which was " The Hiftory of his 
Own Times," in Latin. 

When Langei was in Piedmont, in 1542, he had fome remark- 
able intelligence, which he was defirous himfelf to communicate to 
the king; and being extremely infirm, he ordered a litter for his 
conveyance ; but after having palled the mountain of Tarara, be- 

BELLARMIN (Robert}. 53 

twixt Lyons and Roan, he found himfclf fo extremely bad at St. 
Saphorin, that he was obliged to flop ; and there he died the 9th of 
January, 1543. 

BELLARMIN (ROBERT), an Italian Jefnit, and one of the 
moft celebrated controverfial writers of his time, was born in 
Tufcany, 1542, and admitted amongft the Jefuits 1560. In 1569 
he was ordained priefl, at Ghent, by Cornelius Janfenius; and in 
the year following, taught divinity at Louvain. After having lived 
feven years in the Low Countries, he returned to Italy, and in 1576 
began to read lectures at Rome on points of controverfy. This he 
did with fo much applaufe, that Sixtus V. appointed him to ac- 
company his legate into France, in 1590, as a perfon who might be 
of great fervice, irr cafe any difpute in religion fliould arife. He 
returned to Rome about ten months after, where he had feveral of- 
fices conferred on him by his own fociety as well as the pope, and 
in 1599 was created a cardinal. Three years after he had the arch- 
bifhopric of Capua given him, which he refigr.ed in 1605, when 
the Pope Paul V. defined to have him near himfelf. He was em- 
ployed in the affairs of the court of Rome, till 1621 ; when, finding 
hirrjfelf declining in health, he left, the Vatican, and retired to the 
houfe belonging to the Jefuits, where he died the lyth of Septem- 
ber, 1621. 

Bellarmin, though a ftrenuons advocate for the Romifh religion, 
yet did not agree with the doctrine of the Jefuits in feme points, par- 
ticularly that of predeftination, nor did he approve of many expref- 
(ions in theRomifh litanies ; and notwithftanding he allowed manv 
paffages in his writings to be altered by his fuperiors, yet in feveral 
particulars he followed the opinions of St. Auguftin. He wrote 
rnoft of his works in Latin, the principal of which is his body of 
controverfy, confining of four volumes in folio. Befides his body 
of controverfy, he wrote alfo feveral other books. He has left us 
" A Commentary on the Pfalms ;" A Treatife on Ecclefiaftical 
Writers;" "A Difcourfe on Indulgences, and the Worfhip of 
Images;" " Two Treatifes in Anfwer to a Work of James I. of 
England ;" " A Diflertation on the Power of the Pope, in Tem- 
poral Matters, againft William Barclay :" and feveral treatifes on 
devotion, the moft excellent of which is that on the " Duties or. 
Bifhops, ' addreded to the bilnops of France. 

Notwithftanding the zeal which Bellarmin had fhewed in main- 
taining the power of the pope over the temporalities oi kings' 
yet his book " De Romano Pontifice" was condemned by Sixrus V. 
who thought that he had done great prejudice to the dignity of the 
pope, by not infifting that the power, which Jefus Chrift gave tj 
bis vicegerent, was direct but only indirect. 

Bellarmin is faid to have been a man of great chaftity and tem- 
perance; snd remarkable for his patience. His ftaiure was low, 



and his mien very indifferent, but the excellence of his genius 
be difcovcrcd by the traces .of his countenance, 

BELLEAU (REMI), a French poet, was born at Nogent le 
Rotnni. fie lived in the family of Renatus of Lorraine, marquis of 
Elbenf, general of .the French gallies, and attended him in his ex.- 
pedition tv> Italy, in 1557. This prince highly elteemed Belleau 
for his courage, and, -having alfp a high opinion of his genius and 
abilities, entruiled him with the education of his fun Charles of 
Lorraine. BelleaM was one of the feven poets of his time, who were 
id.nommate,d the French Pleiades. He wrote feveral pieces, and 
tran llat,ed the " Giles of Anacreon" into the French language; but 
in this he is thought not to haye preferyed all the natural beauties of 
ihe original. His pa'toral pieces are in the greateft efieem. H.e 
fucceeded fo in this way of writing, that Ronfard (tyled him the 
painter of nature. He wrote alfo an excellent poem on the natura 
and difference of precious ftones, which by fome has been reputed 
liis beft performance ; and hence it has been faid of him, that he had 
creeled few himfelf a monument of the rn.ofl precious ftones, Belleau 
died at Paris in .the year 1577. 

BELLEFORET (FRANCIS DE), a French author, was born 
1530, near Samatan, a little village of Commingcs in Guienne. He 
Mas but feyen years of age when he loll his father; and his mother 
'Was left in poor circumftances, but flie contributed all in her power 
to his education. He was fupported fume years by the queen of 
Navarre, fifter to Francis I. Some time after he went to ftudy at 
Bourdeauxj thence he removed to Touloufe, where, inftead of ap- 
plying to the fhidy of the law as h,e intended, he amufed himfelf 
\vith poetry, He went next to Paris, -where he got Acquainted 
-with fcveral men of learning, and was honoured with the friendfhip 
jof many perfons of quality. He wrote a grea,t number of works in 
jhe French language, the mod con fulerable of which are, his " Hif- 
lory of the njne Charles's of France j" " Annotations on the Books 
jpf St. Auguftin;" his - Univerfal Hiftory of the World;" the 
f* Chronicles of Nicholas Gillet, augmented ;" -" An Univerfal 
Cofmography ;" but the moft capital .of all is his " Annals, or 
Xjfi.neral Hiliory of France." He di.ed at Paris, in ? 

author, wa. c , in 1602, profeifor of humanity, or belles lettres, at 
dinburgb, ajjd mafier of the reqtiefls to James I. who had fo 
high an efteem for him, that he enabled him to livejn ,eafy cjrcum- 
Jtances at Paris, where fie wrote thefe tlu v ee books; jh,e firft entitled, 
- De Statu prifci Orbis in Religioae, Re politica, et Literis;" or, 
4he *' State of Religion, Politics, and Literature ip the old World, 
fcoth before and after ihe Flood." Th v e fecond and thir4 contain the 
of Cic.-ro on matters of the higheft importance, dcliverc4 


in his own words; They were dedicated to Charles, prince of Scot-* 
land and Wales, afterwards King Charles I . and to his brother Henry.. 
In a late edition, the editor has thought proper to infcribe them to 
Mr. Burke, Lord North, and Mr* Fox^ whoTe refpe&ive portraits 
are prefixed to each dedication, 2nd whofe talents and virtues he ce- 
lebrates and defends irt a pr.-face of feventy-fix pages, containing a 
very free and bold difcufiion of our public men and meafures in very 
clailical language, and a ftrong and fatirical reprefentat'on, under 
borrowed names of antiquity, ot the chiefs of the other party, or the 
prefent miniftry. 

Bellenden wrote another work, publifhed after his death, " De 
tribus Luminibus Romanorum,". whom he conceives to be Cicero, 
Senecaj and the elder P!iny< The editor gives an account of 
this work, from whence he took the idea of drawing his charac- 
ters of the three luminaries of Great Britain* He marks the profi- 
ciency in Greek and Roman literature which once dUtingtiifhed the 
Scotch, before the civil diflenftons drove their brightell geniufes 
abroad, and celebrates the ardour for philofophy and literature fo 
prevalent in North Britain at prefent. Dr. Middlcton has been 
charged with borrowing not only the matter, but the arrangement, 
of his " Life of Cicero," from Bellenden* without the lead acknow- 
ledgmer.t> and the editor confeifes himfelf of this opinion* 

EELLIN (GENTIL), a Venetian painter, was bortt 14.21. He 
was employed by the republic of Venice, and to him and his brother 
the Venetians are indebted for the noble works which are to be feen 
in the council-hall; we are told that Mahomet II. emperor of the 
Turks, having feen fome of his performance?, was fo Itruck with 
them, that he wrote to the republic, intreating them to fend 
him. The painter accordingly went to Conftantinople, where he 
did many excellent pieces. Amongft the red he painted the decok. 
Jation of St. John the Baptiil:, whom the Turks revere as a great 
prophet. Mahomet admired the propoition and fhadowing ot the 
work, but he remarked one defcdl in regard to the (kin of the neck, 
from which the head was feparated \ and in order to prove the truth 
of this obfervation, he fent tor a flave, and ordered his head to bo 
ftruck offt This fight fo fhocked the painter, that he could not be 
eafy till he had obtained his ciifmifllon, which the Grand Signior 
granted, and made him a prefent of a gold chain. The Republic 
fettled a penfion upon him at his return, and made him a knight of 
St. Mark. He died, 1501, in the Both year of his age. 

BELLINI (LAURENCE,', an eminent phyficiao, was born, at 
Florence, 1643. After having finifhed his Itudies in polite litera- 
ture, he went to Pifa, where he was afiifted by the generofity of the 
grand duke Ferdinand II. and iludied under two of the mod learn- 
ed men of that age, Oliva and Borelli. Oliva inftrudled him irt 
tiatural philoibphv, and Borelli taught him mathematics. At 



twenty years of age, he was chofcn profeffor of philofophy at 
Pifa, but did not continue long in this office ; for he had acquired 
fuch a reputation for his (kill in anatomy, that the grand duke pro- 
cured him a profeilbrfhip in that fcience. This prince was often 
prefent at his leclures, and was highly fatisfied with his abilities 
and performances. Bellini, after having held his prQJeflbdhip 
almoit thirty years, accepted of an invitation to Florence, when he 
was about fifty years of ae. Here he praclifed phyfic with great 
fuccefs, and was advanced to be firft phyfician to the grand duke 
Cofmo III. 

He died January 8, 1703, being fixty years of age. His works 
were read and explained publicly during his lite, by the famous 
Scottifh phyiician, Dr. Pitcairn, profeffor of phyfic in Leyden. 

BELMEIS or BEAUMES (RICHARD DE), I. bifhop of Lon- 
don in the reign of Henry I. v/as advanced to that lee through the 
irttereft of Roger Montgomery, earl of Shropfhire, and confecrated 
26th July, 1108. Immediately after his confecration, he was ap- 
pointed by the king warden of the marches between England and 
Wales, and lieutenant of the county of Salop; which offices he 
held about three years, refiding for the moft part of the time at 
Shrewfbury. This prelate expended the whole revenues of his 
bithopric on the ttrudure of Sc. Paul's cathedral in London; but 
defpairing ever to fim'fh it, and growing tired of fo much labour 
and expence, he turned the dream of his liberality another way ; and, 
exchanging the manor of Landfvvorth for a place in the diocefe of 
London called St. Ofith de Chich, he built there a convent of re- 
gular canons. Being feized with a dead palfy, and thereby difqua- 
lified for the exercife of his epifcopal functions, 1-e intended to have 
refigned his bifhopric, and to have fpent the remainder of his life in 
the monaltery of his own foundation: but whild he delayed his 
purpofe from day to day, he was prevented by death, which took 
him out of this life January 16, 1127. 

BELMEIS or BEAUMES (RICHARD DE), II. bifhop of Lon- 
don in the reign of King Stephen, was nephew of Richard de 
Belmeis, bifhop of London in the preceding reign, by that prelate's 
brother, Walter de Belmeis. Before he came of age, he was ap- 
pointed by his uncle archdeacon of Mickllefex: but the bifhop was 
prevailed upon by William, dean of London, his nephew by his fifter 
Adelina, and bj the prior of Chich, to commit the adminiftration 
of the archdeaconry, during Richard's minority, to Hugh, one of 
his chaplains. It was with no fmall difficulty that Richard after- 
wards recovered his archdeaconry out of the hands of this faithlefs 
guardian. In the beginning of October, 1151, he was advanced to 
the fee of London, in the room of Robert de Sigillo, and confe- 
craicd at Canterbury by Archbifhop TheobaU 1 , in the prefence of 

5 a & 


all the bifhops of England, excepting Henry of Winchefler, who 
excufed his abfence, and approved *he choice of Richard, in a letter 
to the archbilhop. This pr-Iar fled M*y 4, 1162. 

BEMBO (PETER), a Venetian of an anciem and noble family, 
born 14.70. His father, Bernard, was governor of Ravenna, and 
employed in many important negotiations. When he went am- 
bafiador to Florence, he took his fon with him, and here Peter ac- 
quire..! that delicacy and purity of flylc in the Tufcan ijnguage, for 
which he is fo much admired in his works. Hs applied hiinfeif 
likewife to the Grecian language, which he ihidied at Sicily under 
Cbnftahttn Lafcaris: and when his father when ro Ferrara, -he ac- 
companied him thither, where he went through a courfe of philo- 
fophy under Nicholas Leoniceno. His works were much admired 
in J,taly ; but, notwithftanding the elegance of his ilyle, he has been 
thought fometimes to run into affectation by an improper ufe of the 
Latin phrafes. He lived a retired life till 1513, when Pope Leo X* 
made choice of him for his fecretary ; but his great application to 
bufinefs and ftudy, brought upon him a bad ftate of health, which 
obliged him, for a change of air, to remove to Padua, where he re- 
fided in 1521, when he received the news of the pope's death. He! 
then retired to Venice, where he fpent his time very agreeably 
amongft books and men of letters, till 1538, when Pope Paul III. 
created him a cardinal, and foon after gave him the bifhopric of 
Bergamo. He difcharged the duties of his function with great 
fidelity, till 1547, when he died by a hurt which he received on his 
fide, by his horfe's running him again!! a wall. He was buried in 
the choir of the church of Minerva, where there is an epitaph to his 
memory, compofed by his fon Torquato Bembo ; and fome time 
after his death a very fine marble (tame was erected for him at 
Padua, in the famous church of St. Anthony, by his friend Jerome 
Quirini. John de la Cafa has written the life ot this cardinal, and 
has given us an exacl lift of his Italian and Latin works. Amongft. 
the latter, there are fixteen books of letters, which he wrote for 
Leo X. when h'^ was his fecretary; fix books of familiar epiftles; a 
dialogue containing the life of Gui Ubuldode Montefeltro, the duke 
of Urbino ; feveral fpeeches ; and the hiftory of Venice in -twelve 
books. He was named by the council of ten, to write this hiflory 
in 1530 ; he was defired to take it up where Sabellicus had left it 
off, and to continue it to his own tune ; which interval compre- 
hended forty-four years ; but he did not accomplilh it, concluding 
his work at the death of Julius II. Amongit hjs Italian pieces, 
the poem which he had made upon the death of hU brother Charier: 
is reckoned one of the beft. He was efteerned an elegant Latin as 
well as Italian poet. 



BENBOW (JoHN), vice-admiral of the blue fquadron,,and one of 
the mo(t eminent Englilh feamen mentioned in our hi (lories, was born 
about the year 1650, and was defcended of a very ancient, worthy, 
and honourable family in Shropfhire. His father dying when he 
was very young, left this fon John no other pruvifirm than that of 
the profeffion to which he was bred, viz. the fca, a profeffion to 
which he had naturally a great propenfity', and in which he fucceed- 
ed fo happily, that before he was thirty he became mailer, and in k 
good meafure owner, of a fhip called the Benbow frigate, employ- 
ed in the Mediterranean trade, in which he would have probably 
acquired a good eilate, if an accident that happened to him in the 
laft voyage he made had not given a new turn to his fortunes, and 
brought him to ferve in the Britifh navy, with equal reputation to 
himfelf, and good fortune to his country, to which he rendered 
many, and thofe very important, fervices. In the year 1686, Cap- 
tain Benbow, in his own veflel, was attacked in his pafTage to Cadiz, 
by a Sallee rover, againft whom he defended himfelf, though very 
unequal in the number of men, with theutmofl bravery, till at lalt 
the Moors boarded him, but were quickly beat out of the fhip again, 
with the lofs of thirteen men, whofe heads Captain Benbow ordered 
to be cut off, and thrown into a tub of pork pickle. When he ar- 
rived at Cadiz, he went afhore, and ordered a negro fcrvant to fol- 
low him, with the Moors heads in a fack. He had fcarcely landed 
before the officers of the revenue inquired of his fervant, what he 
had in his fack ? The captain anfwered, fait provifions for his own 
ufe. "That may be," anfwered the officers, "but we mult infill up- 
on feeing them." Captain Benbow alledged, that he was no (Iranger 
there, that he did not ufe to run goods, and pretended to take it ill that 
he was fufpe&ed. The officers told him, that the were 
fitting not far off, and that if they were fatisfied with iiis word, his 
fervant might carry the provisions where he plejfed, but that other- 
wife it was not in their power to grant any fuch clifpenfation. The 
captain confentcd to the proposal, and away they marched to 
the cuilom-houfe, Mr. Benbow in the front, his man in the center, 
and the officers in tlv; n.-:-.r. The magiftrates when he came before 
.them, treated Captain Benbow with great civility, told him they 
were forry to make a point of fuch a trifle, but that fince he had re^ 
fufed to (hew the contents of his fack to their officers, the nature of 
their employments obliged them to demand a light of them ; and 
that as they doubted not they were fait provifions, the {hewing them 
could be of no great confequence one way or the other. " I told 
J'ou," faid the captain, (leniiy, " they were fait provifions for my 
town ufe. Ciefa'r, throw them down upon- the table, and, gentle* 
men, if you like them, they are at your fervice." The Spaniards 
were exceedingly (truck at the fight of the Moors heads, and no lei? 
aftonifhed at the account of the captain's adventure, who, with fa 
final! a force had been able to defeat fuch a number of barbarians 

BENBOW f TQD*->. 59 

"I' hey fenr an account ot the whole matter to the court ot Madrid, and 
Charles II. then king of Spain was fo much pleafed with it, that he 
would needs fee the Englilh captain, who made a journey to court, 
where he was received with great testimonies of refpecl:, and not 
only difmitfed with a handfome prefent, but his Catholic majefty 
was alfo pleafed to write a letter in his behalf to King James, who, 
upon die captain's return, gave him a (hip, which was his introduc- 
tion to the royal navy. After the Revolution, he was conftantly 
employed, and frequently, at the requelt of the merchants, was ap- 
pointed to cruize in the channel, where he did very great fervice, as 
well in protecting our own trade, as in annoying and diftrefling 
that ot the enemy. He was likewife generally made choice of for 
bombarding the French ports, in whLh he (hewed the moft intrepid 
courage, by going in perfon in his boat to encourage and protect the 
engineers, who, for that reafon, were very folicitons that he mould 
command the efcorts whenever they went upon thofe hazardous en- 
terprizes, in which they knew he would not expofe them more than 
was absolutely neceflafy, and that he would put them upon running 
no fort of danger, in which he did not willingly take his (hare. 
The vigour and activity of Captain Benbow, in every fervice on 
which he was employed, recommended him fo effectually to his 
royal mailer King William, who was both a good judge of men, 
aivi always willing to reward merit, that he was very early pro- 
moted to a flag, and intruded with the care of blocking up Dun- 
kirk ; the privateers from thence proving extremely detrimental to 
our trade during all that war. In 1695, we find him thus em- 
ployed with a tew Englilh and Dutch (hips, when the famous Du 
Bart had the good luck to efcape him, with nine fail of clean (hips, 
with which he did a great deal of mifchief, both to our trade and to 
that of the Dtuch. In 1697, ^ e ^ a '^ e ^> tne Iot " f April, from 
Spithead, with feven third-rates and two fire-fhips, and after fome 
time returned to Portfmouth for provifions ; after which he had the 
good' fortune to join the Virginia and Weft India fleets, and faw 
them fate into port. 

After the concluding of the peace of Ryfwick, and even while the 
pnrtiiion treaties were negotiating, King William formed a defign 
of doing fomething very coniiderable in the Weft Indies, in cafe 
his pacific views ihould he difappointed, or Charles II. of Spain 
(hould die fuddenly, as was daily expe6l:ed. There were, indeed, 
many reafcns, which rendered the fending a fquadron at that time 
into thofe parts highly ufeful and requifite. Our colonies were in 
a very weak and detencelefs condition, the fcas fwarmed with 
pirates, the Scots had eftablifhed a colony at Darien, which, very 
unluckily for them, gave the Englilh little fatis 'ation, at the fame 
time that it provoked the Spaniard's very much. King William 
himfelf fixed upon Rear- Admiral Benbow to command this fqua- 
dron, which proved but a very fmall one, as coufifting only of three 

il 2 fourth- 


fourth-rates; and when he went to tdke upon him his command, he 
received private inllnictions from the king to make the belt obkr- 
vatioris he could rn the Spanifh ports and fettlements, but to keep 
as fair as pofTible with the governors, and" to afford them any affif- 
tance he could, if they defired it. He was likewife in-ftrudted to 
\vatch the galleons; for the king of Spain, Charles II. was then 
thought to be in a dying condition. Rear-Admiral Benbow failed 
in the month of November 1698, and did not arrive in the Weft 
Indies till the Ftb:uary following, where he found things in a very 
indifferent fituation. Moft of our colonies were in a bad condition, 
many of them engaged in warm difputes with their goyepnors, the 
forces that Ihould fuve been kept up hit! e.ii for their defence fo re- 
duced by ficknefs, defertion, and other accidents, that little or no- 
thing was to be expected from them: but the admiral carried with 
him Colonel Collingwood's regiment, which he difpofed oi to the 
beft advantage in the Leeward Iflands. This part of his charge 
being executed, he began to think of performing the other part of 
his commiflion, and of looking into the ftate of the Spanifh affairs, 
as it had been recommended to him by the king; and a proper De- 
ration of doing this very fpeedily offering, he effected it. On his re- 
turn to Jamaica, towards the latter end of the year, he received a 
fupply of provifions from "England, and, foon after, orders to return 
home, which he did with lix men of war, taking New England in 
his way, and arrived fafr, bringing with him from the plantations 
fufficient U-ilim nies . f h having discharged his duty, which fecured 
him from all danger of (en lure, though the Houfe of Commons 
expreffed very high refentment at fome circumftance c that attended 
the fending this fleet. But in regard to the admiral, the greateft 
compliments were paid to his courage, capacity, and integrity, by 
all parties ; and the king, as a fignal mark of his kind acceptance 
of all his fervices, granted him an augmentation of arms, which 
confided in adding to the three Bent Bows, he already bore, as many 
Arrows; which fingle act of royal favour ftifficiently deftroys the 
foolifh report of his being of mean extraction. His conduct in this 
expedition raifed him fo much in the king's efteem, that he con- 
fulted him as much or more than any man of his rank, and yet with- 
out making the admiral himfelf vain, or expofin., him in any de- 
gree to the diflike of the minifters. It mav be eafily imagined, 
that, in the time the rear-admiral fpent in the Weft Indies, the face 
of affairs was much changed: indeed fo much they were changed, 
that the king was forced to think of a new war, though he was 
fenfible the nation furflred feverely from the effects of the old one. 
His firft care therefore was, to put his fleet into the beft order pof- 
fible, and to di {tribute the commands therein to officers that he 
could depend upon ; and to this it was that Mr. Benbow owed his 
being promoted to the rank of \ice-admiral of the blue. After 
this, the command of a Weft India fquadron was conferred on him; 



and in an engagement \\ith rhs French, he had the misfortune to 
lofe hi? leg. During all the time of his illnefs he behaved with 
great calmnef-, -nul prcfejice ;>f mind, having never flattered himfelf, 
i'-<>m the time his leg was cut off, with any hopes of recovery, but 
Jhewed, an earneft be as ufeiul as he could while he was yet 
Jiving. He continued thus difcharging his duty till the laft mo- 
ment; tor dying of a fort of confumption, his fpirits did not fail 
him till very near his end, and his fenfes were very found to the 
day he expired, which was the 4th of November, 1702. 

BENBOW QOHN), fon to the vice-admiral before mentioned. 
He was intended by his father for a feaman, and educated accord- 
ingly. His misfortunes began very early, viz. in the fame year his 
father died in the Welt Indie?, by being ihipwrecked on the coaft of 
Madayalcar, where, after many difmal and dangerous adventures, 
he was induced to live ^irh, and in the manner of, the natives, for 
many years, and at lair, when he lead: expected it, he was taken on 
board by a Dutch captain, out of refpeft to the memory of his fa- 
ther, and brought fafe to England, when his relations thought him 
long fince dead. He was a young gentleman naturally of a very 
briik and lively temper: but by a iong fcries of untoward events, 
came to alter rnV difpofitiori entirely, fo as to appear, after his re- 
turn, very ferious, or rather melancholy, and did not much affect 
fpeaking, except among a few intimate friends. But the noife of 
his remaining fo long, and in fuc'n a condition, upon the iiland of 
Madagafcar, induced many to vi (it him, and to inquire into the cir- 
cumftances of the life ne led there, whom he civilly received, and 
readily fatisned their curiofity, though otherwife diftinguifhed, as has 
been faid, by his taciturnity ; but he always looked upon his pre- 
fervation there, ar,d his cfcace from thence, as fuch fignal inftances 
of the favour of Providence, that he did not judge himfelf at liberty 
to conceal them. But notwithftanding his freedom in communi- 
caring this part of his hiitory, very few particulars relating to it can 
now be recovered. He lived feveral years after his return to Eng- 
land, but in a very private manner. 

NDLOWES (EDWARD), author of fome poetical pieces, 
\vas (;.n !<;J heir of Andrew Bend'owes, Efq. and born in the year 
1613. This gentleman was carefully educated in g:ammar learn- 
ing, and at ilxteen rears of age admitted a fellow-commoner of St. 
John's college, in Cambridge, to which he was afterwards a bene- 
.fadtor. From thence he went \\i'h a tutor to travel, and having 
gone through feveral countries, and vifited fcvtn courts of princes, 
he returned home a m-'ft accomniimcd gentleman both in behaviour 
and converfatiqn, but a Irttle tir.dtured \virh the principles of 
Popery. B-ing veiy irv.pnidenr in the management of his worldly 
concerns, he made a fhiir, though h- wa:; nuvxr married, to fquandet 



away his eftate (which amounted to feven hundred or a thoufand 
pounds a year) on poets, muficians, bliffoons, and flatterers, and in 
buying curioiities. He gave a handfome fortune 1 with a niece 
named Philippa, who was married to Mr. Blount, of Maple Dur- 
ham, in Oxfordshire ; and having befides engaged himfelf for the 
payment of other men's debt?, which he was not able to difcharge, 
he was put into prifon at Oxford ; but being foon after releafed, he 
{pent the remainder of his life, which was eight years, in that city. 
He was efteemed in his younger days a great patron of the poets, 
eipecially Qnarles, Davenant, Payne, Filher, &c. who either dedi- 
cated books to him, or wrote epigrams and poems on him. His 
flatterers ufed to ftyle him Benevr.Jus, by way of anagram on his 
name, in return for his generofny towards them. Towards the 
Jatter end of his life, he was drawn off from his inclination to Po- 
pery, and would of:en take occafion to difpute againft the Papifts 
and their opinions, and particularly difliked the favourers of Armi- 
nius and Sucinus. This gentleman, reduced through his own in- 
difcretion to great want, died at Oxford the 1 8th of December, 
1686, aged feventy-three years. 

BENEDICT (ST.), the founder of the order of the Benedidine 
monks, born in Italy about 480. He was fent to Rome when he 
was very young, and there received the firft part of his education. 
At fourteen years of age he was' removed from thence to Sublaco, 
about forty miles diftant. Here he lived a moft afcetic life, and 
ihut himfelf up in a cavern, where nobody knew any thing ot him 
except St. Romanus, who, we are told, uftd to defcend to him by a 
rope, and to fupply him with provifions ; but being afterwards dif- 
covered by the monks of a neighbouring monaftery, they chofe him 
for their abbot. Their manners, however, not agreeing with thofe 
of Benedict, he returned to his folitude, whither many perlons fol- 
lowed him, and put themielves under his direction, fo that in a fhort 
time he built twelve monalteries. About 528 he retired to Mount 
Caflino, where idolatry was ftill prevalent, there being a temple of 
Apollo erected here. He inftrucled the people in the adjacent 
Country, and having converted them, he broke the image of 
Apollo, and built two chapels on the mountain. Here he founded 
alfo a monaftery, and inftituted the order of his name, which in time 
became fo famous, and extended over all Europe. It was here, too, 
that he cornpofed his " Regula Monachorum," which Gregory the 
Great fpeaks of, as the moil fcnfible and belt written piece of that 
kind ever puhiiflied. Author? sre not agreed as to the place where 
i'-nedicl dk\!: fome fay at Mcunt Caflino, others aifirm it to have 
been at Rr,;v:e, w!,ui he was lent thither by Pope Boniface : nor is iJ^ : fame alfcrrin? it to liuw been in 5.^2, or 543., 
and others in 547. 



* ____ L in ! n' i i _______ ~ ___________ - --H ________ -- ......... ________ - 1 r~~" 

BENEFIEJLD (SEBASTIAN), a learned Englilh divine, was 
born at Prdtbury, in Gloucefterfhire, 1559. He was admitted a 
fcholar of Corpus Chrifti college, in Oxford, 1586, and chofen pro- 
bationer fellow 1590. Alter Tie had taken his degree of matter of 
arts, he entered into holy orders. In 1608 he became doctor in di- 
vinity, and five years after was appointed Margaret pro fe (Tor of divi- 
nity in that univerfity. He discharged this office with great fuccefs 
for fourteen years, when he refigned it, and retired to his reclory of 
Meyfey Hampton, rn GUncefier.hire, which he been inducted 
into feveral years before. He (pent here the remainder of his life^ 
and was eminent for piety, integrity, and extenfive learning. He 
was well fkilled in all parts of learning, and extremely converfant in 
the writings of the fathers and fchoolraen. Some perfons have ac- 
cufed him as a fchifmatic; but Dr. Ravis, bifhop of London, ap- 
proved of him as free from fchifcn, and much abounding in fcicnce. 
He was a ledentary man, and iond of retirement, which rendered 
him lefs eafy and affable in converlation. He was particularly at- 
tached to the opinions oi. Calvin, efpecjally that of prcdeftination ; fo 
that h'e has been ftyled a downright and doctrinal Calvinift. He 
d^d at Meyfey Hampton, in 1630. 

BENI (PAUL), profeffor of eloquence in the univerfity of Pauua. 
He was a Greek by nation, according to Bayle; that other authors 
affirm that he was born at Eugubio, in the dutchy of U;bino. He 
was in the fociety of Jefuits for fome time, but quitted them upon 
their refufing him penpifllon to publifh a commentary on the l< 
of Plato. He was a great critic, and maintained a difpute with the 
Academy de la Crufca of Florence. He publifhed a treatifa agairnt. 
their Italian dictionary, under the title of " Anti-Cruica, ar P^ra- 
gone della Lingua Itatiana." He had likewife another contcll \\i<h 
the fame academy in regard toTnli'), whofe defence he undertook, 
and publifhed two pieces on this fubjecl. In one of thefe he com- 
pares Taffo to Virgil, and Ariofto to Homer, in fome particulars 
giving Taffo the preference to thefe tv.-o ancients; in the other he 
anfwers the critical cenfures which had been made againft th;? au- 
thor. He publifhed alfo fome difcourfes upon the *' Pallor Fido" of 
Guarini. Thefe pieces which we have mentioned were in Italian; 
but he left a great number of works in Latin. He died the I2th ot 
February, 1625. 

BENIGNUS (ST.), archhiih >p of Armagh, in Ireland, was the 
immediate fuccefibr of St. Patrick in that fee, anno 455- ^ e was 
the fon of Sefgnen, a man of wealth and power in Meath, who, in the 
war in 453, hofpitably entertained St. Patrick in his journey from 
the port oi Coip, where he landed, to the court of lving Leo^air at 
Tarah, and with his whole famiiy embraced Chnlhanuy, and rqr 
Reived baptifm. Tlie yotuh grew fa tond-of his father'^ -gu-tit, 



he could not be feparated from his company. St. Patrick took him 
away with him at his departure, and taught him his firft rudiments 
cf learning and religion. Benin profited greatly under fuch a 
mafter, and became afterwards a man eminent for piety and virtue, 
\vhom St. Patrick thought worthy to fill the fee of Armagh, which 
he religncd to him in 455- Benin died in 4.68, on the 9th of No- 
vember, having alfo religncd his fee three years before his death. 

BENNET (HENRY), earl of Arlington, was defcended of an 
ancient family, feated at Arlington, in Middlefex, and fecond fon of 
Sir John Bennet, knight. He was born in 1618, and after being in- 
itruiled in grammar learning in his father's houfe, was fent to 
Chrift-church, in Oxford, where he took the degree of mafter of 
arts, and diftinguifhed himft-lf by his turn for Engliih poetry. 
Upon the king's coming to Oxford, after the breaking out of the 
civil war, he entered himfelf a volunteer ; and was afterwards 'made 
choice of by George Lord Digby, fecretaryof (rate, to be his under 
fecretary. He was prefent in the rencounter at Andover, in which 
he received feveral wounds. When he could no longer remain in 
England with fafety, he went to France, and from thence to Italy. 
On his return to France, in j 649, he became fecretary to the duke 
of York. In 1658 Charles II. who placed great confidence in him, 
knighted him at Bruges, and fent him in quality of his minifter to 
the court of Madrid. After the king's reftoration, he recalled him 
from Madrid, and appointed him privy purfe. October 2d, 1662, 
he was nominated fecretary of ftate in the room of Sir Edward Ni- 
cholas. September 28th, 1663, the univerfity of Oxford conferred 
upon him the degree of dodlor of laws. March following he was 
Created baron of Arlington, in Middlefex. At this time he had, as 
fecretary, almoft the fole management of foreign affairs, and his 
capacity was equal to his pofts. He had a great hand in the firft 
Dutch war, but he likewife appears to have had no fmall mare in 
the negociations for peace. A new fet of mimfters having, under 
pretence of their influence over the parliament, raifed themfelves 
to power, Lord Arlington declined in his credit with the king; 
but as he had been long in bufinefs, loved a court, and was defnous 
of power, he continued to act as fecretary of ftate under the new 
adminiftration, and became one of the cabinet council diftin- 
guithed by the name of the cabal. A defign was fet on foot to 
change the constitution into an abfolute monarchy, but no writer 
charges him with having a (hare in it; nor did he act farther than 
his office, as fecretary of ftate, obliged him to act, in the breach 
which the other violent members of the cabal puftied the king to 
make with Holland. 

April 22, 1672, he was raifed to the dignity of earl of Arlington, 
in Middlefex, and vifcount Thetford, in Norfolk ; and on the I5th 
of June following was made a knight of the gajter. Soon after he 

I was 

BENNET (Henry). 65 

was fent to Utrecht with .the duke of Buckingham and the earl of 
Halifax, to treat of a peace between the allies and the States Ge- 
neral ; but this negotiation had no effect. The Houfe of Com- 
mons, difliking the war againft Holland, determined to call the 
advifers and promoters of it to an account. They firft attacked the 
duke of Lauderdale, and next the duke of Buckingham, who, being 
admitted to be heard, endeavoured to throw all the odium upon the 
ea-rl of Arlington; and this lord's anfwer not fatisfying the Com- 
mons, articles of impeachment were drawn up, charging him with 
having been a conftant and vehement premoter of Popery and Popifli 
counfels ; with having been guilty of many undue practices to pro- 
mote his own greatnefs; with having embezzled the treafure of the 
nation, and falfely and treacheroufly betrayed the important truft 
repofed in him as a counfellor, and principal fecretary of ftate. He 
appeared before the Houfe of Commons, and fpoke much better 
than was expected. He excufed himfelf, but without blaming the 
kiny ; and this had fo good an effect, that though he. as fecretary of 
flate, was more expofed than any other man, by the many warrants 
and orders he had figned, yet he was acquitted, though by a fmall 
majority. In the mean time he continued to prefs the king to a 
feparare peace with the Dutch, in which he happily fucceeded. 

Having refigned his poll of fetretary, he was made lord chamber- 
Iain September 1642, with this public reafon given, that it was in 
conficlerationof his long and faithful fervice, particularly in the exe- 
cution of his office of principal fecretary of ftate, for the (pace of 
twelve years. Soon after, he made a frefh trial for recovering the 
king's confidence, by offering to go over to Holland, with the earl 
of OlTory. He told the king, that he did not doubt but he could 
bring the prince of Orange into an entire dependence on his uncle, 
and, in particular, difpofe him to a general peace ; on which the 
king was much fet, it being earneftly defiied by France. It was 
likewife believed that he had orders to give the prince hopes of 
marrying the duke of York's daughter, Lady Mary, whom he after- 
wards did marry. This journey proved altogether unfuccefsful ; 
and his credit was fo much funk, that feveral perfons at court took 
the liberty to act and mimick his perfon and behaviour, as had been 
formerly done againft the lord chancellor Clarendon ; and it became 
a common jeft for fome courtier to put a black patch upon his nofe, 
and ftrut about with a white ftaff in his hand, in order to make the 
king merry. The king's coldnefs, or perhaps difpleafure, is be- 
lieved to have proceeded from Arlington's late turning towards the 
popular Itream, and more efpecially his outward processings againft 
the Papifts, when the court believed him to be one inwardly him- 
felf. Neverthelefs he was continued in_ his office, and the privy 
council, in all the changes it underwent;. and at his maj D fty's de- 
ceafe, King James confirmed him in his office of chamberlain, 
which he held to the day of his death. July 28, 1685. 



, - i i.i 

'. mt _ ^ t f _ t - _ . Y- , mm I i IIIMIMK if ..- r. fir" ~T- -f ^ i iiMnlMMJIT 

BENNET (Dr. THOMAS), an Entflifli divine, was horn at Saiif- 
bury, May 7, 1673. From the free-fchpol in that city he was re- 
moved to St. John's college, Cambridge, where he took, his degrees 
in arts, and afterwards became a fellow of the college. In 1699 he 
Mhed" Ati Anfwer to the Diffenters' Plea for Separation, or an 
Abridgment of the London Cafe.-." The following year, taking a 
journey to vifit his friend Mr. John Rayne, rector of St. James's, 
jn Colchefter, and finding him dead, he preached his iuneral fer- 
mor, vi:h which the inhabitants v. ere fo high'y pleafed, that 
they warmly recommended him to Compton, bifhop of London, 
vho thereupon prcfenttd him to that living. The other li .gs 
in the town being very indifferently provided for, he was - jmely 
lolloped, and his affiilance deiired upon alloccafk"-- , ;.:> that he 
ivas minifter not only of one parifh, but \\i a .r.anner of the whole 
city. The fame year he puo il;:cd at Cambridge his " Con- 
futation of Popery." In 1702 he publifhed a tract relative to the 
feparation of the DifTenters, entitled, " A Difcourfe of Sch'fm." 
This bonk being animadverted upon by Mr. Shepherd, one of the 
diffenting minifters, to whom it was addreffcd by way of letter, he 
publifhed an anfvver to Mr. Shepherd, entitled, " Devotions." In 
1705 he printed at Cambridge his " Confutation ot Quakerifm;" 
and 1708, " A brief Hiftory of the joint Ufe of pre-compofed 
fet Forms of Praver." In this year likewife came abroad his 
" Difcourfe of Joint Prayers." In 1709 he publifhed in 8vo. his 
*' Paraphrafe wiih Annotation? upon the Book of Common Prayer/' 
Jn this treati fe he obferves, that the ufingof the morning prayer, the 
litar.v, and communion fervice, at pne and the fame time, in one 
continued order, is contrary to the firft intention and practice of the 
church. 1 he next p : ece lie made public was a fermon recom- 
mending charity fchools, preached at St. James's church in Col- 
or, Mjrch 10, 1710, and publifhed at the requelt of the truf- 
tt-e?. Thf fame year he wrote a letter to Mr. B. Robinfon, occa- 
fioned by his review of the cafe of li'urgie^, and tlkir impofttion; 
and foon after, a fecond letter, upon the fame fubject. The 
year follou-in^ he fent abrond his " Rights of the Clergy in the 
Chriftian Church," wherein he affsrts, that church authority is 
not derived trom the people, that the laity have no divine right to 
elecl: the clergy, n^r to choofe their own particular pallors. About 
this time he took the degree of doctor in divinity. In 1711 he 
p-ibiilhed ar London h's " Direclions for fiudying, i. A general 
m of Divinity; 2. The Thirty-nine Articles; to which is 
added, St. Jerom': Epiftle to Nepotianus." The fame year he 
publifhed his " Eilay on the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion, 
agreed on in 1562, and revifed in 15^1." Before the publication of book he Joimd it neceffary to leave Colchefter. The other 
Jiving- k^ni: Mitd -A ith men or" merit and character, in which he 
was highly inftrumental, hie large congregation, and his fubfcrip- 



fttnm MM i IIT m ii .in r . -JT rr-j<nnim-rrr -iitiju . ' i '!_'. - - . ~" -"" =jgjErie?i.T3C3 

tions, which amounted to near 300!. a year, fell off fo, that the 
income of his two livings of St. James and St. Nicholas did not 
amount to 6ol. wherefore he removed to London, and was appointed 
deputy chaplain to Chelfca hofpital, under Dr. Cannon. Soon 
after happening to preach the funeral fermon oi his friend Mr. 
Erington, lecturer of St. Olave, in Southwark, it was fo highly ap- 
proved of by that parifh, that he was tinanitnouily chofsn lecturer, 
without the leaft folicitation. We find him, in 1716, morning 
preacher at St. Lawrence Jewry ; and foon after he was preferred 
be the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, to the vicarage of St. Giles, 
Cripplegate, worth near 500!. a year. Whilft in this flation, he was 
engaged in feveral lawfuits, in defence of the rights of that church, to 
which he recovered 150!. per annum. In 1716 he publiflied a pam- 
phlet entitled " The Nonjurors Separation from the public AflTern- 
blie? of the Church of England examined, and proved to be fchif- 
matical upon their own principles;" and " The Cafe of the re- 
formed tpifcopal Churches in Great Poland and Poliili Pruffia, in a 
Sermon preached at St. Lav, jcnce Jewry in the Morning, and at St. 
Olave's, Southwark, in the Afternoon :" two editions of which were 
published the fame year. In 1717 he publi(hd a fpital fermon be- 
fore the lord mayor, aldermen, &c. of London; and in 1718 came 
abroad his " Difcourfe of the ever-blefled Trinity in Unity, with 
an Examination of Dr. Clarke's Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity;" 
in which he treats Dr. Clarke with great decency and civility. In 
1726 he publifhed an " Hebrew Grammar." He died of an 
apoplexy at Lor.dcn, Oct. 9, 1728, aged fifty-five. 

BENNET (CHRISTOPHER), was born in Someifetm ire about 
1617, ?n-.i educated at Lincoln college, Oxford, where he was en- 
tered a commoner in 1632. Having taken both his degrees in arts, 
he entered upon the phyfic line, and afterwards was elected a fellow 
of the College of Phyliciaris in London, where he praclifed with, 
fuccefs. He died in April 1655. His writings are, " Theatri 
tabidorum vtftibulum.---Exercit3tiones diagnoltica^." occ. He alfo 
corrected and enlarged D/. Moufet's treaufe, entitled " Health's 

BENSERADE (ISAAC Dt), a French poet of the laft century, 
was born at Lions, near Roan. He was born, but not educated, a. 
Proteitant, his father having turned Catholic when he was very 
young. When Benferade was about feven or eight years of age', he 
went to be confirmed ; the bifhop who performed the ceremony 
aflced him " Jf lie was not willing to change his name of Ifaac for 
one more Chriftian." " With all my heart," replied he, " pro- 
vided I get any thing by the exchange." The bifhop, furprized 
at fuch a ready anfvvrr, would not change his name: " Let his name 
be Ifaac ftiil," laid he, " for whatever it is, he will become fa- 
il 2 


mou?." Benferade loft his father when he was very young, and 
being left with very little fortune, and this much involved in law, he 
chofe rather to give it up, than fue for it. We have been told by 
fome authors, that he was related to Cardinal Richelieu, and that the 
cardinal took care of his education. It is certain, however, that 
Benferade foon became famous at court for his wit and poetry, and 
that Richelieu granted him a penfion, which was continued till the 
death of the cardinal. After the death of Richelieu, he got into 
favour with the duke de Breze, whom he accompanied in moft of 
his expeditions; and when this nobleman died, he returned to 
court, where his poetry became highly efteemed. We are told in 
one of Collar's latters to the marchioriefs de Lavardin, that Benfe- 
rade was named envoy to Chriitina, queen of Sweden: it is certain, 
however, that he never went in this employment. 

Benferade had furprizing fuccefs in what he compofed for the 
king's interludes. There was quite an original turn in thefe com- 
pofitions, which characterized at once the poetical divinities, and 
the perfons who reprefented them. The ion net which Benferade 
fentto a young lady, with his paraphrafe on Job, rendered his name 
very famous. A parallel was drawn betwixt it and the " Urania" 
of Voittire ; and a difpute thence arofe, which divided the wits, and 
the whole court. Thofe who gave the preference to that of Ben- 
ferade, were ftyled the Jobifts, and their antagonifts the Uranifts. 
The prince of Conti declared himfelf a Jobift. " The one fonnet," 
faidhe, meaning that of Voiture, " is more grand and finifhed; but 
I would rather have been the author of the other." Benferade 
wrote " Rondeaux upon Ovid," fome of which are reckoned tole- 
rable, but upon the whole they are not much efteemed. He ap- 
plied himfelf to works of piety fome years before his death, and 
tranflated almofl all the Pfalms. M. 1' Abbe Olivet fays, that Ben- 
ferade, towards the latter end of his life, withdrew from court, and 
made Gentilly the place of his retirement. When he was a youth, 
he fays it was the cuftom to vifit the remains of the ornaments with 
which Benferade had embellifhed his houfe and garden?, where every 
thing favoured of his poetical genius. The barks of the trees were 
full of infcriptions. Mr. Voltaire is of opinion, that thefe infcrip- 
tions were the beft of his productions, and he regrets that they have 
not been collected together. 

Benferade fuffered at laft fo much from the ftone, that, notwith-- 
flanding his great age, he refolved to fubmit to the operation of cut- 
ting. But hisconftancy was not put to this laft proof; for a fur- 
geon letting him blood, by way of precaution, pricked an artery, 
and, inftead of endeavouring to ftop the effufion of blood, ran 
away. There was but juft time to call F. Catnire, his friend and 
confeffor, who came foon enough to fee him die, which happened 
OR the igth of October, 1690. 


BENSON (George). 69 

BENSON (GEORGE), a learned and eminent diilenting teachrr, 
was born at Great Salkeld, in Cumberland, September 1699. Hs 
was earlv deftined by his parents to the Chriftian minirtry, on ac- 
count of the ferioufnefs of his difpofition, and his love of learning; 
which was fo ftrong and fuccefshil, that at eleven years of age he was 
able to read the Greek Teftament. After finiihmg his grammar 
learning, he went to an academy kept by Dr. Dixon, at White- 
haven, from whence he removed to Glafgow ; where, with great Ap- 
plication and fticcefs, he purfued his ftudies until May, 1721, when 
he left the univeriity. Towards the clofe of the year he came to 
London ; and having been examined and approved by feveralof the 
rnoft eminent Prefbyterian miniilers, he began to preach, firft at 
Chertfey, and afterwards in London. The learned Dr. Cab my 
was his great friend, and kindly took him for a time into his fa- 
mily. By this gentleman's recommendation he went to Abinglo;i. 
in Berkfhire; where, after preaching as a candidate, he was una- 
nimoufiy chofen their paftor, by the congregation of Proteftant Dif- 
fenters in that town. During his ftay here, which was about fevj-i 
years, he preached and published three ferious practical difcourfcs. 
addrefied to young perfons, which were well received; but he af- 
terwards fuppreffed them, as not teaching what he thought, on fur- 
ther inquiry, the exact truth, in relation to fome doctrines of Chris- 
tianity. In 1729 he received a call from a fociety of Proteftant 
Diifenters in Southwark, among whom he laboured with great dili- 
gence and fidelity for eleven years, and u r as greatly beloved by them. 
In 1740 he was chofen by the congregation at Crutched Friars, 
colleague to the learned and judicious Dr. Lardner; and when in- 
firmities obliged Dr. Lardner to quit the fervice of the church, the 
whole care ot it devolved on him. 

From the time of his engaging in the miniftry, he feems to have 
propofed to hiaifelf the critical iludy of the Scriptures, and parti- 
cularly of the itudy of the New Teiiament, as a principal part of his 
huGnefs; and to have purfued the difcovery of the facred truths it 
contained with uncommon diligence and fidelity. The firlt fruit 
of thefe ' ftudies which he prefented to the public was, " A Defence 
of the Reafonablenefs of Prayer," with " A Tranflation of a Dif- 
courfe of Maximus Tyrius," containing fome popular objcctii n~> 
again ft prayer, and an '' Anfwer" to thefe. Some time after tiiis, 
he manifefted his love to moderation and Chriftian liberty, and his 
averfion to perfecution, by whomfoever praclifed, by extracting 
from the Memoirs of Literature, and reprinting Mr. de la Roche's 
account of the perfecuting and burning of Servetus by Cuivin, with 
fuch reflections as were proper to cxpofe the injuilice and incou- 
fiflence of this conduct in that reformer, and to prevent it's being 
employed to countenance a like temper and conduct hereafter. To 
this he afterwards added, " A Defence of the Account of Servetus,"' 
arid *' A brief Account of Archbifhop Laud's cruel Treatment of. 



Dr. Lt-inlnon." About the fame time, to guard Chriftians againft: 
the corruptions of Popery, and to prevent their being urged by the 
Deifts as'plaudble objetions againft Chriftianity, he publilhed " A 
Dictation en 2 Their, ii. ver. I 12." In illuftrating the ob- 
fcrvations of the learned Jofeph Mede, he (hewed thele grofs cor- 
ruptions of the bell religion to have been exprefsly foretold, and 
Chriltians ftrongy cautioned againft them; and that, in this view, 
they were among the evidences of the divine authority of the Scrip- 
tures, as they proved the facred writers to have been infpired by a 
divine fpirit, which could alone clearly foretel events fo diftant, un- 
likely, and contingent. The light which Mr. Locke had thrown on 
the obfcureft parts of St. Paul's epiftle, by making him his own ex- 
politor, encouraged and determined Mr. Benlon to attempt an 
illuftration of the remaining epiftles in the fame manner. In 1731 
he publifhed " A Paraphrafe and Notes on the Epiftle 16 Philemon," 
as a fpecimen. This was well received, and the author encouraged 
to proceed in his defign. With the Epiftle to Philemon was pub- 
liftied " A ftiort Diilertation, to prove from the Spirit and Senti- 
ments of the Apoftle, difcovered in his Epiftles, that he was neither 
an Enthufiaft nor Im[bftor; and, confequently, that the Religion 
\vhich he afferted he received immediately from Heaven, and con- 
firmed by a Variety of Miracles, is indeed divine." This argument 
hath fmce been improved and illuftrated, with great delicacy and 
ftrength, in a review of the apoftle's entire conduct and character, 
by Lord Lyttdton. Mr. Benfon proceeded with great diligence 
and reputation to p'iblilh " Paraphrafes and Notes on the two 
Epiftlcs to the Thelfalonians, the firft and fecond to Timothy, and 
the Epiftle to Titus; adding " DiHertations on feveral important 
Subjects, particularly on Infpiration." In 1735 he publifhed a 
41 Hiftory of the firft planting of Chriftianity, taken from the Acts 
of the Apoftles, and their Epiftles," in tv.'o vols. quarto. Thefe 
v.orks procured him great reputation. One of the univerfities in 
Scotland fent him a diploma, with a doctor's degree ; and many 
of high rank in the eftablifhed church, as Herring, Hoadly, Butler, 
Benfon, Conybeare, &c. mewed him great marks of favour and re- 
gard. He purfued the fame ftndies with great application and fuc- 
ctfs till the time of his death, which happened 1763, in the, 64th 
year of his age. 

Hi^ works, befides thofe already mentioned, are, " A Paraphrafe 
and Notes on the feven Catholic Epiftles; to which are annexed, 
ftveral critical Diflertations," quarto. " The Reafonabienefs of 
the Chriftian Religion, as delivered in the Scriptures," in two vols. 
8vo. " A Collection of Trats againft Perfecution." A Volume 
of Sermons en feveral important Subjects. " " The Hiftory of the 
Life of Jefus Chrift, taken from the New Teftament; with Ob- 
it, vations and Reflections proper to iiluftrate the Excellence of his 
Character, aud the Divinity ot his Million and Religion. 


BENTHAM (Edward}. 7 1 

BENTHAM (DWARD), canon of Chrift-church, Oxford, and 
king's profeifor of divinity in that univerfity, was born in the col- 
lege at Ely, July 23, 1707. His father, Mr. Samuel Bentham, was 
a very worthy clergyman, and vicar of Witchford, a fmall living near 
that city; who having a numerous family, his fon Edward, on the 
recommendation of Dr. Smalnclge, dean of Chrift-church, was 
fent, in 1717, to the fchool of that college. Having there received 
the rudiments of claffical education, he was in Lent term, 1723, 
when nearly fixteen years of 2ge, admitted ot the univerfity of Ox- 
ford, and placed at Corpus-Chrifti college, under his relation, Dr. 
John Burtuu. In this fituation, his ferious and regular deport- 
ment, and his great proficiency in all kinds of academical learning, 
recommended him to the notice of feveral eminent men ; and, 
among others, to the favour of Dr. Tanner, canon of Chrift-church, 
by whofe death he was difappointed of a nomination to a fhident- 
fhip in that fociety. At Corpus-Chrifti college he formed a Uriel: 
friendfhip with Robert Hoblyn, Efq. of Nanfwydden in Cornwall, 
afterwards repre Tentative for the city of Briftol, whofe character, as 
a fcholar and a member of parliament, rendered him defervedly 
efieemed by the lovers of literature and of their country. In com- 
pany with this gentleman and another intimate friend, Dr. RatclifF, 
afterwards matter of Pembroke college, Mr. Bentham made, at dif- 
ferent times, the tour of part of France, and other places. Having 
taken the degree of bachelor of arts, he was invited by Dr. Cotes, 
principal of Magdalen Hall, to be his vice-principal ; and was ac- 
cordingly admitted to that fociety, March 6, 1729-30. Here he 
continued only a fhort time; for, on the 23d of April, in the year 
following, he was elected fellow of Oriel college. In adl term. 
1732, he proceeded to the degree of mafter of arts, and, about the 
fame time, was appointed tutor in the college ; in which capacity 
he difcharged his duty, in the moft laborious and confcientious man- 
ner, for more than twenty years. March 26, 1743, Mr. Bentham 
took the degree of bachelor in divinity; and April 22, in the fame 
year, was collated to the prebend of Tiundreton, in the cathedral- 
church of Hereford. July 8, 1749, he proceeded to the degree of 
doctor in divinity; and in April, 1754, was promoted to the fifth 
fbll in that cathedral. Here he continued the fame active and ufe- 
ful courfe of life for which he had always been diftingnifhed. He 
ferved the offices of fub-dean and treafurer, for himfelf and others, 
for above twelve years. The affairs of the treafury, which Dr. Ben- 
tham found in great confufion, he entirely new-modelled, and put 
into a train of bufinefs in which they have continued ever fince, to 
the great eafe of his fucceffors, and benefit of the fociety. So in- 
tent was he upon the regulation and management of the concerns of 
the college, that he refufed feveral preferments which were offered 
to him, from a confcientious perfuafion, that the avocations they 
\vould produce were incompatible with the proper difcharge of the 



oilux- hj h.u! voluntarily undertaken. Being appointed by the king 
to till the divinity chair, vacant by fhe death of Dr. Fanihawe, Dr. 
Bc-ntham was, with much rekiftance, and after having repeatedly- 
declined, perfuaded, by Archbifhop Seeker and his other learned 
friends, to accept of it ; and, on the grh of May, 1763, he was re- 
moved to the eighth flail in the cathedral. His unwjllingnefs to 
appear in this (tati<m was increafed by the bufinef? he had to tranf- 
act in his former i;tr.?.tion, and which he was afraid would be im- 
peded by the acceflion of ne\y duties ; not to fay that a life fpent in 
his laborious and fr-. .it-ry manner had produced fome unfavourable 
tfrcfrts on his constitution, and rendered a greater attention than he 
V.-:i\ hitherto (hewn to private eafe and health, a'bfqhite'ly neceflary.. 
Belides, as the duties, when probably difcharged, were great and in- 
terefting:, fo the Itation itfelf was of that elevated and public nature 
to which his ambition never inclined him : he preferred a humble 
fitiKJtion. The diffidence lie had of his abilities had ever taught him 
to lufiX'tft his own fuificiency ; and his inauguratory lecture breathed 
the fame fpirit, the text of which was, "Who is fufricient for thefe 
things '." But whatever objections Dr. Bentham might have to the 
proidlbrfhip before he entered upon it, when once he had accepted 
of it, they never difcouraged him in the lead from exerting his moft 
ii.'ioere endeavours to render it both ufeful and honourable to the 
univei'Uy. He fet himfeli immediately to draw out a courfe of 
Jedures tor the benefit of yorng fhidcnts in divinity, which he con- 
fbr.tly rt-ad at his houfe at Chrilt-church, gratis, three times a-week 
during term time, till his deceafe. The courfe took up a year; and 
he not only exhibited in it a complete fyftem of divinity, but recom- 
mended proper books, fome of which he generoufly diftributed to 
his auditors. His inter, fe application to the purfuit of the plan he 
had lasd down, together wif!! thofe concerns in which his affe&ion 
icr hi^; friends, and !V:s for the public good in every fhape, in- 
vcd hn\ jrore than a counterbalance for ail the advan- 
tjijcs <>f health aA vi^;-;;r that a ftrict and uniform temperance 
cou'd procure. It is certain that he funk under the rigorous exer- 
cifo or that conduct he had propofed to himfelf: tor though fixty- 
ght years are a confidejable proportion in the ftrongeft men's lives, 
_: his remarkable abftemioufnefs and f.:!f-daiial, added to a difpo- 
,.m of b.vly naturally ftrong, promifed, in the ordinary courfe of 
lo;ig.:r peri -xi. Dr. Bentham was a very early rifer, and 
c.l half a day's buHnefs before many others began their 
:mtenance was uncommonly mild and engaging, being 
c of the p'kty and benevolence of his mind ; and 
lame time it by no means wanted expreffion, but, upon pro- 
F ? " co "^ ali'ume a very becoming and affecting authority. 

' ince upon the public duties of religion, he was exceed- 
t and conftant; not furring himfelf ever to be diverted 
by a; T motives, either of intereft or pleafure, Whilit he 


BENTINCK or BENTHINCK--f tfW/rfw;. 73 

was thus diligent in the difcharge of his own duty, he was not fe- 
vere upon rhofe who were not eijtnlly diligent. He cuni'.i fcarcely 
ever be prevailed upon to deliver his opinion on fubje&s that were 
to the difadvanta^e of other men; when he could not avoid doing 
it, his fentimems were expreliecl with the utmoit delicacy and can- 
dour. No one was more ready to di (cover, commend, and reward 
every meritorious endeavour. Of himfelf he never was heard to 
fj eak ; and if his own merits were touched upon in the flighted 
manner, he felt a real urtfrafiriefs. Though he was not fond of the 
formalities of vifiting, he entered into the fpirit of friendly fociety 
intercourfe with great pleiifu;e. His conffant engagements, indeed, 
of one kind or other, leit him not much time to be devoted to com- 
pany ; and the greater part of his leifure hours he fpent in the en- 
joyment of domcftic pleafures, for which his amiable and peaceable 
difpofition feemed moll -calculated. Till within the laft half year of 
his life, in which he declined very faft, Dr. Bentham was fcarcely ever 
out of order; and he was never prevented from difchargmg his duty, 
excepting by a weaknefs that occafional'y attacked his eyes, and 
which had been brought on by too free an ufe of them when he was 
young. That part of his lalt illnefs which confined him, was only 
from the 23d of July to the ift of Augu'r. Even death itfelf 
found him engaged in the fame laborious application which he had 
always directed to the glory of the Supreme Being, and the benefit 
of mankind ; and it was not till he was abfolutely forbidden by his 
phyficians, that he gave over a particular courfe of reading, that had 
been undertaken by him v\ith a view of anfwering Mr. Gibbon's 
14 Roman Hiftory." Thus he died at his pod, like a faithful fol- 
dier, in the exercife of his arms, and the defence of his religion. 
That ferenity of mind and meeknefs of difpofition, which he had 
manifefted on every former occafion, (hone forth in a more efpecial 
manner in his latter moments ; and, together with the confciouf- 
nefs of a whole life fpent in the divine fervice, exhibited a fcene of 
true Chridian triumph. After a few days illnefs, in which he fuf- 
fered a conliderable degree of pain without repining, a quiet figh 
put a period to his exiftence below, on the ift of Auguft, 1776, 
when he had entered into the fixty-ninth year of his age. 

land, &c. one of thegreateft Itat^finen of his time, and the firft that 
advanced his family to the dignity of the Englifh peerage. M Ben- 
tinck was a native of Holland, being defcended of an ancient and 
noble family of that name in the province of Guelderland. After a 
liberal education, he was, by theintereft of his friends, promoted to 
be page of honour to William, then Prince of Orange (afterwards 
King William III. of England), in which ftation, his good beha- 
viour and addrefs fo recommended him to the favour of his mafter, 
that he preferred him to the more honourable poft of gentleman <>f 

VOL- II, K In* 


his bed-chamber. In this- capacity he acccompanied the prince 
into England, in the year 1670, whore, going to vifit the univerfity 
of Oxford, he was, together with the prince, created doctor wf 
civil law. In 1672, the prince of Orange being made captain- 
general of the Dutch ion e<, and loon alter ifadtholder, M. Bentinck. 
\\as promoted, and had a fhnre in his good fortune, being made co- 
lonel and captain of the Dutch regiment oi guards, afterwards 
diecmed one of the fined in King William's fervice, and which be- 
haved with the greateft gallantry in the wars both in Flanders and 
Ireland. In 1675, the prince hilling ill of the fmall-pox, M. Ben- 
tinck had opportunity oi lignalizing his love and affection for his 
mafter in an extraordinary manner, and thereby of obtaining his 
efteem and friendlhip, by one of the mod: generous a&ions imagin- 
able: for the fmall-pox not riling kindly upon the prince, his phy- 
cians judged it necefTary that fome young perfon fhould lie in the 
fame bed with him, imagining that the natural heat of another 
would drive out the difcafe, and expel it from the nobler parts. No 
body of quality could be found in aH the court to make this experi- 
ment : at laft, M. Bentinck, though he had never had the fmall-pox, 
refolved to run the rifque, and accordingly attended the prince dur- 
ing the whole courfe of his illnefs, both day and night. Nothing 
was given him, nor was he ever removed in his bed by any other hand. 
In the year 1677, M. Bentinck was fent by the prince of Orangs 
into England, to Micit a match with the Princefs Mary, eldeft 
daughter of James, at that time duke of York (afterwards King 
James II.), which was foon after concluded. And in 1685, upon 
the duke of Monmouth's invafion of this kingdom, he was lent 
over to King James to offer him his matter's aliiftance, both of his 
troops and perfon, to head them againft the rebels, but, through a 
mifconftruciion put on his melFage, his highnefs's offer was rejected 
by the king. In the year 1688, when the prince oi Orange intend- 
ed an expedition to England, he lent M. Bentinck, on the eledor of 
Brandenburgh's death, with his compliments to the new elector, and 
alfo to lay before him the itate of affairs, to communicate to him 
his defign upon England, and to folicit his afliftance to put it m 
execution, &c. In this negociation M. Bentinck was fo fiicceki'ui,. 
that he carried to his matter a more favourable and fatisfadory an- 
fuer than the prince had expected j the elector having generouily 
granted even more than was alked. M. Bentinck had alfo a grea"t 
(hare in the glorious Ruolution on which our prefcnt happy tita- 
bliOunent i s tounded ; in which difficult and important affair, h 
fhewed all the prudence and fagacity of the ir.oft confummate and 
able ftatefman. M. Bentinck accompanied the prince in his expe- 
dition to England ; and after King James's abdication, during the 
interregnum, he held the firtt place among thofe who compofed the 
nnce's cabinet at that critical time, and that, in f uc h a degree of 
iufjer-etfimence, as fca*cely. left room for a fetond ; and we may b 


BENTINCK or BENTHINCK (William)^ 75 

fnrt that he was not wanting, as far as his fervices could avail, in 
endeavouring to procure the crown for the prince his mafter; who, 
when he had obtained it, was as forward on his part, in rewarding 
the faithful and flgnal fervices of M. Bentinck. Immediately upon 
the prince's acccffi m to the Britilh crown, M. Bentinck was made 
groom of the ftole, privy purfe, firlt gentleman of the royal bed- 
chamber, and was the firft commoner upon the lift of privy-counfel- 
Jors; and, to tit him for greater honours, was foon after naturalized 
by at of parliament; and, by letters patent bearing date the Qth 
of April, 1619, two days before the king and queen's coronation, 
Jie was created baron of Cirencefter, Vifc<;unt Woodftock, and earl 
of Portland. In the year 1690, the earl of Portland, with many 
others of the Englifh nobility, attended King William to Holland, 
where the earl acted as envoy for his majeity, at the grand congrefs 
held at the*Hague the lame year; an aflembly the moft honourable 
to ihe Englifh nation, that is any where to be read of. In the 
year 1695, King William made this nobleman a grant of the lord- 
ihips of Denbigh, Bromheld, Yale, and other lands, containing many 
thoufand acres, in the principality of Wales, which being part of 
the demefne thereof, the grant was oppofed, and the Houfe of Com- 
mons addrelfecl the king to put s. (top to the palling it, which his 
majelly accordingly complied with, and recalled the grant, promif- 
ing, however, to rind forne other way of (hewing his favour to Lord 
Portland, who, he faul, had delerveJ it by long ami faithful fervices; 
and -this promife the icing foon after made good. It was to this 
nobleman, that the horrid plot for alfaifinating King William, in 
the year 1695, was firft difcovered ; and his lordihip, by his wife 
counfel and indefatigable zeal, wa? very inftrumental in bringing to 
.light the whole of that execrable fcheme. The fame year another 
affair happened, in which this noble lord gave fuch a fhining proof 
of the ftriclefi honour and integrity, as has done immortal honour to 
his memory. The parliament having taken into confideration the 
affairs of the Eaft India company, who, through mifmanagement 
and corrupt dealings, were in danger of lofmg their charter, ftrong 
intereft was made with the members of both houfes, and large fums 
properly diftributed to procure a new eftabliihment of their com- 
pany by acl of parliament. Among thofe noblemen whofe intereft 
was neceffary to bring about this alfair, Lira Portland's was parti- 
cularly courted, and an extraordinary value put npon it, much be- 
yond that of any other peer; for he was offered no lefs than the 
fum of -50,00.0 pounds for his v.ite, an<! to ufe his endeavours with 
the king to favour the defign. But his lordihip, poUxffed of a great- 
nefs of foul that placed him above corruption, treated this injurious 
osfer with all the contempt and indignation it deferved, telling the 
perfon employed in it, that if he ever fo much as mentioned fuch a 
thing to him again, he would for ever be the compa y'- enemy, and 
give ihem all the opposition in his power. This is z . inftance of 

K 2 public 


public Ip'uit not oittn met wit\ and did not pafs unregarded ; for we 
find it recorded in an eloquent l^cech of a worthy member ol par- 
liamenr, who took occalion to relate this noble action to the Honfe 
of Commons, much to the honour .,f L< rd Portland. It was owing 
to this nobleman, that the Banqueting houle at Whitehall was faved, 
when the reft of the palace was dettmyed by fire. Going on thus in 
a courfe of honour and profpemy, his lordfhip, in February, 1696, 
was created a k:iight of the moft noble order of the garter, at a 
chapter held at Kenfington, the fovereign and ten knights being 
prefent, and was inftalled at Windfor on the 25th of March, 1697, 
at which time he was alfo lieutenant-general of his majefty's forces : 
for his !urd(h'p\s ft r vices were not confined to the cabinet; he like- 
wife diftinguiihod himfelf in the field on feveral occafions, particu- 
larly at the battle of the Boyne, battle of Landen, where he was 
wounded, liege of Limerick, Namur, &c. As his-lordlhip thus at- 
tended his royal matter in his wars both in Ireland and Flanders, 
and b'ire a piincipal command there, fo he was honoured by his 
majeily wiih the chief management of the famous peace of Ryfwick. 
The king had for a long time given the earl of Portland the en- 
tire and abfolute government of Scotland; and his lordlhip was 
alfo employed, in the years 1698, in ihe new negociation fet on foot 
for the fuc'-edion of the crown of Spain, called hy the name of the 
Partition Treaty, the intention of which being fruflrated by the 
treachery of the French king, the treaty itfelf fell under fevere cen- 
fure, and was locked upon as a fatal Hip in the politics of that reign ; 
and Lord Pi rtlan i was impeached by the Houfe of Commons, in 
the year 1700, for advifing and tranfadting it, as were alfo the lords 
concerned with him in it. The Partition Treaty was the laft pub- 
lic tranfaclion we find Lord Portland engaged in ; the next year, 
1701, having put a period to the life of his royal and munificent 
mailer, King William III. but not without having (hewn, even in 
his lall moment':, that his eftr-em anil affection for Lord Portland 
end. .-! but with his life; for when his Ma jelly was juft expiring, he 
afked, though with a iaiiit voice, tor the earl of Portland, but before 
his lordfhip could come, the king's voice quite tailed him. The 
earl, houever, placing his ear as near his maj-fty's mouth as could 
be, his lips were obferved to move, but without ftrength to exprefs 
his H ind to his lordihip; bus as the laft teftimony of the cordial 
affection he him, he tf ok him by the hand, and carried it to his 
heart with great tendernds, and expired foon after. His lordlhip 
had before been a witnels to, and figned his majefly's laft will and 
tt (lament, made at the Hague in 1695; and it is faid, that King 
Will'am, the winter before he died, told Lord Portland, as they 
were walking together in the garden at Hampton Court, that he 
fo-'nd his health d Jin'm^ very faft, and that he could not live ano- 
ther fummer, but charged his lon.fhip not to mention this till after 
his majefty's death. We are told, that at the time of the king's 



death, Lord Portland was keeptr of Wir.df >r Great Park, and was 
difpiaced upon Qu:'en Anne's aoceffion to the throne: we are not, 
however, matie acquainted with the time when his lordfhip became 
firft pofleilccl of thai port. After King William's death, the earl did 
did not, at lead operilv, concern him'ch with public affairs, but be- 
took hi'^iftif to a retired life, in a moft exemplary way, at his feat 
at Bulftn-de, in the county of Bucks, where he erected and plen- 
tifully endowed a free-fchool, and'did many other charities. His 
lordlhip had an admirable tafle lor gardening, and took great de- 
light in improving and beautifying his own gardens, which tie made 
very e'egant and curious. At length, being taken ill of a pleurify 
and malignan* fever, a'ter about a week's illnefs be died, November 
23, 1709, in the iixty-firft year of his age, leaving behind him a very 
.plentiful fortune, being at that time reputed one of the richeft fub. 
jects in Europe. 

BENTINCK (HENRY), fecond fon of William earl of Port- 
land, wh'lft he was a commoner was elected in two parliaments in 
the reign of Queen Anne, one of the knights of the lliire for the 
county of Southampton; and on the 2ift ot July, 1710, was made 
captain 6t the firit troop of horfe guards, in the room of the earl of 
Albermarle. He was created by King George the Firft marquis of 
Tichrk-Id in H-impthire, and duke of Portland, by letters patent, 
bearing date the i6th of July, 1706. 

When the king went to Cambridge, in 1717. and the ceremony 
of admitting and creating feveral degrees was, according to cuftom, 
performed in his royal prefence, his grace the duke ot Portland was 
created doctor of laws. H.s grace was alfo one of the gentlemen of 
King George the Firft's bedchamber; and on the gth of September, 
1721, was appointed captain-general and governor of the ifland of 
Jamaica, where his grace departed this life, 'of a fever, on the 4th of 
July, 1726, in the forty-fifth year of his age. 

BENTIVOGLIO 'Guv), cardinal, was born at Ferrara in 
1579. He went to'fhidy at Padua, where he made a confiderable 
proficiency in polite literature. He was at this place in 1597* 
when Alfonfo duke ot Ferrara died. Cseftr, the duke's coutin, 
claimed the right of fucceffion, but the pope oppofed him. The 
marquis Hippolyte Bentivoglio, brother to Guy, efpoufed the caufe 
of Casfar, and put hirnfeU at the head of his frooo 5 , which ex- 
tremely irritated Cardinal Aldrohrandin, nephew to Cien-.snt VII f. 
who commanded tlie ectlefi.dlical troops. Guy left Padua, in order 
to wait upon AMouratviin, and to endeavour to appeafe his refcnt- 
nient. He' fncceedcd in his endeavours, being the chief inftrum'ent 
in bringing ahoiit that peace wh'.ch was concluded the January fol- 
lowing. G'.iy Betttivoglib was after this extremely well received by 
the pope,, who mack j iiuu hij chamberlain, and gave him leave to go 



and finifh his iiuuiesat Padua. Upon h:s leaving thr univerlity, he 
went to refide. at Rome, where he became univerfally efteemed. 
He was fent nuncio to Flanders, and then to France ; in both which 
employments his behaviour was Inch as gave great fatisfa&ion to 
Paul V. who made him a cardinal, which was the laft promotion 
lie made, a little before his deatii in Jan. 1621. Bentiyoglio v. as at 
this time in Fiance, where Lewis XIII. and all the French court, 
congratulated him on his new dignity ; and when he returned to 
Rome, his Chriftian majetty em rutted him with the management 
of the French affairs at that court. Pope Urban VII. had a high 
cfteem for him ; for he was of opinion he could not find a friend 
more faithful and difintereftect than Cardinal Bentivoglio, nor one 
vho had a more confummate knowledge in bufinefs. He was be- 
loved by the people, and efteemed by the cardinals; and his qua- 
lities were fuch, that in all probability he would have been raifed 
to the pontificate, on the death of Urban in 1644; but the cardinal 
having gone to the conclave during the time of the moft intolerable 
heats at Rome, it affected his body to fuch a degree, that he could 
not fleep for eleven nights afterwards; and this want of reft threw 
him into a fever, of which he died the ^th of September, 1644, being 
then fixty-five years of age. He has left feveral works, the mod 
remarkable of which are his " Hiftory of the Civil Wars of Flan- 
ders;" "An Account of Flanders;" with his "Letters and Me- 


BENTLEY (RICHARD), an eminent critic and divine, was the 
fon ot a mechanic tradefman at Wakefield in Yorkfhire, where he 
was born in 1662, and probably received the firft part of his edu- 
cation. Being removed to St. John's college in Cambridge, he 
followed his fludies with indefatigable induftry; and his inclination 
leading him ftrongly to critical learning, his (kill and knowledge 
therein recommended him to Dr. Edward Stillingfleet, who was 
bred at the Lme college, and in 1685 appointed him private 
ttitor to his fon. In 1689 he attended his pupil to Wadham col- 
lege in Oxford, where he was incorporated matter of arts July 
4th that year, having taken that degree fome time before in his own 
univerfity. He was then a lib in holy orders, and his patron (to 
whom he had been very ferviceable) being advanced to the fee of 
\Vorcefler in 1692, collated him to a prebend in that church, into 
which he was inllalled October 2d of that year, and alfo made him 
.Hs.domeftic chaplain, in which la ft flat ion he continued till hislord- 
Ihip's death. That learned prelate, as well as Dr. William Lloyd, 
ifiui bilhop of L;itch field, had feen many proofs of our author's ex- 
traordinary mem, -hen they concurred in recommending him as a 
r;t perfon to open the k-clures upon Mr. B >yle : s foundation, in de- 
fence ot natural and revwlul n-ligion. This gave him a fine op- 
}> 'uuuiiy of ciubiiiliing his larne. He faw it well. ; a-nd refoved to 


BENTLEY (Richard), 79 

pulh it to the utrnoft. Sir Ifaac Newton's Principia had been pub- 
liihed but a tew years, and the book was little known, and lefs 
underltood Mr. Bentley therefore determined to fpare no pains in 
difplaying to the beft advantage the profound demonstrations whiclv 
that excellent work furnished in prool of a Deity ; and that nothing 
might be wanting which lay in hi? power to complete the defign, he 
applied to the great author, and received from him the folntion of 
fome difficulties, which had not fallen within the plan of his work. 
Our author alfo did not forget to heighten the novelty of his plan, by 
introducing and afferting Mr. Locke's lately advanced notion con- 
cerning the innate idea of a God, in his tirft ferraon. With the 
help of. fuch advantages, Mr. Bentley's fermons at Boyle's lectures 
became the wonder and admiration ol the world, and raifed the 
highefl opinion of the preacher's abilities. Accordingly he foon 
reaped the fruits of his reputation, beiog appointed keeper of the 
royal library at St. James's the following year, for which the war- 
rant was made out of rhe fecretary's oflce, December 13, 1693, 
and the patent in April 169.4.. B;it he was fcarcely fettled in his 
office, when he fell under the difpeafure of the honourable Mr, 
Charles Boyle, eldelt fon to the earl of Orrery ; z young nobleman 
of the greateil: hopes, who wa? then in the courfe of his education at 
Chrid-chnrch. in Oxford. Mr. Boyle was about to put out a new 
edition of the " Epiftles of Pbalaris," and for that purpofe had oh-, 
tained the ufe of.a'MS. of a book ci:t of St. James's library; but 
our librarian.demanding-it back fooner was expected, and be- 
fore the collation of it was finifhcd, this was refented by Mr. Boyle, 
and gave rife to the weJl known controverfy betwixt Boyle and 
Bentley. This was carried on with admirable fpirit, wit, and learn- 
ing, in feveral writings on both fides, until ^the year 1699, and gave 
our author another opportunity of furprizing the world with his 
genius and knowledge in critical learning ; and Dr. Montagu dying 
the next year, he was preferred by the crown to the rnafterlhip of 
Trinity college, in Cambridge, upon which promotion he refigned 
his prebend oi Worceiter. He was afterwards collated to the arch- 
deaconry of Ely, June I 2, 1707, and befides this was prefented to a 
good benefice in .that ifland. He had alfo the honour of being chap- 
lain both to King William and Queen Anne. 

Having thus obtained eafe, affluence, and honour, he took his 
doctor's, degree in divinity, entered into matrimony, and indulged 
his inclination in critical purfuits; and as he gave the fruits of his 
laboiurs occaiionally to the public, thefe were obferved feverally fo 
to abound with erudition and fagacity, that he grew by degrees up 
to the character of being the firit critic of his age. In the mean 
time, he carried matters with fo high a hand in the government of 
his college, that in 1709 a complaint was brought betore the bifhop 
of Ely, as vifitor, againlt him by feveral of the fellows ; who, in 
order to have him removed from the mafterfhip, charged him with 



embezzling the college money, and other mifclemeanors. In an- 
fwer to this he prefented his defence to the bifhop, which was 
publifhed in 1710, under the title of " The prefent State of Trinity 
College," 8vo. andjthus began a lading quarrel, which was carried 
on with the mod virulent animofity on each fide. 

Nor was this the only trial which exercifed his fpirit, and 
wherein he triumphed alfo finally over his adverfaries. During the 
courfe of the former difpute, he had been promoted to the regius 
profellbrfhip of divinity; and his late majeily George I. on a vilit 
to the univerfity in October 1717, having nominated by mandate, 
as ufual on fuch occafions, feveral perfons for a doctor's degree in 
that faculty, our profellbr, to whom belonged the ceremony called 
creation, made a demand of four guineas from each perfon, as a fee 
due to this office, befides a broad piece of gold, which had been cuf- 
tomarily received as a prefent, and abfolutely re(ufed to create any 
do&or without the fee. Hence grew a long and warm difpute, 
during which the dolor was firft fufpended from his degrees by 
the univerfity, October 3, 1718, and then degraded on the I7th of 
that month; but on a petition to his majefty for relief from that 
fentence, the affair was referred by the council to the court of King's 
Bench, where the proceedings againft him being reverfed, a man- 
damus was iffued the 7th of February the fame year, charging the 
univerfity to reftore him. 

He was happily endued with a natural hardinefs of temper, 
which enabled him to ride out both thefe ftoims without any ex- 
traordinary difturbance, fo that he went on as before in the career 
of literature, where he never failed to make a moft confpicuous 
figure. The 5th of November, 17*5, he preached a fermon before 
the univerfity, which was printed with the title of A Sermon upon 
Popery;" and fome remarks being publifhed upon it, the doftor an- 
fwered in a p ; ece entitled " Reflections on the fcandalous Afperfkms 
caft on the Clergy by the Author of the Remarks, c." This came 
out in 1717, 8vo. He had the preceding year printed fame account 
of an edition which he intended to give of the New Teftamerit in 
Greek; and having revolved the defign in his mind for the fpace of 
four years, he put out in 1721 propufuls for printing it by fubfcrip- 
tion, together with the Latin verfion of St. Jerom, to which a fpe- 
cimcn of the whole was annexed. Thefe were attacked warmly 
by Dr. Conyers Middleton, who had been a fellow of his college, 
and was from the firft, and all along continued to be, a principal 
leader among his antagonifts there. Some pieces were written 
upon the occafion; the refult of which was, that the defign was 
dropped. In 1726 came out, in 410, his Terence, with Notes, and 
a Schediafma concerning the metre and accents of that writer. 
This was reprinted the following year at Amfterdam, with fome 
corrections and - iditions by our author, who alfo annexed thereto a 
beautiful edition, with notes, of Phasdrus's Fables, in Latin. TJie 


BERKELEY ( Dr. George). 81 

Til . ,., ....r.,-^. ,...,.,.-. .r^n.... .....,.,. ..--. 

lait piece which employed die doctor's critical talents was Milton's 
Paradife Loll;" a new edition of which he gave the public in 1732, 
quarto, with notes and emendations : but though feme of thofe 
exh bited ftrong proofs of his mafterly genius, yet in the main here 
was a great falling off, fuch as evidently difcovered that he now drew 
near the lees. Indeed he grew apparently fenfible of his decay; 
and though he continued on this fide the grave ten years longer, yet 
he languimed the remainder of his days, feeble and inaflive to his 
death, which happened July 14, 1742, at the age of fourfcore years. 


BERKELEY (Dr. GEORGK), the learned and moft ingenious 
bilhop of Cloynein Ireland, was born in that kingdom, at Kilcrin, 
near Thomaltown, the i2th of March, 1684. He was the fon df 
William Berkeley, of Thomaftown, in the county of Kilkenny; 
whofe father, the family having fuffered tor their loyalty to Charles 
I. went over to Ireland after the Restoration, and there obtained the 
colleclorlhip of Belfaft. George had the firlt part of his education 
at Kilkenny fchool, was admitted penfioncr of Trinity college, 
Dublin, at the age of fifteen, and chofen fellow of that college June 
the Q'h, 1707. 

The firft public proof he gave of his literary abilities was, 
" Arithmetica abfque Algebra aut Euclide demonftrata ;" which, 
from the preface, he appears to have written before he was twenty 
years old, though he did not publiih it till 1707. It is dedicated 
to Mr. Pallifer, fon to the archbifhop of Cafhel ; and is followed 
by a mathematical mifcellany, containing obfervations and theorems 
infcribed to his pupil Mr. Samuel Molineux. 

In 1709 came forth the " Theory of Viiion," which, of all his 
works, feems- to do the greateft honour to his fagscity, being, as a 
certain writer obferves, the firft attempt that ever was made to dif- 
tinguifh the im mediate and natural objects of light, from the con- 
clulions we have been accuilomed from infancy to draw from 
them. The b undary is here traced out between the ideas of fight 
and touch; and it is fhewn that, though habit hath fo connected 
thefe two claiTes of ideas in our minds, that they are not without a 
ftrong effort to be feparated from each other, yet originally they have 
no fuch connection; infomuch, that a perfon born blind, and fud- 
denly made to fee, wn U Kl at firlt be utterly unable to tell how any 
object that affecled his fight would affect his touch; and particu- 
larly would not from fight receive any idea of diftance, outnefs, or 
external fpace, but would imagine all objects to be in his eye, or 
"rather in his mind. This was furprifingly confirmed in the cafe of 
a v>ung man born blind, and couched at fourteen years of age by Mr. 
Chefelden in 1728. A " Vindication of the Theory of Vifion" 
was puWifhedby him in 1733. 

In 1710 appeared lt The Rrificiples of Human Knowledge,** and 

irr 1713 " Dialogues between Hylas and Phylonous :" the obje6l of 

VOL. II. L both 


both which pieces is, to prove that the commonly received notion of 
the exiftence of matter is falfe ; that fenfible material objecls, as they 
arc called, are not external to the mind, but exift in ir, and are no- 
thing more than itnpreflions made upon it by the immediate aft of 
God, according to certain rules termed laws of nature, from which, 
in the ordinary courle of his government, he never deviates; and that 
the Steady adherence of the Supreme Spirit to thefe rules is what 
constitutes the reality of things to his creatures. Thefe works are 
declared to have been written " in oppofition to Sceptics and 
AtheiSts;" and herein "is inquired into the chief caufe of error and 
difficulty in the faiences, with the grounds of fcepticifm,atheifm,and 
irreligion ;" which caufe and grounds are found to be the doctrines 
of the exigence of matter. He feerns perfuaded, that men never 
could have been deluded into a falfe opinion of the existence of 
matter, if they had not fancied themfelves inverted with a power of 
abstracting fubftance from the qualities under which it is perceived ; 
and hence, as the general foundation of his argument, is led to com- 
bat and explode a doctrine maintained by Locke and others, of there 
being a power in the mind of abstracting general ideas. 

In 1712 he published three fermons in favour of paffive obedience 
and non-reSiftance, which underwent at lalt three editions, and did 
him afterwards feme injury in his fortune: they caufed him to be 
reprefcntcd as a Jacobite, and flood in his way with the houfe of 
Hanover, till Mr. Molineux, above mentioned, took off the impref- 
fion, and firSt made him known to Qneen Caroline, whofe fecre- 
tary, when princcfs, Mr. Molineux had been. Acutenefs of parts, 
and beauty of imagination, were fo confpicuous in his writings, that 
hts reputaion wa_s now established, and his company courted even 
' where his opinions did not find admiifion. Men of oppofite parties 
concurred in recommending him ; Sir Richard Steele, for inftance, 
arvd Dr. Swift. For the former he wrote fevcral papers in the 
' Guardian," and at his houfe became acquainted with Pope, with 
whom r ahvays Jived in friendship. Swift recommended him to 
the cc Crated earl of Peterborough, who being appointed ambaf- 
fador to the king of Sicily and the Italian dates, took Berkeley with 
him as chaplain and fecretary in November 1713. He returned to 
England with this nobleman in Auguiti7i4, and towards the clofe 
of the year had a fever, which gave occafion to Dr. Arbuthnot to 
Indulge a little pleafontry on Berkeley's fyftcm. 

hopes of prt ferment expiring with- the fall of Qneen Anne's 

f. fome time after embraced an offer made him by Afhe, 

i* 10 ! 1 . -r. of accompanying his fo.-j in a tour through Eu- 

employed four years ; and beildes thofe places 

within the grand tour, h- vifited fome thar are le,s fre- 

o trav-jllc-l over Apulia ft'rom which he wrote an , o/.int 

tarantula to Dr. Frun-l;, Calabria, a-.d tl d >f 

Sicily. This laft country engaged his a- 


BERKELEY ( Dr. George). Sj - 

had with great induftry collected very confiderable materials for a 
natural hiftory of it, but unfortunately loft them in the paiTage to 
Naples ; and what an injury the literary world has fuftained by this 
mi fchance, may be collected from the fpeciinen of his talents for 
this fort of work, in a letter to Mr. Pope concerning the ifland of 
Inarime (now Ifchia), dated October 22, 1717; and in another, 
from the fame city, to Dr. Arbuthnot, giving an account of an 
eruption of Vefuvius. He arrived at London in 1721 ; and being 
much affected with the miferies of the nation, occafioned by the 
South Sea fcheme, in 1720, publifhed the fame year " An EfTay to- 
wards preventing the Ruin of Great-Britain ;" reprinted in his 
" Miscellaneous Tracts. " 

His way was open now into the very firft company. Mr. Pope in- 
troduced him to Lord Burlington, and Lord Burlington recom- 
mended him to the duke of Grafton; who being lord lieutenant of 
Ireland, took him over as one of his chaplains, in 1721. Novem- 
ber this year, he accumulated the degrees of bachelor and do6lor in 
divinity. The year following he had a very unexpected increafe of 
fortune from Mrs. Vanhomrigh, the celebrated Vaneffa, to whom he 
had been introduced by Swift. This lady had intended Swift for her 
heir; but perceiving herfelf to be flighted by him, me left near 
Soool. between her two executors, of whom Berkeley was one. 
May 18, 1724., he was promoted to the deanery of Derry, worth 
iiool. per annum. 

In 1725 he publifhed, and it has fince been reprinted in his Mif. 
cellaneous Tracts, " A Propofal for converting the favage Ame- 
ricans to Chriftianity, by a College to be creeled in the Summer 
Iflands, otherwife called the Ides of Bermuda ;" a fcheme which had 
employed his thoughts for three or four years paft, and it is really 
furpiifmg to confider how far he carried it. He offered to refign 
all his preferment, and to dedicate the remainder of his life to in- 
ftructing the American youth, on a ftipend of lool. yearly : he pre- 
vailed with three junior fellows of Triwity college, Dublin, to give 
up all their profpects of preferment at home, and to exchange their 
fellowlhips for a fettlement in the Atlantic Ocean at 40!. a year: he 
procured his plan to be laid before George I. who commanded Sir 
Robert Wai pole to lay it before the Commons, and farther granted 
him a charter for erecting a college in Bermuda, to confifl of a pre- 
fident and -aine fellows, who were obliged to maintain and educate 
Indian fcholars at lol. a year each. He obtained a grant from the 
Commons of a fum to be determined by the king, and accordingly 
io,oool. was promifed by the minifter, for the purchafe of lands, 
and erecting the college. He married the daughter of John Forfter, 
Efq. fpeaker of the Irifli Houfe of Commons, the ift of Augufr, 
1728 ; and actually fet fail, in September following, for Rhode 
Jiland, which lay neareft to Bermuda, taking with him his wife, a 
ijngle lady, and two gentlemen of fortune. Was not this going a 

L 2 great 


_ _ ___,_-, - _ -_ ' _ i i^nm^f 

great way? and w,is not here a full profp^a of fuccefs r yet the 
(I -In me entirely tailed, and Berkeley was obliged to return, after re- 
fidlng near two years at Newport. The reafon given is, that the 
minifter had never heartily embraced the projed, and the money 
\va- turned into another channel. 

In 1 732 he published "The Minute Pliilofopher," in two vols. 8vo. 
This mafterly work is written in a feries of dialogues on the model of 
Plato, a philofopher he is faid to have been very fond of; and in it 
he ptirfues the freethinker through the varhus character of atheift, 
libertine, enthufiaCt, fcorner, critic, metaphyfician, fatalift, and 
fceptic. The fame year he printed a fermon, preached before the 
Society for propagating the Gofpel in foreign Parts. In 1733 he 
was made bifhop of Clovne, and might have been removed, in 
174.5, b\ Loid Chefterfield, to Clogher, but he declined it. He re- 
fidcd copltantly at Cloyne, where he faithfully difcharged all the 
offices of a good bilhop, yet continued his ftudies with unabated at- 

About this time he engaged in a controverfy with the mathe- 
mat'cians, which made a good deal of noife in the literary world; 
and theoccafionofitis faidto have been this: Mr. Addifon had given 
the biGVp an account of their common friend Dr. Garth's beha- 
viour in his laft illnefs, which was equally unpleaiing to both thefe 
advocates of revealed religion ; for when Addifon went to fee the 
doctor, and began to difcourfe with him ferioufly about another 
wrrld, " Surely, Addifon," replied he, " I have good reafon not to' 
believe thcfe trifles, fince iny friend Dr. Halley, who has dealt fo 
much in demonftration, has allured me, that the doctrines ot Chrif- 
tianity are incomprehenfible, and the religion itfdf an impofture." 
The bilhop therefore took armsagainft this dealer in demonflration, 
and addrelted to him, as to an infidel mathematician, a difcourfe 
called " The Analyft;" with a view of (hewing that mylleries in faith 
were unjuflly objected to by mathematician^, who admicted much 
greater myCleries, and even falfehoods in fcience, of which he en- 
deavoured to prove that the doclrine of fluxions furhiftied a clear 
example. This attack jjave occalion to Maclaurin's Treatife, and 
other imallcr works, upon the fubjecl: of fluxions : but the direct 
anfwers to <( The Analyfc" were fet forth by a perfon under the 
name of Phiralethes Cafitabrigienfis, but generally fuppofed to be 
Dr. Jurin, who publifhed a piece entitled " Geometry no Friend to 
Infidelity," 173-}-. To this the bifhop replied in "A Defence of 
Frcethinking in Mathematics," 1735; which drew a fecond an- 
fwer, the fame year, from Philalethes, (tyltd " The minute Mathe- 
matician, or the Freethinker nojuft Thinker." And here the con- 
troverfy ended. 

But the bilhop, ever aclive and attentive to the public good, was 
continually fencing torth fomcthing or other: in 1735, " The 
' m I 73^ *' A Difcourfe addreiTed to Ma^iitrates, tx:ca- 

BERNARD (St). 85 

, - f L 1 " ' 

fioned by the enormoias Licence and Irreligion oi the Times ;" and. ^ 
many other things afterwards, of a fmaller kind. In 1744, came ' 
forth his celebrated and curious book entitled " Siris ; a Chain of 
Philofophical Reflections and Inquiries concerning the Virtues of 
Tar Water; a work which, he has been heard to declare, cod him 
more time and pains than any other he had ever been engaged in. 
It underwent a fecond impreffion, with additions and emendations, 
in 1747 ; and was followed by " Farther Thoughts on Tar Water" 
in 1752. In July, the fame year, he removed with his lady and 
family to Oxford ; partly to fuperiritend the education ot a fon, 
but chiefly to indulge the'pafiien for learned retirement which had 
ever ftrongly pofTeffed him, and was 'one ot his motives to form the 
Bermuda project. He would have n-figned his bifhopric for a ca- 
nonry or headfhip at Oxford ; but it was not permitted him. At 
Oxford he lived highly refpected, and collected and printed the fame 
year all his fmaller pieces in 8vo: but he did not live long ; for on 
Sunday evening, Jan. 14, 1753, as he was in the miult of his family, 
liitening to a fermon which his lady was reading to him, he was 
feized with what was called a palfy in the heart, and initantly ex- 
pired. The accident was fo hidden, that his body was cold, and 
his joints ftifF, before it was difcovercd ; as he lay upon his couch, 
and feemed to be aileep, till his daughter, on prefenting him with a 
dim of tea, firil perceived his infeniibiiity. 

As to his perfon, he was handfome, with a countenance full of 
meaning and kindnefs, remarkable for great ftrength of limbs, and, 
till his iedentary life impaired it, of a very robuft conftitution. He 
was, however, often troubled with the hypocondria, and latterly 
with a nervous colic, from which however he was grea'ly relieved 
by the virtues of tar-water. The excellence of his moral character- 
is confpkuous in his writings : he was certainly a very amiable as 
well as very great man. 

BERNARD (.ST.\ one of the fathers of the church, was born 
1091, in the village of Fountaiae inBurgundy. In 1 1 15, the nvnaf- 
tery of Ciairvaux was founded, and Bernard was made the firft abbot 
of this religious houfc, where many famous men were bred up under 
his tuition : it is faid, that a pope, fix cardinals, and no lefs than 
thirty bifhops came out of this houfe. He acquired fo great cfteem 
amonglt the clergy, nobility, and common people, that no eccle- 
fiaitical affair or difpute was carried on without having recourfe to 
his advice. It was owing to him; that Innocent II. was acknow- 
ledged fovereign pontif ; and after the death of Peter Leonis, anti- 
pope, that Vicior, who had been named fuccefTbr, made a voluntary 
abdication of his dignity. He convidted Abelard at the council of 
Sens, in 1140. He oppofed the monk Raoul ; he perfccuted the 
followers of Arnaud de Brefle; and in 1148, he got Gilbert de la 
Porvice bilhop of Poitiers and Eonde 1'Etoiie to be condemned in 



the council of Rheims. By fuch zealous behaviour he verified (fays 
Mr. Bayle) the interpretation of his mother's dream. She dreamt, 
when Ihe was with child of him, that me IhouUl bring forth a white 
dog, whofe barking fhould be very loud. Being aftoniflied at this 
dream, fte confulted a monk, who faid to her, " Be of good courage, 
you (hall have a fim v.-ho fliall guard the houfe of God, and bark 
loudly againft the enemies of the faith. He died in 1 153, after hav- 
ing founded 1 60 monafteries, and wrought innumerable miracles, 
and became one of the great faints of the Romifh communion. 

BERNARD (EDWARD), a learned critic and aflronomer, was 
born at Perry St. Paul, commonly called Pauler's Perry, near Tow- 
cefter in Northamptonshire, the 2d of May, 1638. He received 
fomc part of his education at Northampton ; but his father dying 
when he was very young, his mother fent him to an uncle in Lon- 
don, who entered him at Merchant-taylors-fchool, in 1648: here 
he continued till June, 1655, when he was elected fcholar of St. 
John's college in Oxford, of which alfo he became afterwards fel- 
low. During his ituy at fchool, he had laid in an uncommon fund 
of claffical learning, fo that when he went to the univerfity, he was J. 
great mafter of the Greek and Latin tongues, and not unacquainted 
with the Hebrew. He had acquired a good Latin ftyle, and could 
compofe verfes well, fo that he often ufed to divert himfelf with 
writing epigrams. In the univerfity, he applied himfelf to hiftory, 
philology, and philofophy; nor was he fatisfied with the knowledge 
of the langur-ges of Greece and Rome, but likewife made himfelf 
mailer of the Hebrew, Syriac, Arabic, and Coptic. He applied 
himfelf next to the mathematics, under the famous Dr. J. Wallis. 
He took the degree of bachelor of arts, February the 12th, 1658 ; 
that of mafter, April 16, 1662; and that of bachelor in divinity, 
Jtine^q, 1668. December following he went to Leydcn, toconfult 

ral oriental manufcripts left to that univerfity by Jofeph Scaliger 
and Levinus Warnerus, and efpecially the 5th, 6th, and yth bo>ks 
of Apollonius Pergaeus's conic fcftions ; the Greek text of which 
is loll, but which are preferved in the Arabic verfion of that author. 
This verfion had been brought from the ea(t by James Golius, and 
was in the polfefHon of his executor, who finding Mr. Bernard's 
chief defign in corning to Holland was to examine this manufcript, 
allowed him the free life of it. He accordingly tranfcribed thefe 
ihr_e books, with the diagrams, intending to publiih them at Ox-' 
tord, with a Latin verfion, and proper commentaries ; but was pre- 
from completing this delign. Abraham Echellenfis had 
publiflied a Latin iranflation of thefe books in 1661, and Chriftianus 

ins crave another in 1669: but Dr. Smith remarks, that thefe 

vo authors, though well (killed in the Arabic language, were en- 

'' 'f the mathematics, which made it regretted that 

dipt! v,n::c he was preparing that work for the prefs ; and 


BERNARD (Edward). $7 

that Mr. Bernard, who underftood both the language and the fubjecl, 
and was furnithed with all the proper helps for fuch a defign, was 
abandoned by his friends, though they had before urged him to un- 
dertake it. 

At his return to Oxford, he examined and collated the mod va- 
luable manufcripts in the Bodleian library, which induced thofe who 
publilheJ ancient authors, to apply to him for obfervations or emen- 
dations : thefe he readily imparted, and by this means became engaged 
in a very extend ve Cv>rrefpondence with the learned in moft coun- 
tries. In 1669, the famous Chrifiopher Wren, Savilian profeflbr 
of aftronomy at Oxford, having been appointed furveyor-general of 
his majftfty's Avorks, and being much detained at London by this 
employment, obtained leave to name a deputy at Oxford, and 
pitched upon Mr. Bernard, which engaged the latter in a more par- 
ticular application to the ftudy of agronomy. In 1672, the matter 
and fellows c-i his college prefented him to the rectory of Cheame in 
Surrey; and February following, Dr. Peter Mews, the mafter, be- 
ing advanced to the bifhopric of Bath and Wells, appointed Mr. 
Bernard one of his chaplain?. But the following year he quitted all 
views of preferment, by accepting the Savilian proiefforfhip of aftro- 
nomy, vacant by the refignation of Sir Chriftopher Wren; for, by 
the ftatutes of the founder, Sir Henry Savile, the profeffors are not 
allowed to hold any other office either ecclefiafiical or civil. 

About this time a fcheme was fet on foot at Oxford, of collect- 
ing and publifhing the ancient mathematicians. Mr. Bernard, who 
had firft formed the project, collected all the old books publifhed on 
that fubject fince the invention of printing, and all the MSS. he 
could difcover in the Bodleian and Savilian libraries, which he ar- 
ranged in order of time, and according to the matter they contained. 
Oi this he drew up a fynopfis or view, which he prefentecl to bifhop 
Fell, a great encouragcr of the undertaking. As a fpecimen, he 
publiihed alfo a few fheets of Euclid in folio, containing the Greek 
texr, and a Latin verfion, with Procius's commentary in Greek and 
Latin, and learned fcholia and corollaries. He undertook alfo an 
edition of the " Parva fyntaxis Alexandrina \" in which, befides 
Euclici, are contained the fmall teatifes of Theodofius, Auto'ycus 
Menelaus, Ariftarchus, and Hipiicles: but it was never publifhed. 
In 1676, he was fent to France by Charles II. to be tutor to the 
dukes of Grafton and Northumberland, natural fons ot the king, 
by the dychefs of Cleveland, with whom they then lived at Parts ;' 
but the plainnefs and fimplicity of his'manners not fuiting the gaiety 
of the duchefs's family, he continued with them only one year, 
when he returned to Oxford : he reaped however the ar! vantage, 
during his flay at Paris, of becoming acquainted with moft of the 
learned men in that city. 

Upon his return to the univerfity, he applied him fell to his for. . 
mer ftudiesj and though, in conformity to ihe obligation of his 


nrofeiforihip, he devoted the greateft part of his time to mathema- 
tics, yet his inclination was now more to hiftory, chronology, and 
antiquities. He undertook a new edition of Jofephus, but it was 
never completed. In 1683, he went again to Leyden, to be prefent 
at the fale of Nicholas Heinllus's library : where he purchafed, at a 
rcat price, ftveral of the claflical authors, that had been either col- 
fated with manufcripts, or illullrated with the original notes of 
Jofcph Scaliger, Bonaventure Vulcanius, the two Heinfius's, and 
other celebrated critics. Here he renewed his acquaintance with feve- 
ral pcrfons of eminent learning, and was fo taken with thejr civilities, 
ami the opportunities he had of making improvements in oriental 
learning, that he would have fettled at Leyden, if he could have been 
chofen profcflbr of the oriental languages in that univerfity ; but not 
being able to compafs this he returned to Oxford. He began now 
to be" tired of altronomy, and his health declining, he was defirous 
to refi^n ; but no other preferment offering, he was obliged to hold 
his profefforfhip fome years longer than he intended ; however, in 
1691, being preferred to the rectory of Brightwell in Berkfhire, he 
foon after 'quitted his profeiTorfhip, and was fucceeded by David 
Gregory, profellbr of mathematics at Edinburgh. 

Towaids the latter end of his life, he was much afflicled with 
the ftone ; yet, notwithftanding this and other infirmities, he took a 
third voyage to Holland, to attend the fale of Golius's manufcripts, 
After fix or (even weeks -abfence he returned to London, and from 
thence to Oxford. . There he fell into a languishing confumption, 
which put an end to his life, January 12, 1696, before he was quite 
fifty-nine years of ag?. Four days after he was interred in St. 
John's chapel, where a monument of white marble was foon ereil- 
cd for him. 

BERNARD (JAMES), pruieffor of philofophy and mathematics, 
and minifter ot the Walloon church at Leyden, was born Septem- 
ber I, 1658, at Nions in Dauphtoe. He had the rudiments of his 
education in a Proteftant academy, at Die, in Datiphinc. He went 
afterward? to Geneva, where he ftudied philofophy, and applied to 
the Hebrew language under the profefTor Michael Turretin. He 
returned to France in 1679, and was rhofcn minifter of Venterol, a 
village in Dauphine. Some time after he was removed to the 
church of Vinfohres in the fame province ; but the perfections 
raifed againft the Proteftants in France, having obliged him to leave 
his native country, he retired to Geneva in 1683, and afterwards to 
Laufanne in Switzerland. In 1685, he went to Holland, where he 
was appointed one of the penfionary minifters of Ganda, and taught 
philofophy : but having been married'fince he came to Holland, and 
the uty of Ganda not being very populous, he had not a fufficient 
Dumber of fcholars to maintain his family : and therefore obtained 
kavc to refide at tlie Hague, but went to Ganda to preach in his- 

4 turn, 

BERNARDI (John). 89 

turn, which was about four times a year. Before he went to live at 
the Hague, he publifhed a kind of political ftate of Europe, en- 
titled " Hiftoire abregee de 1'Europe, c." The work was begun 
in July, 1 686, and continued monthly till December, 1 688 : it makes 
five volumes in ismo. In 1692, he Began his " Lettres Hifto- 
riques," containing an account of the moil important tran factions in 
Europe, with necetlarv reflections, which wasalfo publifhed monthly, 
till 1698; it was afterwards continued by other hands, and con- 
tains a great many volumes. Mr. Le Clerc having left off his 
" Bibliotheque Univerfelle," in 1691, Mr. Bernard wrote the 
greateft part of the 2oth volume, and by himfelf carried on the five 
following, to the year 1693. In 1699, he collected and publifhed 
" Actes et negotiationes de la paix de Ryfwic," in four volumes 
I2mo: a new edition of this collection was publifhed in 1707, in 
five volumes I2mo. He did not put his name to any of thefe 
works, nor f> the general collection of the treaties of peace, which 
he publifhed in 1700. But he prefixed it to the " Nouvelles de la 
republique des Lettres," which was begun in 1698, and continued 
till December, 1710. This undertaking engaged him in fome dif- 
putes, particularly with one Mr. de Vallone, a monk, who, having 
embraced the reformed religion, wrote fome metaphyfical books 
concerning predeftination. Mr. Bernard having given an account 
of one of thefe books, the author was fo difpleafed with it, that he 
printed a libel againft Mr. Bernard, and gave it about privately 
amongft his friends. He was alfo engaged in a long difpute with 
Mr. Bayle upon the two following queftions: I. Whether the ge- 
neral agreement of all nations In favour of a Deity, be a good proof 
of the exiftence of a Deity ? 2. Whether atheifm be worfe than 
idolatry ? 

Mr. Bernard having acquired great reputation by his works, as 
well as by his fermons at Ganda and the Hague, the congregation, 
of the Walloon church at Leyden were defirous to have him for one 
of their minifters ; but they could not accomplifh. their defire whilft 
King W T illiam lived, who refufed twice to confirm the election o{ 
Mr. Bernard, as being a republican in his principles, and delivered 
his fentiments too freely in a fermon before this prince. After the 
death of King William, he was unanimoufly chofen in 1/05; and 
about the fame time appointed profdlbr of philofophy and mathe- 
matics at Levden ; the univerfity prefenting him with the degrees 
of doctor of philofophy, and mailer of arts. In 1716, he publifhed 
'.' A Supplement to Moreri's Dictionary," in two volumes folio. 
The fame year he refumed his " Nouvelles de la Republique des 
Lettres," and continued it till his death, which happened the 27th 
of April, 1718, in the6oth year of his age. 

BERNARDI (JOHN), was the_fon of Count Francis Bernard?, 

refident in England from the republic of Genoa, and was defcended 

VOL. II. M f :-., 


^""^"""""J^quilVI^Vi^^Vrirmjr^Mwinr - jj'-ir~~" ~" "mmnimor mm, 

from a veiy ancient and honourable family, created for their fervices 
to the Houfc i.f Aufh-ia, counts of the holy Roman empire. He 
va.< horn in 1657, aii.l was very early enured to misfortunes and 
jiiiforam-nt ; lor his father being difguiled at foine ill ufage he 
,: iroin the government of Genoa, refufcd to return thither, 
ifelf a name of England, retired into Worcefter- 
iri.rc, v. here he fettled ; and being a great lover of gardening, fpent 
u ronfic'.crable fortune in improvements of that kind, which, how- 
ever, did not fo far amufe or divert him, as to extinguish his fenfe 
cJ. tiic injuries he had received, which lowered his temper to fuch a 
<;cf<rcc, i! he frequently confined his fon John, for very flight 
c^[ i:k room, where he allowed him only bread and frnall 

beer ii.r il \cral days, which hard ufage fo wrought upon his difpofi 
t :;, that he refolved, at all events, to leave his lather's houfe, and 
to throw liimfclf into the world, though a perfect child. Accord- 
;ly, in 1670, he quitted his father's fear, with a full resolution 
.x-r to return thither while the old man lived. He travelled that 
in iixicen niiles in the road to Coventry, and as day-liguc began 
to uppcar, he took fhelter in the houfe of a wheelwright, who, upon 
hearing his melancholy' ftory, promifed to conceal him, which he 
neriormed, and put him into a little room from whence he could 
look upon the road, and in which he had not been long before he 
jaw his father on horfeback, who inquired of the wheelwright, if he 
Jiad feen fuch a boy as he defcribed, which being anfwered in the 
negative, prevented the young man from being carried back to con- 
iin.mcnt. When the fccond night came on, he fet out again for 
Packington-hall, the feat of Sir Clement Filher, who married the 
famous Airs. Jane Lane, very infirumental in preferving King 
Ch.irles II. alter the famous battle at Worcefter. But on his 
coming thither, being informed that Sir Clement and his lady were 
in London, he followed them up to town, and was very hofpnably 
ru.civcd, the lady having been very kind to him at his father's, and 
often intreated the old gentleman to deal more indulgently with his 
fon, and to afford him a liberal education. He was by her recom- 
mended to a near relation, Capt Littleton Clent, v.ho was then in 
g^rrifon at Portfmouth, who took him into his company, and caufed 
Kim to be taught his cxercifc as a foldier, which gave him the firft 
tille for a military life. While he was undtr thej protection of 
this gentleman, he very narrowly cfcapcd a mii.'or.tunc, 'which would 
have put an early end to his troubles and his life. On the conclufion 
f tiit. Dutch war, Cuptaiii Cent being broke, w^as no other way 
in a o .clition of exprcfling his kiftdnefs for Mr. Bernard! , than by 
ir- l-.ini a prefect ci" twenty pounds. But the lofs of his patron 
not Iheonly mi fcbief which befel him in the year 1073 ; for 
he had the fnuil-pox foon after, which reduced him very low both 

In this diftrefs he addreifedfhimfelt" to 

hi, godfather, Colonel A;,f i:ne, who propofcd to him going over 


BERNARDI (Jobu). 91 

to Holland, with which he readily complied, and foon after his ar- 
rival, entered as a private foldier into the fervice of the States, and 
then lilted in one of the Englifh independent companies. He was 
in the famous action of Seneff, in which the Prince of Conde fell 
on the rear of the prince of Orange's army, and took part of his 
baggage, but after an obftinate engagement was obliged to retire. He 
was alfo prelent at the fiege of Oudenarde, and afterwards at that of 
Grave, where he ferved in the company of Capt. Philip Savage, and 
hail his fhare in a very dangerous attack on the counterfcarp, in 
which he was wounded. The place furrendered on the 2Qth of 
October, 1674. Soon after this, the Engiim troops in the fervice 
of the States being regimented, Mr. Bernardi obtained an enfign's 
commilfion from the prince of Orange, dated the 2d of February, 
1675, in the company of his godfather, who was appointed lieu- 
tenant-colonel of Difney's regiment. In June following, he was 
removed, with his godfather, to another regiment, commanded by 
Sir John Fenwick, and at the clofe of the year, had the misfortune 
to be wounded in endeavouring to part two gentlemen in a duel. 
He was prefent the fucceeding year, at the fiege of Maeftricht, 
where he had the misfortune to lofe the fight of one of his eyes, 
and to be (hot tiirough one of his arms, the bones of" which were 
fhivered to fpiinters ; when, taking his arm in the lappet of his 
coat, he crowded back to the breach, and fell down to the bottom 
among the dead. A foldier of his feeing him fall, jumped after 
him, took him up in his arms, and carried him to the furgeons in 
the trenches, where he was dreffed. The prince of Orange being 
informed of his behaviour, and that the lieutenant of the major's 
company of that regiment was killed in the attack, gave his com- 
miffion to Mr. Bernardi: but it appearing afterwards that the lieu- 
tenant was only taken prifoner, he miffed of this preferment. In 
April 1677, he married a Dutch lady of a good family, with whom 
he lived comfortably eleven years. He had a fhare the next cam- 
paign in the battle of St. Omers, at the clofe of which he was ap- 
pointed lieutenant in Capt. Philip Savage's company, in which he 
firft ferved by a commiffion from the prince of Orange, d:,ted Sep- 
tember 6, 1677. He was prefent the next year in the battle of 
Mons, which was the laft action in the war. After the peace, his 
godfather, Col. Anfelme, was fo reduced as to be obliged to ferve 
as a private man under Mr. Bernardi, who allowed him double pay, 
and excui'td him from duty. In 1683, Mr. Bernardi was made 
captain-lieutenant in Col. Monk's company, and at this time he 
was in fo great favour with the prince of Orange, that upon the 
death of Capt. Jafper Pafion, brother to the earl 'of Yarmouth, he 
had his company given him by a comtruiTion from the prince, dated 
the I7th of November, 1685, which was confirmed by a commif- 
fion from the States, dated the yj of December following. At this 
lime his circumftances were very eafy, and he had iuft reafon to be 

M - thankful 


thankful to Providence for the condition he was in, having obtained 
by his merit a company at the age of twenty-feven, the profits of 
which, together with his wife's fortune, brought him in a clear re- 
venue of 500!. a year. But it was not long that he continued in 
this eafy and happy fituation : for King James II. in the year 1687, 
having conceived fome difpleafure againft the States General, de- 
manded the fix regiments of Britifh troops that were in their fer- 
vice, and which had been fo tor fifteen years. This the States re- 
iufed ; but, at the fame time, did not conftrain the officers to ferve 
them againft their will, though care was taken to reprefent to them., 
in very ttrong terms, the difference between remaining upon a fettled 
eftablifhment, and returning home upon an uncertainty. This had 
fuch an effect, that out of two hundred and forty officers that were 
in the whole brigade, no more than fixty thought proper to obey the 
king's commands, amongft whom was Capt. Bernardi. King James 
was no fooner informed of this, than he ordered a yacht to fail for 
Holland to bring thofe gentlemen over, to whom he fent alfo three 
months pay; and upon their arrival in England, immediately raifed 
three new regiments, in order to replace thofe officers in their com- 
mands ; and, at the fame time, iffued a proclamation, declaring all of- 
ficers that remained in the fervice of the ftates of Holland rebels, 
But the fcene was very foon changed : his ferene highnefs proceeded 
foon after on his expedition to England, which brought about the 
Revolution. One of the firft fteps taken by his highnefs after the 
king was \vithdrawn, was to fend an aflbciation to every one of the 
regiments then in being, which all the officers were required to fi<*n, 
importing, that they were determined to defend the prince againft 
all perfons whatever, and fuch officers as refufed it, were ordered to 
quit their commands. Amongft thefe was Capt. Bernardi, who 
having obtained a pafs for himfelf and his family, he tranfported 
them to Calais, where, finding many perfons of his own principles 
in great diftrefs, the captain pledged his effeds for fifty pounds for 
their relief, though they were worth double as much, and the con- 
fcquence was, that he loft both effe&s and money. He proceeded 
from thence to St. Germains, where he was very kindly received, 
and after a fhort repofe, made a long and fatiguing march to Breft, 
to wait the return of the French fleet, which carried King James to 
Ireland, and fpeedily tranfported 2300 of his adherents to the fame 
kingdom. This was in the month of April, 1689, and it was with 
great difficulty they landed thefe people in Bantrey Bay on the firft 
of May, and the next day engaged the Englifh fleet under Admiral 
Herbert. The earl of Dover, who was appointed bv King James 
to receive thefe recruits, conduced them directly to Dublin, where 
they were formed into-feparate corps, and all the officers had com- 
mifllons given them. Amongft the reft, Mr. Bernardi was ap- 
pointed major of an Irifh regiment, which was foon difbanded for 
mutiny i and then he had the like command in the regiment of Mac- 


BERKARDI {John). 93 

Carthy Moor, a great Irifh chief, under whom he ferved for fome 
time. After Marfhal Schomberg landed in that kingdom with 
twenty thoufand men from England, King James found his affairs in 
a very declining condition ; however, as he had (till a fuperior army, 
he marched to Ardee, which he fortified, and thereby kept the 
marfhal in his camp near Oundalk, which being a marfhy, un- 
vrholefome place, half his troops foon died of fluxes. While King 
James was at Ardee, he formed a defign ot fending the earl of Sea- 
forth into Scotland, in hopes that the prefence of that nobleman 
might fupply the lofs of the famous Vifcount Dundee, then lately 
killed in his fervice. To afiilt the earl in this enterprize, the king 
directed Major Bernardi, and another field officer, to attend him, 
which they did, and embarking on board a man of war at Galway, 
in the weft of Ireland, fleered their courfe for Scotland : but before 
they got clear of the Irifli coaft, they met with a ftorm, by which 
their bowfprit and fore-maft were both broke to pieces ; upon 
which the captain with much difficulty and danger worked the (hip 
into Broad-haven, in the province of Connaught, from whence the 
earl fent Major Bernardi to King James, then in his camp at Ardee, 
to acquaint him with this unlucky accident, which hindered his in- 
tended voyage. King James thereupon ordered the fliip back again 
to Galway, and put off the earl's voyage to the next fpring, when 
he proceeded, with Sir Thomas Southwell and Major Bernardi, for 
Scotland, where he fpeedily railed a great body of men for King 
James's fervice, and made the necelfary difpofitions for joining 
Major-General Buchan, who commanded the remains of Lord 
Dundee's forces, in order to form the liege of Invernefs. But the 
earl was difappointed in this defign, by the fpeedy march of Major- 
General Mackay, with a confiderable body of regular troops into 
thofe parts ; and while things were in this fitui'tion, the news came 
of the total defeat of King James's army at the Boyne, upon which 
Sir Thomas Southwell prevailed upon the earl to difmifs his forces, 
and to furrender himfelf prifoner to Major-General Mackay upon 
honourable terms. The earl taking this ftep without the confent of 
his uncle, Mr. Colin Mackenzie, and the reft of his friends, it pro- 
voked them to fuch a degree, that they would have cut Sir Thomas 
Southwell to pieces, if Major Barnardi had not interpofed and pre- 
vented it. This Mr. Colin Mackenzie took Major Bernardi, and 
the reft of the officers that came with him from Ireland, under his 
protection, and conducted them fafely to Major-General Buchan, 
who was then an hundred miles diftance, and who, upon hearing of 
the earl of Seaforth's conduct, had di (miffed moft of his forces. 
Major Bernardi had now nothing more to tranfacl: in the High- 
lands ; and therefore, as his prefence there could be of no fervjce, he 
defired to go to England, and Major-Genera! Buchan approved of it, 
and fent for the laird of Glenco, to come with forty of his vaifdls, 
to receive Bernardi at Invergary, and t :> conduct and guard him to 



the Braes of Monteth, being near an hundred miles, and very diffi- 
cult travelling ever rocks and mountains in that feafon of the year, 
near the end of October. A great part of the journey was to be 
performed in the night-time, feveral detachments of King Wil- 
liam'. 1 : forces lying in their v/uy, particularly at Inverlochy, or Fort 
William, a place where was a garnfon of twelve hundred men, and 
there was no way to climb up an high mountain, but near the gate of 
the faid fortrefs, fo that it was iinpofllble to pafs them but when aflcep 
and their gate locked. The laird of Glenco's country lying within 
twenty miles of that garrifon, Major Bernardi arrived fafe at that 
gentleman's houfe, and remained there fome days, to reft himfelf 
and recover his ftrength. After having repofed himfelf there iix 
days, he defiied to proceed on his journey, and the laird appointed 
forty of his belt men, under the command of a relation ot his own, 
to conduct him to the Braes of Monteth, places as dangerous and 
difficult to pafs as any of the way he had come before. The fame 
inconveniences, of fmall garrifons of the government, were in their 
way, and their parries were continually about the country in the day- 
time. This made the fecond part of Major Bernardi's journey to 
be moftly night-work : however, he arrived fafe at the Braes, at 
which place he was recommended by Major-General Buchan, to 
one Colonel Duncan Graham, to be then farther directed by him. 
Major Bernardi proceeded on his journey from the Braes of Monteth, 
under the conduct of a guide appointed him by Col. Graham, and 
having no more need of guards, he arrived at Edinburgh in the 
month of November, in the year 1691. The magiftrates of that 
city having heard fome gentlemen were come from the Highlands, 
ordered their gates to be (hut, and a general fearch to be made for 
them. Bernardi's landlord getting notice of it, conducted him out 
or' town but halt an hour before the order was put in execution, 
otherwife his journey at that time had terminated in fome prifon at 
Edinburgh: but efcaping that, and fome other dangers, he travelled 
on from thence to London, meeting with no more difficulties than 
thofe of a long winter's journey. Having nnifhed his affairs in 
London, by difpofing of fome effects he had left with a friend when 
he went out of England, and by felling his Scots horfes, he pur- 
pofed to go over to Flanders, and meeting with two gentlemen of 
his acquaintance ready to make the fame voyage, he went with 
them to Colchefter, where they were recommended to the mafter 
of a fliip, who was in a fliort time to carry over a lady of great 
Duality to Oftend ; but the wind happening to be fixed in the eaft, 
the lady ordered her trunks to be put on board, and then went to a 
Rtleman's houle about five miles off, charging the mafter to fend 
ior her as fuon as the wind came fair. Bernardi and his friends met 
with two other gentlemen who were {hangers to them, and alfo un- 
known in the town, who were come thither to get a paifage over in 
fame ihip. They joined company, and lodged all together for 


BERNARDI (John). 9$ 

fth7 r.1- -. . , . r. lr n-.-, . M rOTM ir. . ...- m -^ m nv.^^.,-=g 

fome nights at Mr. Cook's, then poll-mailer in Colchefter : bu. 
having notice of ibme people's inquifitivenefs about them, Bernard 1 
and his two friends went to a gentleman's houfe about a mile out of 
the town, and the other two gentlemen went to the mailer of the 
fhip's houfe. The fecond night after Bernardi and his friends went 
into the country, intimation was given, that Sir Ifaac Rebow, ajullice 
of the peace, had ilfued out his warrant to apprehend them and bring 
them before him, and the wind coming fair the fame night, they 
went dircdlly to the maftcr ot the fhip's houfe, to go on board. 
The mafter of the (hip told them, that he had fent a meflenger to 
the lady, and expected her in an hour more, and fent one of his 
men to condud. them on board a fhip, and faid he would follow 
them, with the other two gentlemen at his houfe, as foon as the 
lady came. A mefTage came from the lady, that (he could not pof- 
fibly come before the next day in the afternoon. Bernardi and his 
two friends continued on (hip-board to avoid the ju (lice's warrant. 
The next day, towards the evening, came a company of traincd- 
bands, with five hundred country people, to the key, where the 
(hip then lay dry at low water, about two miles from the town, and 
Bernardi, and the two gentlemen with him, were feized, and car- 
ried direlly to Colchefter gaol, where the other two gentlemen, 
and the mafter of the (hip, had before been made prisoners. The 
lady who occafioned all this ftir was the countefs of Errol, with 
whom Mr. Bernardi was not at all acquainted : however, it coft 
him a great deal of trouble, and hindered him irom purfuing any 
fettled courfe of lite till a year and a half afterwards, that a bill being 
preferred againft him and his friends in EiTl-x for high treafon, was 
rejected ; by which he efcaped, indeed, any farther fuffering on this 
head, but at the e>;pence of leveral hundred pounds, a.lofs almofl in- 
fupportable to a man already of a broken fortune. He went after- 
y.ards over to Holland, with the earl of Nottingham's pafs, who 
was then fecretary of (late, and returning within the time prefcribed, 
i-Tierited thereby fome farther indulgences from his lordfhip. The 
times being now dangerous for a man of Major Bernardi's fenti- 
mtnts, who could fcarcely live fo cautioufly as not to give fome of- 
fence, he refolved to retire into the country, where he lived peace- 
ably, and without feeing much company, for fome months, at a 
houfe near Brentford. But being obliged to quit this houfe, on ac- 
count, of it's changing it's owner, he came to London again about 
Chriftmas 1695, which proved his ruin by a feries of very unfor- 
tunate accidents, fuppofing what he conftantly profelTed to be true, 
that he was in no refpecl privy to the bafe and barbarous confpiracy 
for aflafiinating King William. For being -unhappily at a tavern 
,on Tower-hill, with one Captain Rookwood, who was his old ac- 
quaintance, and who was involved in that aflur, they were leized 
together, and fent to the Compter, and afterwards committed to 
prifon, where he died Sept. 20, r -36. 



BERNARDINE, an ecclefiaftic and faint, born at Mafia, ia 
Tufcany, 1380. He loft his mother at three years of age, and his 
father at feven. In 1392, his relations lent for him to Sienna, where 
he learned grammar under Onuphrius, and philofophy under John 
Spaletanus-. In 1396 he entered himfcH among the confraternity 
of the difciplinaries in the Hofpital de la Scala in that city; and in 
1400, when the plague ravaged all Italy, he attended upon the fick " 
in that hofpital with the utmoft diligence and humanity. In 1404 
he entered into a monaftery of the Francifcan order, near Sienna, 
and, having been ordained prieft, became an eminent preacher. He 
was afterwards fent to Jerufalem, as commiflary of the Holy Land ; 
and upon his return to Italy viflted feveral cities, where he preached 
with great applaufe. His enemies accufed him to Pope Martin V. 
of having advanced in his fermons erroneous proportions ; upon 
which he was ordered to Rome, where he vindicated himfelf, and 
was allowed to continue his preaching. The cities of Ferrara, 
Sienna, and Urbino, defired Pope Eugenius IV. to appoint him 
their bifliop ; but Bernardine refufed to accept of this honour. He 
repaired and founded above three hundred monafteries in that coun- 
try. He died at Aquila, in Abruzzo, 1444, and was canonized by 
by Pope Nicholas in 1450. 

BERNERS (JULIANA), was born at Roding, in EfTex, about the 
beginning of the fifteenth century, being the daughter of Sir James 
Berners, of Berners Roding, and fifter of Richard Lord Berners. 
The education of Juliana feems to have been the very beft which 
that -age could aflwrd; and her attainments were fuch, that (he is 
celebrated by various authors for her uncommon learning, and her 
other fine accomplishments. Her extraordinary qualifications ren- 
dered her every way capable and deferving of the office me bore, 
which was that of priorefs of Sopewell nunnery. This was a cell 
to. and very near St. Al ban's ; and a good part of the (hell of it is 
Hill (landing. Here fhe lived in high efleem, and nouriflied, ac- 
aocording to Bale, Tanner, and Ballard, about the year 1460; but 
if what we have faid concerning her birth be the true account, fhe 
tnuft have flourHhed foEnewhat earlier. She was a very beautiful 

'", of great fpirit, and loved mafculine exercifes, fuch as hawk- 
ing, hunting, &c. With thefefports (he ufed frequently to recreate 
her*?:-; and fo thoroughly was ihe (killed in them that (he wrote 
treatifes of hawking, hunting, and heraldry. So well efteemed were 
Juliana Berners's treatifes, and indeed fo popular were the fubjecls 
<>,-] whirr, they were written, that they were published in the very in- 
lanry of the art of printing. That part of our abbefs's work which 
relates to huming is written in rhyme. It is fpoken in her own 
peribn ; .. hich, being otherwife a woman of authority, Ihe af- 
lumt-s the title of dame. The barbarifm of the times ftrongly ap- 
p .ar? in th> indslicate exprdlions which Juliana Bcrner^ often ufes; 

/< and 


and which are equally incompatible with her fex and profellion. 
The book on Armory begins with the following curious piece of 
facred heraldry: " Of the offspring ot the gentilman Jafeth, come 
Habraham, Moyfes, Aron, and the profctiys; and alfo the kyng of 
the right lyne of Mary, of whom that gentilman Jhefus was borne, 
very God and man: alter his manhodc kynge of the land of Jude 
and of Jues, gentilman by his modre Mary, pjince of cote armure, 
&c* M The moft diligent inquirers have not been able to determine 
the exadt period of Juliana Berners's deceafe. 

BERNIER (FRANC is), furnarr.ed the Mogul, on account of his 
voyages and refidence in the Mogul's country, was born at Angers, 
in France. After he had taken his degree of doclor of phyiic at 
Mon^pelier, he gratified a ftrong natural inclination which he had 
for travelling. He left his own country in 1654, and went firli to 
the Holy Land, and thence into Egypt. Hs^continued a year at 
Cairo, where he was infeled with the plague. He embarked af- 
terwards at Suez for the kingdom of the Mogul, and refided twelve 
years at the court of this prince, whom he attended in feveral of his 
journeys, and ailed as his phyiic ian for eight years. Upon his re- 
turn to France, in 1670, he publilhed the hiftory of the countries 
which he had vifited.and feveral other works, in tne compofition of 
which he fpent the remainder of his life. He made a voyage to 
England in 1685, and died three years after at Paris, on the 22d of 
September, i68d. 

BERNINI, or BERNIN QOHN LAWRENCE), commonly called 
Cavaliero Bernin, was bom at Naples, and became famous lor his 
fkill in painting, fculpture, architecture, and mechanics. He began 
firfr. to be known under the pontificate of Paul V. who foretold his 
iuture fame as foon as he faw his firlt performances. Rome is in- 
debted to this artift for fome of her greateft ornaments. There are 
in the church of St. Peter, no iefs than fifteen different works of his. 
Ol thefe the moft admired are the great altar and tabernacle ; St. 
Peter's chair; the tombs of Urban VIII. and Alexander VII. ; 
the equeflrian ftatue of Conftarrine ; the porticos, fupported by a 
great number of pillars, which furround the court of St. Peter ; the 
fountain in the fquare Navonna ; the church of St. Andrew, for the 
novitiate Jefuits; and the ftatue of Daphne, in the family of the 
Borghefe. Jn 1665 Bernini was invited to France, to work in the 
Louvre ; and here he executed a bult of the king, which gained him 
the applaufe of the' whole court. He likevvife undertook an equef- 
trian ftatue of his majeily. Bernini died at Rome, the 2gth ot No- 
vember, 1680. 

BERNOUILLI (DANIEL ,, was born at Groningen, Feb. 9, 

1700. He pu'.fcd fume time ia Italy ; and a: twenty-lour refuted to 

VOL. II, N be 


be prefident of an academy meant to have been eftabliftied at Genoa 
palled fume years at St. Feterfburgh with great credit, and in 1733 
returned to Balil ; where he fucceflively filled the chair of phyfic, 
natural and fpectilative pliilofophy. In his firft work, " Exercita- 
tiones Mathematics," he took the only title he then had, viz. " Son 
of John Bernoulli," and never would fufter any other to be added to 
it. This work appeared in Italy, with the great inquifitor's privi- 
lege to it, and it claifed Bernoulli in the rank of inventors. He 
gained or divided nine prizes, which were contended lor by the 
moft illuftrious mathematicians in Europe, from the Academy of 
Sciences. His firft prize he gained at twenty-four years of ajre. 
In 173.1 ne divided one with his father: but this hurt the family 
union ; ior the father conftrued the conteft itfelf into a want of 
refpecl, and the fon did not fufficiently conceal that he thought 
(what was really the cafe) his own piece better than his father's. 
Befides this, he declared for Newton, againft \\hom his father 
had contended all his life. In 1740 Mr. Bernouilli divided the 
prize " On the Tides of the Sea" with Euler and Maclaurin. The 
academy at the fame time crowned a fourth piece, whofe only merit 
was that of being Cartefian ; but this was the lall public adl ot 
adoration paid by it to the authority of the author of the Vortices, 
which it had obeyed, perhaps, too long. In 1748 Mr. Daniel Ber- 
nouilli fucceeded his father in the Academy of Sciences, and was 
himfelf fucceeded by his brother John: this place, fince it's firil 
erection, i. e. about 90 years, never having been without a Ber- 
nouilli to fill it. He was extremely refpecled at Bafil ; and to bow 
to Daniel Bernouiili, when they met him in the ftreets, was one ot 
the firft leilbns which every father gave every child. He ufed to 
tell two little adventures, which he faid had given him more pleafure 
than all the other honours he had received. He was travelling with 
a learned (hanger, who, being pleafed with his converfation, aiked 
his name. " I am Daniel Bernouilli," anfwered he, with great 
modefty: 4< And I," Lil the ftranger, " am Ifaac Newton." Ber- 
nouilli died in March 1782. 

BERNOULLI (JAMES), a celebrated mathematician, was born 
at Bafil, December 27, 1654. After he had ftudied polite lite- 
rature, he learned the old philofophy of the fchools ; and having 
taken his degrees in the univerfity of Bafil, applied himfelf to divi- 
nity, not fo much from inclination, as complaifance to his father* 
He gave very early proofs of his genius for mathematics, and foon 
became a geometrician, without any ailiftance from mafters, and 
at firft almoft without books: for he was not allowed to have any 
kooksol this kind ; and if one fell by chance into his hands, he was 
obliged to conceal it, that he might not incur the difpleafure of his 
father, who ueiigned him for other ftuvlie?. This feverity made 
him chwfc foi his device, Phscton driving the chariot of the fun. 

2 with 

BERNOUILLI (James). 99 

with thefe words " Invito patre fidera verfo" ' I traverfe the ftars 
without my father's inclination." It had a particular reference to 
agronomy, the part ot mathematics to which he had firft applied 
himfclf. But the precautions of his father did not avail, for he pur- 
fued his favourite itudy with great application. In 1676 he began 
his travels, When he was at Geneva, he fell upon a method to 
teach a young girl to write, though fhe had loft her fight when fhe 
was but two months old. At Bourdeaux he compofed univerfal 
gnomonic tables, but they were never published. He returned from 
France to his own country in 1680. About this time there ap- 
peared a comet, the return of which he foretold, and wrote a fmall 
treatife upon it, which he afterwards tranflafed info Latin, He 
went foon after to Holland, where he applied himfelf to the new 
philofophy, and particularly to that part of the mathematics which 
confifts in refolving problems and demonftrations. After having 
vilited Flanders and Brabant, he went to Calais, and palled over to 
England. At London he contracted an acquaintance with all the 
molt eminent men in the feveral fciences; and had the honour of 
being frequently prefent at the philofophical focieties held at the 
houfe of the famous Mr. Boyle. He returned to his native country 
in' 1682, and exhibited at Balil a courfe ot experiments in natural 
philofophy and mechanics, which confuted of various new difco- 
veries. The fame year he publifhed his effay of " A new Syftem 
ot Comets," and the year following his " DHFertation upon the 
Weight of Air." In 1684. he was invited to be profeflfor of mathe- 
matics at Heidelberg, and would have accepted of this offer, had not 
his marriage with a lady of good family fixed him in his own 

Mr. Leibnitz published about this time, in the A&a Eruditorum 
at Leipfic, fome eifays on his new Calculus dffirentialis, or infinimens 
petits, but concealed the art and method of it. Mr. Bernoulli, how-* 
ever, and one of his brothers, who was likewife an excellent geo- 
metrician, endeavoured to unfold the fecret ; which they did with fo 
much fuccefs, rhat Mr. Leibnitz declared them to have an equal 
right with himfelf to a fhare in this invention. In 1687 the pro- 
felforfhip of mathematics at Bafil being vacant, Mr. Bernoulli was 
appointed his fuccelfor. He difcharged this trull with univerfal ap- 
plaufe. His reputation drew a great number of foreigners from all 
parts to hear his lectures. He had an admirable talent in teaching, 
and adapting himielf to the different genius and capacity of his fcho-p 
lars. In 1699 ne was admitted into the academy of fciences at 
Paris as a foreign member; and in ijci the fame honour was con* 
ferred upon him by the academy of Berlin, He wrote feveral pieces 
in the " Acla Eruditorum of Leipfic," the t5 Journal des Savans," 
and the " Hiftoire de 1'Academie des Sciences." At length appli- 
cation to fludy brought upon him the gout, and by degrees reduced 
him to a, (low fever, of which he died the i6th of Aug>ift, 1705. 



BERR1MAN (Dr WILLIAM), was born September 24, 1688, 
and was the Ion ot Mr, Jo! n Bernnian, apothecary, in Bifhcpfgate- 
flrect, and the grand ("on of the Rev. Mr. Berriinan, rector of 
Bedington, in Snrry. He had his grammar learning at Banbury, in 
Oxfoidlhire, and at Merchant Taylor's fchool. At feventeen years of 
age he was entered a commoner ot Oriel college in Oxford, where 
lie took his feveral degrees when he was oi proper Handing for 
them. He was curate and ledturer of Allhallows, Thames-itreet, 
~nd lefhirer of St. Michael's, Queenhithe. He was appointed do- 
meftic chaplain to Dr. Robin (on, bifhop of London, in 1720, and 
foon after collated by him to the living of Sr. Andrew's, Underfhafr. 
Jn 1/27 he was elected fellow of Eton college) by the intereft of 
Pr. Gr.dolphin, the provoft, without any felicitation. Here he 
chiefly relidtd in the fummer, and in his parfonage houfe in the 
\vinter; where he died, Feb. 5, 1749-50, in the llxty-fecond year of 
his age. His writings are, I. A feafonable Review of Mr. Whif- 
ton's Account of primitive Doxologie?, 1719. 2. An Hiftorical 
Account of the Trinitarian Controverfy, in ei<?ht Sermons at Lady 
Moyer's Lefture, 1725. 3. A Defence of fome PalTages in the 
Hiftoncal Account, 1731. 4. Brief Remarks on Mr. Chandler's 
Introdu&ion to the Hiltory of the Inquifuion, 1733. 5. A Review 
of the Remarks. 6. Sermons at Boyle's Lectures, 1733, in twa 
vols. 8vo. Bcfides thefe, he publilhed many occafional fermons in 
his life-time; and after his death were publilhed, by his brother, John 
Bcniman, M. A. from his original mamifcript/ " Chriftian Doc- 
trines and Duties explained and recommended." 

BERQUIN (LEWIS DE), a gentleman of Artois, who was burnt 
for being a Proteftant, at Paris, "in 1529. He was lord of a village, 
whence he took his name, and for fome time made a confiderable 
figure at the court of France, where he was honoured with the title 
of King's councilor. Erafmus fays, hi? great crime was openly 
profefllng to hate the monks; and that from hence arofe his warm 
conteft with William Quernus, one of the mod violent inquifitors 
of his time. A charge of herefy was muttered up againft him, and 
the articles of his accufatiun were drawn out of a book which he 
had publifhed: he was thereupon committed to prifon ; but, when 
his affair came to a trial, he was acquitted by the judges. His ac- 
cufers pretended that he would not have efcaped, had not the king 
ii.terpofed his authority ; but Eerquin himfelf afcribcd it entirely to 
thejuftice of his caufe, and was no more cautious than before. 
Some time after, Noel Beda and his emilfaries made extracts from 
fome of his books, and accufed him of pernicious errors, whereupon 
he was again fent to prifon, and, the caufe being tried, fentence was 
pronounced againft him; viz. that his books be committed to the 
flames, that he re'rad his errors, and make a proper fubmiffion, and 
if he refufe to comply, that he be burnt. Being a man of an un- 

BERTHEAU (Charles). 101 

dauiuird, inflexible fpirit, he would ftibmir to nothing; and in all 
probability woulii at this time have fuffered death, had not fome of 
the judges, who perceived the violenceof his accufers, got the affair 
to be again heard and examined. It is thought this was owing to 
the interceflion of madam the Regent. In the mean time, Francis 
I. returning from Spain, and finding the danger of his counfellor 
from Beda and his faction, wrote to the parliament, telling them to 
be cautious how they proceeded, for that he himfelf would take cog- 
nizance of the affair. Soon after Berquin was fet at liberty, which 
gave him fuch courage, that he turned accufer againft his accufers: 
he profecuted them for irreligion ; though, if he had taken the ad- 
vice of Erafmus, he would have efteemed it a fufficient triumph that 
he had got free from the perfecution of fuch people. But not con- 
tent, fays Mr. Bayle, with efcaping from his accufers, he muft needs 
have the honour of a victory,, as a reward of his labour. Is not this 
like the crane (continues Bayle), who afked for a reward after he had 
got his neck fate and found out of the wolf's throat r He was fent 
a third time to prifon, and condemned to a public recantation, and 
perpetual imprisonment. He would not acqniefce in this judgment; 
and being therefore condemned as an obflinate heretic, he was 
ftrangled on the Greve, and afterwards burnt. He fuffered death 
with great conftancy and relolution, being then about forty years of 

BERTHEAU (CHARLES), an eminent French Protefhnt di- 
vine, long refident in the city of London, was born in the year 
1660, at Montpelier, where his lather, whofe name alfo was 
Charles, was minifter. He ftudied philolbphy and divinity, partly 
in France, and partly in Holland, and was admitted a minifter in the 
fynod held at Vigan in 1681, being then only twenty-one years of 
age. He was, however, the next year chofen paftor to the church 
of Montpelier; but he did not make any long fray in that city, for 
he was loon after promoted to be one of the miniliers of the church 
of Paris, which met at Charenton. He continued in that ftation 
about two years, and though he was yet in very early life, he dif- 
charged the paftoral duties to which he was called in a manner 
greatly to his reputation. But when Lewis the Fourteenth thought 
proper, by the revocation of the edict ot Nantz, to drive his Pro- 
teftant fubjeds out of France, an act equally repugnant to juftice, 
humanity, and the dictates of found policy, Mr. Bertheau found 
himfelf obliged to quit his native country. He accordingly came to 
England in 1685, and the following year was chofen one of the mi- 
nifters of the Walloon church, in Threadneedle-ftreet, London, 
where he difcharged the duties of the paftoral office for about forty- 
four years, in fuch a manner as procured very general applaufe. 
lie died on the 2fth of December, 1/32, in the ftnenty- third year 



of hi- age, exceedingly regretted by his congregation, and by all 
who had the pleafure of being acquainted with him. He was the 
amhtTof two volumes of fermons, and ' Difcourfts upon the Ca- 

BERTIE (PEREGRINE), fon and heir of Richard Bertie, by 
Catherine, duchefs of Suffolk, and (in her own right) baronefs 
IVilhwghby of Erefby, was in the firft year of Qjicen Elizabeth 
irude a free denizen, by patent bearing date the 2d of Auguft, 1559. 
On the death of his mother, he claimed the dignity and title of Lord 
"Wilioughby of Erefby, wearing his mourning apparel at her funeral 
in all points as a baron. The Queen having appointed Sir William 
Cecil, knight, Lord Burleigh, lord high treafurer of England ; Tho- 
ma> earl of Suifex, lord high chamberlain ; and Robert earl of 
Leicefter, to hear and fee the peiition and proofs exhibited by the 
faid Peregrine Bertie, for the dignity of Lord Willoughby of 
Ere/by ; and they having made their report to her maje(ty of his 
right and title to the fame, (he commanded them to declare to him 
that, according to his right, her pleafure was that he fhould be ad- 
rawed to the dignit v , and be named and called by the title of Lord 
Wi35ci!^bby ot Erefby. This they did in the Star Chamber, on 
Friday the nth of November, 1580 (his father being then living), 
and pbced him at the table with them according to his rank, above 
many other barons who dined with them, and all of them drank to 
him by the name of Lord Willoughby ; and on Monday the i6th 
of January following, he took his feat in parliament next to Lord 
Zouch of Harringworth, according to his rank. 

In the year 1582 the lord Willoughby, with the earl of Leicefter, 
and k'vera! other noblemen, was commanded to attend the duke of 
Anjo-s (then in England, and who was to have married Queen Eli- 
zabeth] to Antwerp, which he did, the queen herfelf going with 
them as far as Canterbury ; and be f ne the end of that year, his lord- 
fhjp was fent an-.baiTador to Frederick II. king of Denmark, under 
colour of carrying him 'the order of the Garter : but the chief motive 
of his'.Ty was to induce that prince to defift from certain cuf- 
toms, which the Englifh merchant fhips paid him in pafling the 
^ : i:\ which, however, it was not pofiible to fucceed. The 


lord Wiltoiighby, however, inverted his Danifh majefty with the 
enfigrn of the order, p;:t on the collar of rofes about his neck, and 
the g.utL-r about his leg; hut the other enfigns the king took to 
keep J"d by up, refuGng to put them on becaufe they were out- 
landiih. He likewife reiuftd to take the ufual oath, having denied 
thefanie thing before, when he was admitted to theprder of St. Mi- 
chael by the French king. 

In 15556 Lord Willoughhy diftinguifhed hirnfelf at the ficge of 
Zutphtn, in the Netherliuicis ; where, ip a lharp encoynter with the 

BERTIE (Peregrine). 1 03 

forces of that garrifon, he overthrew George Crefiack, at that time 
commander in chief of the enemy's horfe, and took him pri Toner. 
The year after, he was made general of the Englilh auxiliary iorces 
in the United Piovinces, in the room of the earl of Leiceiier, who 
was recalled home. There he moft valiantly defended Bergen-op- 
Zoom againft the duke of Parma, who had befieged it ; and did many 
other fignal fervices in Flanders, and acquired great applaufe and re- 
putation. In 1589 he was one of the peers that fat on the trial of 
Philip earl of Arundel ; and the fame year he was fent general of 
4000 auxiliaries into France, to the king of Navarre's afilltarice, and 
alfo carried with him 22,oool. tterling in gold. He aflilted, ami was 
very tervkeable, at the fiege of Paris, and alfo at the reduction of 
Mons, A'enc >n, Falais, Luxon, and Honfltur; and after the fatigue 
of a long winter's expedition, and a march of about 500 miles, his 
troops were difbanded with great commendations for their gcxxi 
fervice, and a prefent of a diamond ring from the king of France 
to their brave general the lord Willoughby. This his Ion! (hip at 
his death left to his fon Peregrine, with a charge, upon his bleifing, 
to tranfmit it to his heirs. 

We did not find his lordfhip engaged in any military exploit? after 
this expedition to France : he had already achieved enough to dta- 
blifh his reputation as a great and able commander; and thtre 
wanted nothing to raife his renown higher than it now w,w, to 
render him fairer in the eye of public eftimation, or to place him 
in a higher degree of confidence and efleem with his fovereign. Of 
this we have an inconteftible proof, in a letter written by the queen, 
with her own hand, to this nobleman, by way of congratulation 
upon the recovery of his health ; at the fame time gently exhorting 
him to return again to his employments and to court, from which 
he voluntarily abfented himfelf; lor he had a magnanimity ami 
greatnefs of fpirit that could not fubniit to the fervilenefs and flat- 
tery of a court. This letter is penned in fuch a friendly and fami- 
liar ftyle, with fuch kind expreilions of gratitude for his lordlhip's 
fervices, and genteel but jult encomiums upon his merit, as to 
ftiew much good fer.fe and good nature in the writer. Where his 
lordfhip was ( at the time her majefty paid him this honour, we 
are not informed; but, from the letter, it (hould feem that he was 
fomewhere abroad, though prob.ibly he might be only at Berwick, 
of which place he was governor about this time, or, however, footi 
after; for his will bears date 7th Auguit, 1599, at Berwick, five 
years after the date of the queen's letter. Her majefty had, fome 
years before this, given his lordihip a proof of her regard for hire 1 , 
by voluntarily offering to (land godmother to his firfl-born Ton, Ro- 
bert, the young general, as ihe then called him ; and which words he 
verified, as we lhall fee hereaher. This great nobleman departed 
this life ia the beginning of the year 1601, and was buiieci, ac- 


cording to his define, in the parilh church of Spilfby, in the county 
of Lincoln, where a monument was eredled to his memory. 

BERTIE (ROBERT), was born at London, December j6, 1582. 
Her majefty Queen Elizabeth, and the earls of ElTex and Leicelter, 
were his fponfors. This nobleman, when he was very young, 
fhewed an unufnal forwardntfs and inclination to arms and military 
exercifes, and was preferit at fevtral fieges ; as that of Amiens, under 
Sir John Bafkerville and Sir Arthur Savage; that of Cadiz, under 
the earls of Effex and Nottingham, in 1596, where he was knighted 
for his valiant behaviour ; and at the famous battle of Newport, 
fought between Prince Maurice and the Archduke, in the year 
1600, when he was three times unhorfed, but remained flill un- 
daunted, and where eight hundred Engtofhmen loft their lives. He 
xvas with the earl of Cumberland vvh'jn he took the caracks at 
Porto-Rico ; and alfo with Sir Richard Levefon, and Sir William 
Monfon, in 1602, when they took the great Spanilh carack, worth 
a million of crowns, and riifperfed eleven gallies that guarded her. 
Having feen mofl of the couits and countries in Europe, his lord- 
fhip, in the firit year of King James I. fet up his claim to the earl- 
dom of Oxford, as alfo to the title of Bulbeck, Sand ford, and Badlef- 
mere, and to the office of lord high chamberlain of England, as fon 
and heir to Mary, the fole daughter to that great family. After 
much difpure he had judgment in his behalf tor the oflice of lord 
high chamberlain, and the fame year took his feat above all the 
barons. His lordfhip was afterwaids created a knight of the Bath, 
at the iriftallation of Prince Charles, afterwards king of England. 
During the peaceable reign of King James, he lived quietly at his 
feat in Lincolnlhiie ; but in the next reign, which found employ- 
ment enough for the moil active mind, he greatly diftinguifhed 
himfclf. In the fecond year of King Charles I. he was advanced 
to the dignity ot earl of Lindley In 1628 he was made admiral, in 
the mom of the duke of Buckingham, murdered by Felton at Portf- 
mouth ; in a few days after which he failed with a large fleet to the 
relief ot Rochelle, where he made many brave attempts to break 
through the great barricad ) acrofs the entry of that port, but all 
in vain. Four years after, he was elected a knight of the mod noble 
order of the Garter, and one of his majefty's moft honourable privy 
council. The next year, the feventh of King Charles I. he was 
made lord high con (table of England, for the trial of Lord Rea and 
David Ramfay, in the court military; which patent was revoked 
the ioth of May. In the ninth of Charles I. he commanded a 
fleet of forty fail of men of war, for fecuring the narrow fcas and 
the trade of England. In the eleventh of Charles I. he was confti- 
tuted l>rd high admiral of England, having, according to the hifto- 
rian, beui admiral at, fea in fcveral expeditions ; and in 1639, on 


BERTIE (Montague). 105 

In T~-~r-r _ _ _^^ _ ^n -. - 

the Scots taking arms, he was made governor of Berwick. In 
1640 he was made lord high conftable of England for the trial of 
Lord! Stratford, of which he had the management, being alfo at that 
time fpeaker of the Houfe of Peers. This lame year his tnajefty 
declared him general of his forces ; and he was ever near his ma- 
jefty's parfon, alfifting him, to the very utmoft of his power anil 
abilities, with his advice in council, and his experience and va- 
lour in the field, as we (hall foon fee. He and his fon, the lord lough by of Erefby, afterwards earl of Lindfey, were among 
thofe lords who left the Hotife of Peer?, and followed the king u> 
York, in 1642 ; where they entered into and figned a folemn en- 
gagement, to Hand by his majefty, in defence of his perfon, crown, 
and dignity, and the maintenance of the eftabhihed laws and reli- 
gion, with their lives and fortunes; and accordingly the earl of 
Lindfey and his fon raifed the counties of Lincoln anil Nottingham 
for the king's defence. They afterwards joined with the other lords, 
then with the king at York, in a declaration or teftimony in vindi- 
cation of his majefty ; protefting they were fully perfuaded he had no 
intention of making war upon the parliament, as was then reported, 
but that all his endeavours tended to the firm and conltant fettle- 
ment of the Proteftant religion, thejuft privileges of parliament, 
the liberty of the fubjecT:, and the law, peace, and profperity of his 
kingdom. Both thefe declarations were printed and ptiblifhed, 
with the lords names thereto, remaining as monuments of their loy- 
alty, and zeal for the honour of their fovereign. The brave earl of 
Lindfey, this fame year, gave the lad proof of his affection for his 
majefty, and of his own perfonal bravery, in the battle of Edgehill, 
fought on the 23d of Oclober, 1642, in which his lordfhip was 
killed, receiving a fhot in his thigh at the head of his own regi- 
ment; and his fon, the lord Willoughby, taken prifoner. After 
his lordfhip was wounded, and taken away by the, enemy, he con- 
tinued, even with his dying breath,, his endeavours to ferve his royal 
mafter, by ferioufly exhorting the parliamentarian officers to return 
to their obedience and duty to the king. He died before his wounds 
could be dreifed, by mere lols of blood. 

BERTIE (MONTAGUE), whom in the lart article we have fol- 
lowed, by the name of Lord Willoughby of Erefby, to the battle of 
Edge-hill, where we have feen he was taken prifoner, by endea- 
vouring to refcue his father, being afterwards exchanged, went to 
Oxford, where the king then was, who joyfully received him, and 
he as refoltitely adhered to his majefly's lervice, commanding the 
regiment of life- guards in feveral battles; as at Newbury twice, 
Cropredy, Leftwitlu'el, and other places; as alfo in the fatal battle 
of Nufeby, where he wH wounded. He had a lhare likewife in all 
the misfortunes of that king, being one of the gentlemen of his 
royal bedchamber, and of his privy-council, attending him evtn 

VOL. If, O to 


to the time his majefty put himfelf into the hands of the Scots. At 
the treaty in the Ifle of Wight, the king fent for him to be one of 
his commifiioners and advifers. After the execution of the' king, 
the car] of Lindfey, together with the duke of Richmond, the mar- 
quis of Hertford, and earl of Southampton, defired leave to perform 
the laft duty to their dead mafler, and to wait upon him to his grave, 
which they were permitted to do ; and accordingly they attended the 
royal corpfe to Wind for, where it was buried. After this, the lord 
Lindfey compounded, and lived privately, expecting and endeavour- 
ing the reftoration of monarchy and epifcopacy ; which being ef- 
fected, King Charles II. conftituted him one of his privy council, 
and his lordlhip was alfo appointed one of the judges at the trials 
of the regicides ; and afterwards elected a knight of the moft noble 
order of the Garter, at a chapter held at Whitehall, the firft of 
April, 1 66 1. At the king's coronation, exhibiting his claim for the 
exercifing that great hereditary office of lord high chamberlain of 
England, and for the reception of fuch fees and benefits as his noble 
anccftors had heretofore enjoyed, he did accordingly, on that folemn 
occafion, execute the office of lord high chamberlain, and received 
thofe fees and benefits which were of right his due. His lordfhip 
died at Campden-houfe in Kenfmgton, the 25th of July, 1666, aged 
fifty-eight years. 

BERTIUS (PETLR), a man diftinguifhed by religious adven- 
tures as well as letters, was born in a fmall town of Flanders, 1565. 
He became profeilbr of philofophy at Leyden, but loft his profef- 
forfhip for taking part with the Arminians. He went to Paris, 
where he abjured the Proteftant religion in 1620, was made cof- 
mographer to the king, and royal profeffor extraordinary of ma- 
thematics. He died in 1629, aged 64, and left fome better 
things behind him that he had written about the Gomarifts and 
Arminians. i. Cdmmentaria Rerum Germanicarum, I2mo. 2. 
A good edition of Ptolemy's Geography, in Greek and Latin, folio. 
3. De Aggeribus et Pontibus. 4. Introductio in Univerfam Geo- 

BERTON (WILLIAM), an eminent divine of the fourteenth 
century, and doctor in that faculty, flourifhed about the year 1381, 
in the reign of Richard II. and was fome time chancellor of the 
univerfity of Oxford. He is chiefly remarkable for his oppofition 
to the doctrines of Wickliff: for by virtue of his office, as governor 
of the univerfity, he appointed twelve cenfors, fix. of the order of 
Mendicants, and fix feculars, confifting of divines and lawyers, to 
examine Wickliff's opinions, who accordingly declared him an he- 
retic. He wrote likewife againft that pretended herefiarch; and for 
this reafon it is that his character is fo differently reprefented by dif- 
ferent authors. 



BESSARION, titular patriarch of Conftantinople, and arch- 
bifhop of Nice, and one of thofe illuftrious perfons who contri- 
buted to the reftoration of letters in the fifteenth century, was 
born at Trebifond. He was very zealous to reunite the Greek with 
the Latin church, and engaged the emperor John Paleologus to in- 
tereil himfelf in bringing this great work about. He palled into 
Italy, appeared at the council of Florence, harangued the fathers, 
and made himfelf admired, as well by his modefty, as by his un- 
common abilities. The Greek fchifmatics conceived fo mortal an 
averfion to him, that he was obliged to remain in Italy; where Pope 
Eugenius IV. honoured him with the purple in 1439. ^ e fi xcc * 
his abode at Rome, and would have been raifed to the papal chair, 
if Cardinal Alain had not oppofed it, as injurious to the Latin 
church, to chufe a Greek, however illuftrious. He was employed 
in feveral embaffies, but that to France proved fatal to him. When 
legate at this court, he happened to vifit the duke of Burgundy be- 
fore he faw Lewis XI. which fo difconcerted the capricious 
haughty monarch, as to occafion him a very ungracious reception : 
ray, the king even took the cardinal legate by his mod magnificent 
beard, faying, in his fine Latin, " Barbara Grasca genus retinent quod 
habere folebant;" and this affront fo chagrined the cardinal, as to 
occafion his death at Ravenna, upon his return, in 1472. 

Beffarion left fome works, which rank among thofe that helped 
to revive letters ; as, " Defenfio Doftrinze Platonicae," &c. 
" Tranflations cf fome Pieces of Ariftotle; Orations, Epiftles,"&c. 

BETHAM (EDWARD, B. D.) received his education at Eton, 
of which feminary he was a dillinguifhed ornament ; was elected 
from thence to King's college, Cambridge, in iy'/8, of which he 
became a fellow in 1731 ; was fome time burfar, and by the pro- 
volt and fellows, when fenior fellow, was prcfented to the living of Middlefex. In 1771 the provoft and fellows of Eton 
elected him to the vacant feilowfhip in that focieiy. So unexcep- 
tionable was his life, that he may truly be laid to have made no 
enemy in the progrefs of it. Of manners gentle, of friendfhip 
moft lufceptible, of knowledge extenfive, he acquired the praife and 
commendation of all men. His fortune vVas not extenfive, yet his 
liberality kept more than equal pace with if, ;;nci pointed out object? 
and things to which it was impoffiblfe for his nature f> refill lend- 
ing his affiftance. In his life- time he gave two thoufand pounds 
for the better maintaining a botanical gauien at Cambridge, thereby 
encouraging a ftudy which did peculiar honour to his talle, and ma- 
terially benefited mankind. So humane was his difpohtlon, that 
he founded and endowed a charity-fchool in his own purifh; and, 
this molt nobly in his life-time, when avarice might Inve forbid it, 
or the fear of want might have excepted agaiuft it. As in his life 
}ie indicated the moft extenfive liberality, fo i\\ his death he exhi- 

O 3 bitcd 


bited a lading record of his gratitude. Imprefled with the higheft 
fenfe of the munificence of the royal founder of Eton, within whofe 
walls he had imbibed the fird feeds of education, he by his will di- 
rected a ftatue of marble, in honour of Henry VI. to be erected at 
the expence of fix hundred pounds. 

BETTERTON (THOMAS), a famous Englifh aflor, generally 
flyled the Englifh Rofcins. He was born in Tothill-dreet, Weft- 
minder, 1635 ; and, after having left fchool, is faid to have been 
put apprentice to a bookfeller. The particulars, however, relating 
to the early part of his life, are not afcertained. Jt is generally 
j bought that he made his firft appearance on the flage in 1656, or 
1657^, at theopera-houfe in Charter-houfe-yard, under the direction 
of Sir William d'Avenant. He continued to perform here till the 
Kedoration. when King Charles granted patents to two companies; 
the one was called the" king's company, and the other the duke's. 
The former acted at the theatre royal in Drury-lane, and the latter 
nt the theatre in .Lincoln's-inn-h'elds. Betterton went over to Paris, 
at the command of King Charles II . to take a view of the French 
fccnery ; and at his return made fuch improvements, as added greatly 
to the ludre of the Englifh dage, For leveral years both companies 
ated with the higheft applaufe, and the tafle for dramatic enter- 
tainment? was never dronger than whild thefe two companies 
played. The two companies were, ho\vever, at length united ; 
though the time of this union is not precifely known, Gildon placing 
it in 1682, and Gibber in 1684. 

Betterton foon attracted the notice of his fovereign, the pro- 
tection of the nobility, and the general refpedt of all ranks of 
people. The ratentees, however, as there was now only one 
theatre, began to confider it as a means of accumulating wealth to 
ihemfelves by the labours of others ; and this had fuch an influence 
on their conduct, that the actors had many hardfhips irnpofed upon 
them, and were oppreffecl in the mod tyrannical manner. Betterton 
endeavoured to convince the managers of the injndice and abfurdity 
of fuch a behaviour, which language not pleating them, they began 
to give away forne of his capita! parts to young actors, fuppofmg 
this would ubatc his influence. This policy hurt the patentees, and 
proved of fervi.ce to Betterton ; for the public re fen ted having plays 
ill adiccl, when they knew they mjght be acted better. The bed 
players Attached themfclves wholly to Betterton, niging him to turn 
his thoughts on ibijie method of procuring himfelf and them judice. 
Having a general acquaintance with people of fafhion, he repre- 
fcntcd the afl-air in fuch 3 manner, that at length, by the interctllion 
of tin- carl of Dorfet, he procured a patent for building a new play- 
houfc r.i Linco!n's-inn-ficlds, which he did by fubfcription. The 
new tlicatre was opened in 1695. Mr. Co.-^reve accepted a fbare 
with-this cqj-r.pany, and the fird play th.^y acted was his comedy of 

" Love 

BETTERTON-- (Thomas}. 109 

Love :>r Love." The king honoured it with his prefence ; when 
Betterton fpoke a prologue, and Mrs. Bracegirdle an epilogue, on 
the occafion. But notwithftanding all the advantages this company 
enjoyed, and the favourable reception they at firft met with, yet they 
were unable to keep up their run of fuccefs above two or three fea- 
ibns. Vanbrugh and Gibber, who wrote for the other houfe, were 
expeditious in their produclions; and the frequency of new pieces 
gave fuch a turn in their favour, that Betterton's company, with all 
their merit, muft have been undone, had not " The Mourning 
Bride," and " The Way of the World," come to iheir relief, and 
faved them at the laft extremity. In a few years, however, it ap- 
pearing that they could not maintain their independence without 
ibme new fupport from their friends, the patrons of Betierton opened 
a fubfcription for building a theatre in the Haymarket, which was 
finifhed in 1706. Betterton, however, being now grown old, and 
his health much impaired by conftant application, declined the ma- 
nagement of this houfe, refigning it entirely to Sir John Vanbrugh 
and Mr. Congreve ; but from the decay of Betterton, many of the 
old players dying, and other accidents, a re-union of the companies 
feemed neceifary, and accordingly took place foon after. 

When Betterton had reached feventy, his infirmitiesincreafed to a 
great degree, and his fits of the gout were extremely fevere. His 
circumflances alfo grew daily worie and worfe, yet he kept up a re- 
markable fpirit and ferenity of mind, and aded when his health 
would permit. The public, remembering the pleafure he had given 
them, would not allow fo deferving a man, after fifty years fervice, 
to withdraw without fome marks ot their bounty. In che fpring of 
1709, a benefit, which was then a very uncommon favour, was 
granted to him, and the play of " Love for Love" was acled for this 
pnrpofe. He himfelf performed Valentine ; Mrs. Bracogirdle and 
Mrs. Barry, though they had quitted the ibge, appeared on this oc- 
cafion, the former in the character of Angelica, and Mrs. Barry in 
that of After the play was over, thefe two aftreiles appeared 
leading on Betterton ; and Mrs. Barry fpoke an epilogue, written by 
Mr. Rowe. 

Betterton got by this benefit five hundred pounds; and a promife 
was given him that the favour mould be annually repeated as long as 
he lived. September 20, in the fucceeding winter, he performed 
the part of Hamlet, with great vivacity. This activity of his kept 
off the gout longer than ufual, but the fit returned upon him in the 
fpring with greater violence, ancl it was the more unlucky, as this 
was the time of his benefit. The play he fixed upon was " The 
Maid's Tragedy,'' in which he acled the p^rt of Mclanthus, and no- 
tice was given thereof by his friend the Taller ; but the fit intervening, 
that he nii^ht not difappoint the town, he was obliged to fubmit to 
external applications, to reduce the fwelling of his feet, which 
enabled him. to appear on the ft age, though he was obliged to ufe a 



_ _ .,. ......-... -.-..--.. - .. __- T 

liipper. He was obferved (hat day to have a more than ordinary 
ipint, and met with fuitable npplaufe; but the unhappy confequence 
<>} "tampering with his diftemper was, that it flew i'hto his head, and 
killt-J him. He died April 28, 1710, and was interred in Weft- 
mintter. abbey. 

The following dramatic, works were publifhed bv Mr. Betterton. 
X. The Woman made a Juftice, a Comedy. 2. The unjuii: Judge; 
or, Appius and Virginia, a Tragedy; written orig'-nally by Mr. 
John Webiler, an old poet, who flourished in the reign of James I. 
It was only altered by Mr. Betterton. 3. The ;:r,y/fniis Widow, 
or the wanton Wife ; a play written on the plan of Moliere's George 

BETTS fJoHx\ an eminent pliyfician in the feventeemh cen- 
tury, was Ion of Mr. Edward Betts by his wife Dorothy, daughter 
of Mr. John Venables, of Rap'.ey, in Hampfhire. He was born 
at VYinchefter, and educated there in grammar learning. From 
thence he was ekdted a fcholar ot Corpus-Chrifti college in Oxiord, 
in February 1642. He took the degree of bachelor of arts Feb. 9, 
1646. Being ejected by the visitors appointed by the parliament in 
1648, he appiie.t himfelf to the fhidy of phyfic, and commenced 
doctor in that faculty April 11, 1654, having accumulated the de- 
grees. He practifed with great fuccefs at London, but chiefly 
among the Ii -mail Catholics, being himfelf of that perfuafion. He 
wasaiterwaids appointed phyfician in ordinary to King Charles II. 
I his 'ic,:tii is not certainly known. Dr. Betts wrote 
ti-'C two following phyfical treatifes, viz. I. Of the Origin and Nature 
t the Blood. 2. The Anatomy of Thomas Parr, who died in the 
I52cl year ar.d ninth month of his ag< , with the Obfervations of the 
c ',-brated Dr. William Harvev, and others of the king's phyiicians 
\v!:o were p relent. 

VEI WIIIIA:,, , a learned Engliih divina, was born 

9t Damwvin LeicL'.lerlhire, 16-?. He was educated at St. John's 
<:>i!c?e, Cambridge; where he "applied with great affiduity to the 
Oriental laiv;:u;iges, and made fueh proficiency in this part of learn- 
!:!.'., that Ql ; n years of age he wrote " A Treatife on the Ex- 

ccl!cn,-y and L.cof the Oriental Tongues; efpecially the Hebrews 
ChaJdee, tbic, and Samaritan ; with a Syriac Grammar." 

Jan. 3, i ( '{>o-i, he was ordained deacon by Robert bifliop of Lin- 
coln, and pr'eit the 31 ft of that month; a'nd about the kme time 
. -turned to thevicarrge of Yealing in Middlefex, which he 

. '.'pon his being chofen re6lor of St. 

ill. by ihe tr.ayor a;:d aldermen of London. He ap^ 

'li to the di-fcliarge of his miniftry with the uttnoft zeal 

He was hi:siy ir.ftruclive in "his dilcourfes from the 

Ms lafoi ;;r -. - ;e cruwucd with fuch iuc-.-'-r, that he was 


BEVERIDCE (fr'H/urn). i c i 

flyled " the great reviver and reftorer of primitive piety." Bilhop 
. Hinchman, his diocefan, having conceived a great efteem for him, 
collated him to a prebend of St. Paul'?, D^c. 22, 1674; and his 
fucceffor, Dr. Compton, conferred upon him the archdeaconry of 
Colchefter, Nov. 3, 1681. Nov. 5, 1684, he was inftalled pre- 
bendary of Canterbury, am! about the fame time appointed chaplain 
to King William and Queen Mary. In 1691 he was offered, but 
refilled to accept of, the lee of Bath and Wells, vacant by the de- 
privation of Dr. Kenn, on his refuting to take the oaths to William 
and Mary : but fome time after he accepted that of St. Afaph, and 
was confecrated July 16, 1704. On his advancement to the epif- 
copal chair, he wrote a mod p.ithetic letter to the clergy of hisdio- 
ceie, recommending to them " the duty of catechifing and inftruct- 
ing the people committed to their charge in the principles ot the 
Chriftian religion, to the end they might know what they were 
to believe, and do, in order to falvation ;" and to enable thc;n to 
do this the more efre&ually, he fent them a plain expedition upon, 
the church cateehifm. This good prelate did not enjoy his epif- 
copal dignity above three years and fome months; for he died 
March the 5th, 1707, in the 71(1 year of his age, and was buried 
in St Paul's cathedral. He left the greateft part of his eftate to the 
focieties for propagating Chriftian knowledge. He was alfo a be- 
refa6lor to the vicarage of Barrow, v\here he was born, and to the 
curacy of Mount Sorrel, in the parifh of Barrow. 

BiuSop Beveridge has had a high character given him by feveral 
writers. The author of a letter publiOied in the Guardian, having 
made an extract out of the bifhop's full fermon, in the fecond vo- 
lume, relating to the Deity, tells us, that it may, for acutenefs of 
judgment, ornament of fpeech, and true fublime, be compared with 
any of the choioeft writings of the ancient fathers, or doctors of the 
church, v.ho lived neareft to the apoflles times. 

Biihop Beveridge left many learned works. Thofe publiflied by 
himfdf are as follow: i. De Linguarum Orieritalium Prceftantia. 
2. Inftitutionum Chronologicarum Libri Duo. 3. Sunodikon, live 
Pandects S. S. spoftolorum et conciliorum. 4. Codex Canomun 
Ecclefiae Primitive vindicatus et iiluftratr.s. 5. The Church Cate- 
ehifm explained. Be fides the above-mentioned works of this pre- 
late, we have the following, publifhed after his death. 6. Private 
Thoughts upon Religion. 7. Private Thoughts upon a Chriftian 
Life. 8. The great Neceffiry and Advantage of public Prayer ant 
frequent Communion. 9. One hundred and fiftv Sermons and Dif- 
courfes on feveral Subjects. 10. Thefaurus Theologicus ; or, A 
complete Syftem of Divinity, n. A Defence of the Book of 
Pfalms, collected into F.nglifh Metre, by Thomas Sternhold, John 
Hopkins, and others. 12. Expofitioa of the Thirty-nine Ar- 



BEVERLAND (HADRIAN), born at Midclleburgh in Zealand* 
was a man of genius, but proftituted his talents by employing them 
in the compolition of loofe and obfcene pieces. He took the de- 
gree of dodtor of law, and became an advocate ; but his paflion for 
polite literature diverted him from any purfuits in that way. He 
was a paflionate admirer of Ovid, Catullus, Petronius, and fuch 
authors. Mr. Wood tells us, that Beverland was at the univerlity 
of Oxford in 1672. His treatife on original fin involved him in 
great trouble and difficulties. He was committed to prifon at the 
Hague, and his book condemned to be burnt; he was difchargetl 
however after he had paid a fine, and taken an oath that he would 
never write again upon fuch fubjecls. He removed to Utrecht, 
where he led a moil diilblute life, and boafted every where of his 
book, which had been burnt at the Hague. His behaviour at 
length obliged the magiftrates to fend him notice privately, that 
they expected he fhould immediately leave the city. He removed 
from thence to Leyden, where he wrote a fevere fatire againft the 
rnagiftrates and minittcrs of that city, under the title of " Vox 
Clamantis in deferto," which was difperfed in manufcript : but 
finding after this, that it would not be fate for him to remain in 
Holland, he went over to England, where Dr. Ifaac Voflius pro- 
cured him a penfion. His income was inconliderablc, yet he fpent 
the greateft part of it in pnrchaling fcarce books, obfcene deligns, 
pidures, medals, and (trange Ihells. He feems afterwards to have re- 
pented of his irregular life, and to have been forry he had written fnch 
pieces: and as an atonement he is faid to have publilhcd his Treatife 
dc Fornicatione Cavemla in 1698. He tells ns, in an advertifement 
prefixed to this book, that it was the refult of his repentance. Yet, 
notwithflanding this, his fincerity has been fufpedcd ; and it has 
been alledged, that he wrote this laft piece with no other view than 
to raife the curio'ity of mankind, to inquire after the former. After 
Voffius's death, he fell into the molt extreme poverty, and incurred 
zn univerfaf hatred from the many violent fatires which he had writ- 
trn againit different pcrfons. Befides this misfortune, his head be- 
gan to be a riule turned-, and in the year 1712, he wandered from 
one part of England to another, imagining that two hundred men 
had confederated toafTailinate him. He died foon after, 

BEVERLY (JoHM OF), in Latin Joannes Beverlacins, archbifhop 
of York in the eighth century, was born of a noble family among 
the Englilh Snxons, at Harpham, a fmall town in Northumberland. 
He was firil a monk, and afterwards abbot of the monaftery of St. 
Hilda. Hi- \vus inftruclcd in the learned languages by Theodore, 
nrchbifhop of C :mu rhury, and was jnltly edeemed one of the be(t 
fchi'ilars of hi.-, time. Alfred of Beverly, who wrote his Life, pre- 
tend- that he flmlied at Oxford, and took there the cie.,ree of matter 
o! art* , but liifliop Godwin allures us this cannot be true, becauie 


(Theodore)* it 3 

fuch diltinclion o' degrees was not then known at Oxford, nor 
any where elfe in the Chriftian world. Our abbot's merit recom- 
mended him to the favour or Alfred, king of Northumberland, who, 
in the year 685, Advanced him to the fee of Haguftald, or Hexham, 
and, upon the death of archbifhop Bofa in 687, translated him to 
that of York. This prelate was tutor to the famous Bcde, and lived 
in the (iricl^ft friendfhip with Acca, and other Anglo-Saxon doc- 
tors, feveral of whom he put upon writing comments on the fcrip- 
tures. He likewife founded, in 704, a college at Beverly for fecu- 
lar prielts. After he had governed the fee of York thirty-four 
years, being tired with the tumults and confulions of the church, he 
divefted himfelf of the epifcopal character, and retired to Beverly ; 
and four years after died, on the 7th of May, 721. 

BEZA (THEODORE), a mod zealous promoter and defender of 
the reformed church, was born at Vezelai, in Burgundy, June the 
24th, 1519. He was brought up by his uncle Nicholas de Beza, 
counfellor of the parliament of Paris, till December 1528, when he 
was fent to Orleans under the care of Melchior Wolmar. He lived 
feven years with Wolmar, under whom he made an extraordinary 
progrefs in polite learning, and from him imbibed the principles of 
the Proteitant religion. His uncle intended him for the bar. The 
law however not fuiting his difpofition, he beftowed mofi of his 
time in reading the Greek and Latin authors, and in compofing 
verfes. He took his licentiate's degree in 1539, and went to Paris. 
He had made a promife to a young woman to marry her publicly as 
foon as certain obftacles fhould be removed, and in the mean time 
not to engage himfelf in the ecclefiaftical ftate. A fudden and dan- 
gerous illnefs prevented him fome time from putting his defign in 
execution, but as foon as he had recovered, he fled with this woman 
to Geneva, where he arrived October 24th, 1548, and from thence 
went to Tubingen, to fee Melchior Wolmar. The year after he 
accepted of the Greek profelforfhip at Laufanne, which he held for 
nine or ten years, and then returned to Geneva, where he became a 
Proteflant minifter. He did not confine himfelf whilft he held his 
profeiTorfhip to the Greek lecturer, but alfo read in French on the 
New Tertament, and published feveral books whilft he refided at 
Laufanne. Having fettled at Geneva in 1559, he adhered to Calvin 
in the itricteft manner, and became in a little time his colleague*in 
the church and in the univerfity. He was fent to Nerac, to the 
Jung of Navarre, to confer with him upon affcirs of importance. 
This prince had exprelTed his defire, both by letters and deputies, 
that Theodore Beza might affift at the conference of Poiffi ; and 
the fenate of Geneva complied with his requeft : nor could they 
have made choice of a perfon more capable of doing honour to the 
caufe, for Beza was an excellent fpeaker, knew the world, and had 
great (hare of wit. The whole audience hearkened attentively to 

VOL. JI. P his 


his harangue, till he touched upon the reai prefence, on which fub- 
ject he dropt an expreffion which occafioned fome murmuring. 
Throughout the whole conference he behaved himfelf as a very able 
man. He often preached before the king of Navarre and the princ 
of Conde. After the maflacre of Vaffi, he was deputed to the king, 
to complain of this violence; the civil war followed foon after, 
during which the prince of Conde kept him with him. Beza was 
prefent at the battle of Dreux, and did not return to Geneva till 
after the peace of 1563. He revifited France in 1568. He pub- 
lifhed feveral books after his return to Geneva. He went again to 
France in 1571, to aflift at the national fynod of Rochelle, of which 
he was chofen moderator. The year after he was prefent at that oil 
Nifmes, where he oppofed the faction of John Morel. He was at 
the conferences of Montbeliard, in 1586, where he difputed with 
J<-thn Andreas, a divine of Tubingen. Beza defircd that the difpute 
might be held by arguments in form; but he was obliged to comply 
with his adverfary, who was unwilling to be conftrained by the rules 
of fyllogifm. In 1588, he was at the fynod of Bern, when th* 
doctrine of Samuel Huberus, relating to our juftification before God, 
was condemned. 

The infirmities o*f old age beginning to fall heavy upon him in- 
l'597, he coukl feldom fpeak in public ; and at lafl, in the beginning 
of 1600, he left it entirely off. However, in 1^97, he wrote Corns 
animated vcrfes againft the Jefuits, on occafion of the report that 
was made qf his death, and of his having before he died made pro- 
feflion of the Roman faith. He lived till October 13, 1605. He 
was a man ot extraordinary merit, and one who did great fervices 
to the Proteltant caufe, which expofed him to innumerable danders 
and calumnies ; but he (lie wed both the Catholics and Lutherans, 
that he underdood how to defend himfelf. His poems, entitled, 
44 Juvenilia," have made a great nolle. They have been thought to 
contain verfes too free, and not fuited to the purity of the Chrifliuf.. 

El DOLE (JOHN), an eminent writer arnongft the Socinians, 
was born in 1615, at Wotten-under-Edge, in Glou^eiterlhire. He 
was educated at the free-lthool in tin's town ; and being a proinif- 
ing youih, was noticed by George Lord Berkeley, who made him 
an allowance of ten pounds a-year. In 1634, he was lent to Ox- 
ford, and entered at Magdalen-hall. June 23, 168.3, he took the 
degree of bachelor of arts, and foon after was invited to be matter ot 
the fchool of his native place, but declined it. May 20,. 1691, ha 
took his degree of mailer of arts ; and the magiUrates of Gloucetter 
having chofen him nfafter of the free fchool of St. Mary de Crypt 
in that city, he went and fettled there, and was much efteemed Tor 
Ms diligence. Falling however into fome opinions concerning the 
Trinity, different to thofe commonly received, aad having expreffad 


BIDDLE (John). 1 1 5 

his thoughts with much more freedom, he was accufed ot herefy : and 
being fummoned before the magiltrates, *e exhibited in writing a 
confeflion, which not being thought fatisfaftory, he was obliged to 
make another more explicit than the former. When he had fully 
coniidered this doctrine, hecomprifed it in twelve arguments drawn 
from the Scripture; Wherein the commonly received opinion, 
touching the Deity of the Holy Spirit, is refuted. An acquaintance 
who had a copy of them, having (hewed them to the magiftrates of 
Gloucester, and to the parliament committee then redding there, he 
was committed, Dec. 2, 1645, to the common gaol (though at that 
time afflicted by a fore fever,/, to remain in that place till the parlia- 
ment fhould take cognizance of the matter. However, an eminent 
perfon in Gloucefter procured his enlargement by giving fecurity for 
his apppearance when the parliament fhould fend for him. June 
1646, Archbifhop Ulher, pafiing through Gloucefter in his way to 
London, had a conference with our author, and endeavoured, but in 
vain, to convince him of his errors. Six months after he had been fet 
at liberty he was fummoued to appear at Weftminfter,, and the parlia- 
ment Appointed a committee to examine him ; before whom he freely 
confelFed, that he did not acknowledge the commonly received notion 
of the Divinity of the Holy Ghoft; but, however, was ready to hear 
what could be oppofeJ to him, and if he could not make out his opi- 
nion to be true, honeftly to own his error. But being wearied with 
tedious and expensive delays, he wrote a letter to Sir Henry Vane, a 
member of the committee, requeuing him either to procure his dif- 
charge, or to make a report of his cafe to the Houfe of Commons. 
The refnlt of this wa?, his being committed to the cuftody of one 
of their officers, which reftraint continued the five years following. 
He was at length referred to the affembly of divines then fitting at 
Weftminfier, before xvhom he often appeared, and gave them in 
writing his twelve arguments, which were published the fame year. 
Upon their publication, he was fummoncd to appear at the bar of 
the Hou/e of Commons ; where being aiked, " Whether he owned 
this tre;itife, and the opinions therein ?" he anfwered in the affirma- 
tive. Upon which he was committed to prifon, and the houfe or- 
dered, September 6, 1647, that the book mould be called in and 
burnt by the hangman, and the author be examined by the com- 
mittee of plundered minifters. But Mr. Biddlc drew a greater ftonn 
upon himfelf by two tracts he publilhed in 1648, " A Confeflipn 
of Faith touching the Holy Trinity according to the Scripture:" and 
" The Teftimonies of Irenanis, Juftin Martyr, Tertullian, Nova- 
tiaiius, Theophilus, Origen, alfo of Arnobius, Lactantius, Eulebius, 
Hilary, and Brightman, concerning that one God, and the Perfons 
of the Holy Trinity, together with Obfervations on the fame." As 
f>on as they were publilhed, the aflembly of divines folicited the 
parliament, and procured an ordinance, inflicting death upon thofe 
/hat held opinions contrary to the received doctrine about the 
Trinity, and fevere penalties upon thole who differed in lelfermat- 

F % ters. 


ters. B'"!dle, however, efcaped by a diflcnnon in the parliament, 
p?rt of which was joined *>y the -r v\ , nany of whom, both officers 
an.) fildier?, being liable to lv .verities of the ordinance above^ 
rmn'ioned, it therefore f-oni that time lay unregarded for feveral 
years. Biddl-' ha.l n A .r : .->ie liberty allowed h'm by his keepers, 
who flittered him, upon fecurity given, to go into Stafford (hi re, 
where he lived fome time with a juttice of the peace, who enter- 
tained him with great hofpitality, and at his death left him a legacy. 
Serjeant John Bracifliaw, prefident of the council of fhte, his mor- 
tal enemy, having got intelligence of this indulgence grafted him, 
caufed him to be recalled, and mi, re ftri&ly confined. Jn this con- 
finement he fp^nt his whole fubfifknce, and was redticed to great 
indigence, till he was employed by R ger Darnel of London, to 
correct an impreffion of the Septuagint Bible, which that printer 
\vr.s about to publifh : and this gained him for fome time a comfort- 
able fubfiflence. In 1 654, the parliament published a general adl of 
oblivion, when Biddle was reftored to his liberty. This he im- 
proved among thofe friends he had gained in London, in meeting 
together every Sunday for expounding the fcripture, and difcourfing 
thereupon; by which means h;s opinions concerning the unity of 
God, Chrift his only Son, and his Holy Spirit, were fo propagated, 
lliat the Prefbyterian mini tiers became highly offended. The fame 
year he publifiSed his " Twofold Scripture Catu-.hifrn," which corn- 
ing into the hands of fome of the nvmbcrs of Cromwell's parlia- 
ment, meeting Sept. 3, 16^4, a. complaint was macte againft it in the 
Houfe of Commons. Upon thi?, the author being brought to the 
bar, and afked, " Whether he wrote that book ?" anfwered by afk- 
ing, " Whether it feemed reafonable, that one brought before a 
judgment-feat as a criminal, mould accufe himfelf ?" After fome de- 
bates and refolutions, he v\as, December 13, committee? clofe pri- 
foner to the Gatehoufe. A bill hkewife was ordered to be brought 
in for punifhinghim ; but, after about fix months imprifonment, he 
obtained his liberty at the court of King's Bench, by due itourfe of 
Jaw. About a year after, another no lefs formidable danger over- 
took him, by his engaging in a difpute with one Griffin a.u Ana- 
bnptift teacher. Many of Griffin's congregation having embraced 
Biddle's opinion, concerning theTrinity, he thought the beft way to 
Itop the fpreading of fuch errors would be openly to confute his 
tenets. For this purpofe he challenges Biddle to a public difputa- 
tion at his meeting in the Stone Chapel in St. Paul's Cathedral, on 
this queflion, " Whether Jefus Grind be the moft High, or Al- 
mighty God?" Bid'He would have declined the difpute, but was 
obliged to accept of it ; and the two antagonifls having met ami dft 
a numerous audience, Griffin repeats the quelVion, afking " if any 
man there did deny, that Cnrift was God mod High?" towhi'Ch 
J*irld!e refolutely anfwered, " I do deny it: :> and by this open pn >- 
gave his adver-fanes tlie opportunity of a pofitive and rlc. ? 
which they foon laid hold of. But Griffin beyig bafRed,. 


BIDLOO (Godfrey). 1 1 7 

the difputation was deferred till another day, when Biddle was to 
take his turn of proving the negative of the queftion. Meanwhile, 
Griffin and his party not thinking themfeives a match for our author, 
accufed him of frefh blafphemies, and procured an order from the 
Prote&or to apprehend him, July the 3d (being the day before the 
intended fecond difputation), and to commit him to the Compter. He 
was afterwards fent to Newgate, and ordered to be tried for his life the 
next feffions, on the ordinance againft blafphemy. However, thePro- 
teclor not chnofing to have him either condemned or abfolved, took 
him out of the hands of the law, and detained him in prifon ; till 
at length, being wearied with receiving petitions tor and againft 
him, he banilhed him to St. Mary's caftle in the ifle of Scilly, 
where he was fent Ocl. 1655. During this exile he employed him- 
felf in ihidying feveral intricate matters, particularly the Revelation 
of St. John, and, after his return to London, publiihed " An 
Eflay" towards explaining it. In 1658, the Protector, through the 
intercefilon of many friends, fuftered a writ of habeas corpus to be 
granted out of the King's Bench, whereby the was brought 
back, and, nothing being laid to his charge, was fet at liberty. 
Upon his return to London, he became paftor of an Independent 
meeting : but dtd not continue long in town; for Cromwell dying 
Sept. the 3d, 1658, his fon Richard called a pariiarr^nt confifting 
chiefly of Prefbyterians, whom of all men Biddle moft dreaded: he 
therefore retired privately into the country. This parliament being 
foon diiTblved, he returned to his former employment till the Reito- 
ration of ICing Charles the Second, when the libc-ry of Diflenters 
was taken away, and their meetings punifhed as feditious. Biddlo 
then reftramed himfelf from public to more private affembK^s but 
could not even fo be fafc ; for, June the firft, 1662, he was feized 
m his lodging, where he and (oine few of his fr ends h-id met for 
divine worfhip, and was, with them, carried before a juftice of the 
peace, who committed them all to prifon, where they lay, till the 
recorder took fecurity for their anfwering to the charge brought 
againft them at the next fcftions. But the court not being then able 
to find a ftatute whereon to form any criminal indictment, they 
were referred to the fefiions following, and proceeded againft at 
common law; each of the hearers was fined twenty pounds, Biddle 
one hundred, and to lie in prifon till paid. But in lefs than five 
weeks he, by clofe confinement, contracted a difeafe, which put an 
end to his life, Sept. 22, 1662, in the 4yth year of his age. 

BIDLOO (GODFREY), a famous anatomical writer, was born 
at Amllerdam, in 1649. After he had pa (fed through his academi- 
cal (Indies, h applied himfelf to phyfic and anatomy, and took his 
degree of doctor in phyfic. He foon got into confiderable practice : 
in 1688 was maJe profelu/r of anatomy at the Hague, which he 
quitted in 1^94. tor the profefibrlhip of anatomy and chirurgery at 

Lcydeu ; 


^^^^^ffm^fBf^^^^^^mHI^IIBftof'**** '^'***''*f**- - "' r " '" "" "" W"***-**"* "* " ' " ' " ' "'^'**^*'*"* r J - '**"* ~" 

Leydon ; and afterwards William of England appointed him' his 
phyfician, which he accepted on condition of holding his proteflor- 
ihin. The king died in 1702, and Bidloo returned to his former 
employments, which he had been interrupted in the difcharge of, by 
his confhint attendance upon that prince. He died at Leyden, 
April 1713, being iixty-four years of age. 

BIGNON JF.ROMI-), a French writer, was born at Paris in 
1590. His father took the care of his education upon himfelf, and 
taught him the languages, philofophy, mathematics, civil law, and 
divinity. Jerome acquired grent knowledge in a very fhort time, 
and at ten years of age publifhcd his " Dcfcription of the Holy 
Land ," and three years after two other works, which gained him 
great reputation in'France. Henry the Fourth appointed him page 
of honour to the dauphin, afterwards Lewis the Thirteenth. He 
vvmtc a " Treatife of the Precedency of the Kings of France," 
which he dedicated to this king, who ordered him to continue his 
rdearches upon the fubjecl ; but the death of this prince interrupted 
liis deiign, and made him leave the court ; whither he was foon re- 
called at the felicitation of Mr. le Fevre, preceptor to Lewis the 
Thirteenth, and continued there till the death of his friend. In 
1613, he publifhed an edition of the " Formulas of Marctilphus:" 
and the year following took a journey to Italy. On his return from 
his travels, he applied himfelf to the practice of the bar with great 
fuccefs. His father procured for him the poll of advocate-general 
in the grand council ; in the difcharge of which he raifed himfelf 
ib great a reputation, that the king nominated him fome time after 
counfellor of (late, and at lail advocate-general in the parliament. 
In 164.1 he refolved to confine himfelf entirely to his buiinefs in 
the council of ibte, and therefore refigned his place of advocate- 
general to Mr. Briquet his ibn-in-law. The year following he was 
appointed the king's librarian. His fon-in-law dying in 1645, he 
was obliged to refume his poft of advocate-general, in order to pre- 
ferve it for his fon. He had alfo a confiderable fliare in the or- 
dinance of the year 1639; and he difcharged with great integrity 
the commiflions of Arriereban, and other ports which he was in- 
truded with at different times. Queen Anne of Auftria, during her 
regency, fent for him to council upon the moft important occafions. 
Heu'ijnfted the differences between Mr. d'Avaux and Mr. Servien, 
plenipotentiaries at Munfrer ; and he had a fliare, with M. da 
Brienne and d'Emery, in making the treaty of alliance with the 
fatts of Holland, in 16,19. He was appointed, in 1651, to regu- 
! . * : ie great aftair of the fucceffion of Mantua; and in 16^4, to 
the treaty wit!) the Hans Towns. Mr. Bignon died, aged 
.\-, on t ; : ' April, 1636. 


Bl LSON (Thomas). 

BILSON (THOMAS), a learned bifhop, was born in Winchester, 
and educated at Wykeham's fchool. In 1565, ne was admitted 
fellow of New College, Oxford, after he hud ftudied there two 
years. He took in due coiuTe the degrees of bachelor, and mailer 
of arts ; of bachelor and doctor of divinity: the laft in 1580. In 
hi? younger years he had a great padion for poetry, and made a good 
proficiency in philofophy and phyfic: but after he entered into holy 
orders, he applied himfclf wholly to divinity, and became an excellent 
preacher. The firft preferment he had was themafterfhipof Witi- 
chefter- fchool. He was next made prebendary of Winchefler, and 
afterwards warden of the college-. Whilft he held this office he was 
of great fervice to the college in 1584, in faving the revenues, which 
had like to have been taken from them by villainous forgery. In 
1 585 he published his book, " Of the true difference between chrif- 
tian fubjeclion and unchriitian rebellion." He dedicated it to 
Queen Elizabeth. Jn 1593, came out another work, entitled, 
" The perpetual Government of Chrift's Church, &c." in whofc 
caufe it was written, [une 1596, he was confecratcd bi(hop ok 
Worcefter, tranflated May following to the bishopric of wincliefter, 
and made a privy counfellor. In 1599. he publifhed '* The Ef- 
fect of certain Sermons touching the full Redemption of Mankind by 
the Death and Blood of Jefus Chuff ; <?cc." in which he thews, that 
the Church of God hath always been governed by an inequality and 
fuperiority of paftors among themfelves, /(.to. Thefe fermons greatly 
alarmed the puritans, becaufe they contradicted fome of their tenets. 
They collected their obfervations thereon, and lent them to Henry 
Jacob, a learned puritan; who publiihtxl them with his collections, 
and under his ov/n name. The queen, who was at Farnham Caltle, 
which belonged to the bifhop of Winchefter, dire6tly commanded 
him, " neither to c^efert the doc-trine, nor to let the calling, which 
he bore in the church of God, to be trampled under foot by fuch 
unquiet refufers of truth and authority." Upon which he wrote 
that learned treatife, which was publilhed in 1604, under the tide 
of " The Survey of Chrift's Sufferings for Man's Redemption, and 
of his Defcent to Hades or Hell for our Deliverance." It was this 
prelate who preached before King James the Firft and his queen, at 
their coronation on St. James's day, ths 28th of July, 1603, from 
Rom. xiii. I ; and his fermon was publifhed at London, 1603, 8vo. 
In January 1603-4, he was one of the fpeakers and managers at ihe 
Hampton Court conference. The care of revifing and putting the 
laft hand to the " New tranflation of the Englifh Bible," was com- 
mitted to Bifhop Bilfon and Dr. Miles Smith, afterwards bifhop of 
Gloucefter. The laft public affair wherein he was concerned was, 
being one of the delegates that pronounced and figned the fentencc 
of divorce between Robert Devereux, earl of EfTex, and the lady 
Francis Howard, in 1613. This learned prelate died the j8th of 
June 1616. 



BINGHAM (JOSEPH), a learned writer, Was born at Wakefield, 
in Yorkfhire, 1668. He was trained at the grammar fchool in the 
fame town, under Mr. Edward Clarke ; and in 1683 admitted into 
Univerfity C llcge, Oxf -rd. He took the degree of bachelor of 
arts in 1687, and foon after was choft-n fellow ot his college. He 
proceeded to his m after *s<tegree in 1690. Not long after, he was 
prefented by John RadclifR.-, M. D. to the icdory of Headborrn- 
xvorthy, near Winchester, in H. "t>fhire; in which country retire- 
ment he began his learned an:] ;,,, i <us work, " Origines E< cle- 
fiafticze; or, The Antiruitie; of the Christian Chrr^iu" The firft: 
volume was publifhed 1708, in SVG; and it was C'-mplettrd afterwards 
in nine volumes more. Hz p. f .'bli(hed alfo fever 1 i other books 
on church affairs. But notwithstanding his great learning and me- 
rit, he had no other preferment than that of Headbourn-worthy '11 
1712, when he was collated to the re6tory of Hiwant, near Portf- 
mouth, by Sir Jonathan Trelawny, bifhop of Wmchelter, to whom 
he dedicated feveral of his books. He died Auguft 17, 1723, in the 
fifty-fi'th year of his age. 


BIRCH (THOMAS), a diltmgnifhed hiftorical and biographical 
writer, was born in the parifh of St. John, Clerkenwell, London, 
Nov. 23, 1705, of parents who were Quakers. His father was a 
coffee-mill maker, and meant to bring up his fon to his Ovvn trade ; 
but the youth's paffion for reading was fo ardent, that the father 
confented to his purfuit of letters, upon his promife to provide for 
himfelf. The firft fchool he went to was at Hemel-Hempfted, in 
Hertfordfhire; where he afterwards officiated as ufher. He was 
ufher in two fchools afterwards, which, as \vell as the firft, were 
kept by Quakers. In 1728 he married, and was fihgularly happr 
in his wife; but his felicity was of a fhort duration, as Ihe foon died 
of a confumption, occafioned by her firft child-bearing. 

It is uncertain when he quitted Quakerifm ; but he was foon 
after recommended as a proper perfon for holy orders. He was or- 
dained deacon by the bifhop of Salifbury, at King-ftreet chapel, 
London, Jan. 17, 1730; and prieft by the fame bilhop, Dec. 21, 
1731. He was at the fame time prefented to the reclory of Lid- 
dmgton St. Mary, and the vicarage of Siddington, St. Peter, 
Gloncefterihire. He had fome time before been recommended to 
Lord Hardwicke, then attorney-general; to whom, and the prefent 
Lord Hardwicke, he was indebted for all his preferments. May, 
this year, he was inftituted to the living of Ulting, in Effex. In 
1/34 he was appointed a domeHic chaplain to Lord Kilmarnock, 
afterwards executed for rebellion in 1746; who, however, muft 
then have been reputed a Whig, fince under no other character could 
Mr. Birch have been recommended to him. In 1735 he was 


BIRKE-NHEAD (-Sir John). 1 2 r 

;aErr^r ------ : ~~ 

chofen a member of the Royal Society, and the fame year of the 
Antiquarian Society; juft before which lad: he had a matter ot arts 
degree conferred on him by diploma from the Marifchal college of 
Aberdeen. In 1743 he was prefented by the crown to the redlory 
ot Landewy Welfrey, in Pembrokefhire, a fmecure. In 1744. lie. 
was prefented to the rectories of St. Michael, Wood-facet, and St. 
Mary, Staining, united; and in 1745-6 to the united redtories of St. 
Margaret, Pattens, and St. Gabriel, Fenchurch-ftreet. In 1752 he 
was elected a fecretary of the Royal Society. In 1753 the Mafif- 
chal -college of Aberdeen created him doclor in divinity; and in that 
year the fame honour was conferred upon him by Herring, arch- 
bifliop of Canterbury. The laft preferment given to him was, the 
re clory of Depden, in EiTex, 1761 ; and he continued pdffeired of 
this, together with that of St. Margaret, Pattens, till his death. 
This happened the Qth of January, 1766, and was occrifioned by a 
fall from nishorfe, betwixt London and Hampftead. 

political author, was born about 1615. After a fchool education he 
went to Oxford, and was entered, in 16:52, a fervitor of Oriel col- 
lege, under the learned Dr. Humphry Lloyd, afterwards bifhop of 
Bangor, by whom being recommended to Dr. William Laud, 
archbiihop of Canterbury, he became his fecretary. In this office 
he (hewed fuch capacity and diligence, that -the archbifhop, by his 
diploma, created him m after of ur-tJ in 1639 ; and the year follow- 
ing, by letter commendatory from the fame prelate, he wa? chofen 
probationer fellow of All Soul's college. This obliged him to reficle 
conftantly at Oxford; and on King Charles making that city his 
head quarters, our author was nude choice of to write a kind of 
journal in defence of the royai which be gained great reputa- 
tion. By his majefty's recommendation he waschofen reader in mo- 
ral philoiophy, which employment he enjoyed til! 1-648, when he was 
expelled by the parliament vifitors. Pie retired aHerwards to Lon- 
don, where he wrote leveral poetical pieces ; and having adhered 
fteadily to his principles, he acquired the tiiie of the loyal poet, and 
futFercd f^vcral imprifonments. He poblifhed, while he thus lived 
in obfcurity, fome very Satirical compofirions, moltly levelled againft 
the republican grandees, and written with great poignancy. Upon 
the reftoration of Charles II. he was rewarded tor his loyalty. He 
was created April 6, 1661, on the king's letter fent 'for that purpofe, 
dotlor of the civil law by the university of Oxford ; and in that qua- 
lity, as an eminent civilian, was confulted by the convocation on 
the queftion, " Whether bifhops ought to be prefent in capital 
cafes r" He was about the fame time eledled to ferve in parlia- 
ment for Wilton, in the county of Wilts. He was knighted Nov* 
14, 1662; and upon Sir Richard Famhaw's going in a public cha- 
rader to the court of Madrid, appointed to iueceed him as matter 

VOL. II. C of 


of requefts. He lived afterwards in credit and efteem, and received 
various favours from the court, which, however, drew upon him 
fome'ven* fevere attacks from thofe who oppofed it. Wood has 
treated him with great feverity; but his memory has been tranf- 
mitted to pofterity with honour by others, particularly by Dryden, 
Langbaine, and Winftanly. He died in Weftminfter, December 


BLACKHALL (OFFSPRING, D. D.) an eminent Englifh di- 
vine, wag born in London, 1654, and educated at Catherine-hall, 
Cambridge. In 1690 he was inducted into the living of South 
Okenden, Effex, and four years afterwards to the rectory of St. 
Marv Aldermary, London; and was fucceffively chofen lecturer of 
St. Olave's, and of St. Dunftan's in the Weft. He was likewife 
appointed chaplain to King William. He preached before the 
Houfe of Commons Jan. 30, 1699, and in his fermon animad- 
verted on Mr. Toland, for his aliening ia his Life of Milton, that 
Charles I. was not the author of Icon Balilike, and for fome infi- 
nuations agninft the authenticity of the Holy Scriptures; which 
drew him into fome controverfy with that author. In 1700 he 
preached a courfe of fermons at Boyle's lecture, in the cathedral 
church of St. Paul, which were afterwards publifhed. In 1707 he 
was confecrated to the bifhopric of Exeter. He died at Exeter Nov. 
2o, 1716, and was interred in the cathedral there. 

His works were publifhed in two volumes folio, 1723, confifting 
of " Practical Difcourfes on our Saviour's Sermon on the Mount, 
and on the Lord's Prayer, together v. irh his Sermons preached at 
Boyle's Lecture," with feveral others upon particular occafions. 

BLACKLOCK (the REV. DR.) an ing nious divine ami poet 
of Scotland, was horn at Annan, in the county of Annandale, in 
Scotland, in the year 1721. His parents were natives of Cumber- 
land, in which county his paternal anceftors had lived from time 
immemorial. Young Blacklock, before he was fix yearsold, was to- 
tally deprived of his light by the fmall-pox. His father had intended 
to bring him up to fome trade ; but as this misfortune rendered him 
incapable of any, all that this worthy parent could do, was to (hew 
the utmoft attention to him, in this unhappy fituation. This left 
fuch an indelible impreflion on the mind of his fon, th/at he men- 
tioned it, ever after, with the greateft warmth of gratitude and affec- 
tion. Of this he has given a very finking; proof in his poems. 
What was wanting to this poor youth, from the lofs of his fight, 
and the narrowncfs of his fortune, feems to have been compenfatcd 
to him by the gnodnefs of his heart, and the capacities of his mind. 
It was very early that he fhewl a tfror,g inclination to poetry in 
particular. His father, and a few other friends, ufed often to read, 
t-j divert him : and, among the reft, they read feveral pallages out of 


BLACKLOCK (The Rev. Dr.). 123 

fome of our poets. Thefe were his chief entertainment and delight. 
He heard them not only with uncommon pleafure, but with a fort 
of congenial enthufiafm ; and, from loving and admiring them fo 
much, "he foon began to endeavour to imitate them. Among thefe 
early eflays of his genius, there is one inferted in his works which 
was compofed when he was only twelve years old, and has fome- 
thing very pretty in the turn of it, and very promifing for one of 
fuch a tender age. Indeed, it is obfervable, that there have been 
few of our moft eminent poets who have not given very early proofs 
of their genius this way ; a quick and promifmg bloffom pre-indi- 
cating, as it were, the abundance and excellence of the fruit which 
their maturity affords. 

In 1740, Mr. Blacklock's father having been informed that a 
kiln, belonging to a fon-in-law of his, was giving way, his foli- 
citude for his intereft made him venture in below the ribs, to fee 
where the failure lay; when the principal beam coming down 
upon him, with eighty bulhels of malt, he was inftantly crulhed to 

When this melancholy event happened, Mr. Blacklock had jufl 
attained his nineteenth year ; and as the lolsot his good father occa- 
fioried his falling into more hands than he had been accuftomed to" 
before, he began by degrees to be more talked of, and his extraor- 
dinary talents to be better known. About a year after, he was fent 
for to Edinburgh by Dr. Stevenfon, a man of tafte, and one of the 
phyficians of that city, who had the goodnefs to fupply him with 
every thing necelTury for his living and fhidying in the univerfity. 
Mr. Blacklock juftly coniidered this gentleman as his Maecenas; 
and the firlt poem in his works was a tribute of gratitude which he 
addrefled to him, in imitation of the firft Ode ot Horace, by which 
the Roman bard has immortalized his iiluftrious patron. 

Mr. Blacklock fhidied at Edinburgh ten years; in which time he 
not only acquired great knowledge in the Greek, Latin, and French 
languages, but made a confiderable progrefs alfo in all the fciences. 
What was ftill more extraordinary, he attained great excellence in 
poetry, although the chief inlets to poetical ideas were clofed up to 
him, and all the viiible beauties of the creation had been long blotted 
from his memory. How far he contrived, by the uncommon force 
of his genius to compenfate for this vatt defect ; with what ele- 
gance and- harmony he often wrote; with how much propriety, 
ienle, and emotion, it is as eafy to perceive, on reading his poems, 
as it is difficult to account for it. Confidered in either of thefs 
lights, he mult be allowed to have an extraordinary ihare of merit; 
but if thoroughly coniidered in all together, we may be allowed to 
fay,- with his friend the late celebrated Mr. Hume, that he mufl be 
rrgard-id as a prodigv. 

Mr. Hume, alfo, fpeaking of his moral character, obferved, that 
44 his mudefly was equal to the goodnefs of his difpofition, and the 

<s 2 


beauty of h's genius;" and Mr. Sp^nce, fpeakirig of the pieces 
which Dr. Blacklock would not flitter to be printed, obferves, that 
they abound with Co many poetical beauties, that nothing could do 
him greater honour. 

Mr. Sperice's account of Mr. Blacklock having been full fepa- 
rately published in 1754. it was afterwards prefixed to a quarto edi- 
tion of his poems, publithedby fubfcription, under the patronage of 
that gentleman. By this publication a confiderable fum of money 
was obtained, and, foon after, our poet was fixed in an eligible 
fituation in the univerfity of Edinburgh. In 1760 he contributed 
fome poems to a Scotch collection, publifhed at Edinburgh; and 
there being ftyled the Rev. Mr. Blacklock, it appeared that he had 
then entered into holy orders. In 1766 he obtained the degree of 
doctor of divinity ; and in 1767 he publiihed " Paraclefis, or Con- 
folations deduced from natural and revealed Religion," in two diiTer- 
tations, 8vo. In r/68 he printed " Two Difcourfes on the Spirit 
^nd Evidences of Chriftianity," tranllated from the French of M. 
Armand. Thcfe were his principal productions. At length, after 
31 long life, devoid indeed of variety or adventure, but constantly de- 
voted to the. moft laudable pur fu its, this good and ingenious man 
terminated his mortal exigence on the I4th of July, 1791, being 
then feventy years. of age. 

BLACKMORE (Sir RICHARD), a phyfician, and an indefati- 
gable writer, received the firlt part of his education at a private fchooi 
in the country, from whence he was removed to Weitminfter, and 
afterwards to Oxford. W.hen he had fmifhed his academical ilu- 
tiit-s, he travelled to Italy, and took his degrees in phyfic at Padua. 
He vifited. alfo France, Geimany, and the Low Countries; and 
after a year and a half's abfence returned to England, where he prac- 
tifed phytic, and was chofen fellow of the College of Phyficians. 
He had declared hionfelf early a favourer of the Revolution ; fo that 
King William, in 1697, chofe him one of his phyficians in ordi- 
nary, and fome time after conferred upon him the honour of knight- 
hood. Upon Queen Anne's acceffion to the throne, he was alfo 
appointed one of her phyficians, and continued fo for fome time. 
His " Poem on the Creation'' is his moft celebrated performance. 
It muft be mentioned, too, in honour of Sir Richard, that he was a 
chafte writer, arr.l a warm advocate for virtue, at a .time when an 
slmolt univerfal degeneracy prevailed, He had been very free in bis 
cenfures on the libertine writers ol his age; and it was Ibme liberty 
he had taken of this kind which drew upon him the refentment of 
Dryden. He had likewife given offence to Pope ; for haying been 
informed by dull that he was the author of a " Traveftie on the 
firft Pialm," he took occafion to reprehend him for it in his efTay on 
poiite learning. Sir Richard died Oct. 9, 1729. Be fides what are 

.:t : abuve, Sir Richard wrote fome theological tracts, feveral 

t readies 

BLACKSTONE (&V William). 125 

freatifes on the plague, fmall-pox, confumptions, tfhe fpleen, gout, 
dropfy, &c. and many fmall poetical pieces, 

BLACKSTONE ,(Sir WILLIAM), Knt. and LL, D. an illuf- 
trious Englifh lawyer, was born at his father's houfe in CKf apfide, 
London, July 10, 1723. His father was a filkman ; his mother the 
daughter of Lovelace Bigg, Efq. of Chilton Foliot, in Wiltfhire ; 
and he was the youngeft of four children. His father dying before 
he was born, and his mother before he was twelve years old, the care 
of his education and fortune fell to his urcle Mr. Thomas Bigg, 
In 1730 he was put to the Charter-houfe fchool, and in 1735 ad- 
mitted upon the foundation there. November 1738 he was entered 
a commoner of Pembroke college, Oxford-, and elected by the go- 
vernors to one of the Charter-houfe exhibitions. December 12, he 
fpoke the annual oration at the fchool ; and about the fame time ob- 
tained alfo Mr. Benfon's gold prize medal of Milton, for verfes oit 
that poet. Piirfning his itudies with unremitting ardour, and at- 
tending not only to his favourite daffies, but alfo to logic, mathe- 
matics, &c. at the age of twenty he compiled a treatife entitled 
" Elements of Architecture; intended only for his own ufe, but 
much approved by thofe who have perufed it. Quitting, however, 
with regret thefe amufing purfuits, he engaged in the feverer ftudks 
of the law ; which regret he moil elegantly fet forth in a copy of 
verfes called " The Lawyer's Farewell to his Mufe ;" fince printed 
in the fourth volume of Dodiley's Mifcellanies. Several little poe- 
tical pieces he has alfo left unpublished; and his notes on Shake- 
fpeare fliew how well he imderftood, as yell as relilhed, that aui 

November 1740 he was entered of the Middle Temple; Nov. 
1743 elected into All Souls college; Nov. 1744 fpoke the annual 
commemoration fpeech, and was admitted actual lellow. Hence- 
forward he divided his time between the Univerfity and the 
Temple. June 174,5 he commenced bachelor of law, and Nov. 
1746 was called to the bzr. As a counfel, he made his way but 
(lowly, not having a flow of elocution, or a graceful delivery; but at 
Oxford, as a burfar, he arranged their muniments, and improved 
their eftates ; battened the completion of the Codrington library, 
snd greatly diitinguiihed himfelf as a man of bufinefs, as well as a 
man of letters. In 1749 he was elected recorder ot the borough of 
Wallingford, in Berkfhire. April 1750 he became do6\or of laws, 
and published " An Elfay on Coiiater-al Confanguintty," relative to 
theexclufive claim to fellowihips, made by the founder's kin at All 
Souls. The profits of his profdlion being inadequate to the ex- 
pence, he determined, in 1753, to retire to his fellowfhip; (till con- 
tinuing to practife as a provincial counfel. Soon after, he began to 
read his lectures on the laws of England ; publilhing, in 1755, 
?' Analyfis" of thefe laws, as a guide to his auditors, on their fi ( 



introduction to this ftudy. His " Confiderations on Copyholders" 
was published in March 1758 ; and a bill to decide the controverted 
point of their voting foon after palled into a law. Oclober 2o, 
1758, lie was unanimoufly elected Vinerian profeffbr of the common 
Jaw; r.ndon the 25th read his introductory le&ure, fince prefixed to 
his " Commentaries." In 1759 he published ' Reflections on the 
Opinions of MelTrs. Pratt, Moreton, and Wilbraham, relating to 
Lord Litchfield's Difqualification ;i who was then a candidate for 
the chancellodhip ; and " A Cafe for the Opinion of Counfel on 
the Right of the Univerfily to make new Statutes." Michaelmas 
term, 1759, having previoufly bought chambers in the Temple, he 
relumed .his attendance at Weft mi niter, dill continuing to read his 
lectures at Oxford. November following he publiihed a new edi- 
tion of !' The Great Charter, and Charter of the Foreft," where he 
fhewed the antiquary and hiflorian as well as lawyer; and about the 
fame "time a fmall treatife " OntheLaw of Defcents in Fee-limple." 
March 1761 he was returned to parliament for Hindon in \Vilt- 
Jhire; and in May had a patent of precedence granted him to rank 
as king's counfel, having before declined the chief julticefhip of the 
court of Common Pleas in Ireland. May 1761 he married Sarah the 
daughter of James Clitherow, of Bofton-houfe, in Middiefcx, Efq. 
with whom he lived near nineteen years, and left feven children by 

His felbwfhip of All Souls being now vacant, he was, in June 
1761, appointed by the chancellor of the univerfity principal of 
N^w-inn-hail. In 1762 he collected and re-publilhed feveral of his 
pieces, under the title of" Law Tracts,'' in two volumes, 8vo. In 
1763 he was chofen foiicitor general to the queen, and a bencher of 
the Middle Temple. November 1764 he publifhed the firft vo- 
lume of his lectures, under the title of " Commentaries on the Laws 
ot England ;" and in the four fucceeding years the other three 
volumes. In 1766 he refigned the Vinerian profelforfhip, and the 
principality of New-inn-hall ; thefe filiations being incompatible 
with his profeflional attendance in London. In the new parlia- 
ment, chofen, in 1768, he was returned burgefs for Weltbury, in 
Wiltlhire. In the courfe of this parliament, what he faid in the 
cli-bate on the queition, " Whether a member expelled was eligible 
or not in the lame parliament," being deemed by fome contradic- 
tory to what he had laid down on the fame fubject in his Commen- 
taries, he was warmly attacked in a pamphlet, fuppofed to be written 
by another member, a baronet. Dr. Prieftley allo animadverted on 
fome pofitions in the fame work, relative to offences againir. the 
dv)-r.rme of the eftablifhed church : to both of whom he replied. 
May 17-0 he became a junior judge in the court of King's Bench; 
i in June was removed to the fame iituation in the Common 
On this promotion, he refigned the rcc^rderlhip of WaJ- 

i*. i ^.-id. 

4 ILwing 

BLACKWALL (Antbony). 127 


Having now obtained the fumrnit of his wifhes, otlum cum dig- 
nhate, he refided conftantly in London ; and, when not occupied in 
the formalities of his calling, was always engaged in fome fchema 
of public utilky. The laft of this kind was the act of parliament 
for providing detached houfes of hard labour for convicts, as a fub- 
fHtute for tranfportation. A few weeks before he died, his arlift- 
ance was requefled by the late Sir George Downing's truftees, in 
forming a proper plan and bcdy of ftatutes for his new foundation at 
Cambridge; but before any thing could be done in it, death put an 
end to him. His constitution, hurt by the gout, a nervous diforder, 
and corpulency, occafioned by midnight ftudies, and an averfion to 
exercife, broke him up fomewhat early. About Chriftmas 1779, 
he was feized with a violent fhortnefs of breath ; and though this 
\vas foon removed, the caufe remained; for nn coming to town to 
attend Hilary term, he was attacked again. This brought on drow- 
finefs and a flupor ; fo that he became at laft, for fome days, almoft 
totally infenfible, and expired February 14, 1700, in his fifty- fixth, 
year. Since his death have been publifhed, from his original 
MSS. according to the directions in his will, " Reports of Gates 
determined in the feverai Courts of Wefiminiter Hall, from 1746 to 


BLACKWALL (ANTHONY), a native of Derby fli ire, vas ad- 
mitted fizar in Emanuel college, Cambridge, September 13, 1690; 
proceeded bachelor of arts in 1694, and went out mafter of arts 
1698. He was appointed head mailer ot the free-fchool at Derby* 
and lecturer of All-Hallows there, where, in 1706, he diftinguifhed 
himfelf in the literary world by 4< Theognidis Megarenfis Sen- 
tentice Morales," &c. Whilft at Derby he alfo published " An 
Introduction to the dailies ; containing a fhort Diicourfe on their 
Excellencies, and Directions how to ftudy them to Advantage; 
with an EiTay on the Nature and Ufe of thofe emphatical and beau- 
tiful Figures which give Strength and Ornament to Writing, 1718," 
I2mo. in which he difplayed the beauties of thofe admirable 
writers of antiquity to the underftanding and imitation even of com- 
mon capacities ; and that in fo concife and clear a manner as teemed 
peculiar to himfelf. In 1722 he was appointed head mafter of the 
iree-fchool at Market Bofworth, in Leicellerfbire; and in 1725 ap- 
peared, in 410, his greateft and moll celebrated work, " The Sacred 
ClaUics defended and iiluiirated; or, an EfTay humbly offered ro- 
wards proving the Purity, Propriety, and True Eloquence of the 
Writers of the New Teftament." vol. I. A fecond volume (com- 
pleted but a few weeks before his death) was publifhed in 17311 
under the title of " The Sacred Ciaffics defended and illustrated." 

Mr. Blackwall had the felicity to bring up muny excellent fcln- 
in his feminaries at Derby and Bofvwjrih ; among ethers, the 
celebrated Richaid Dawes, author ei the '* Mifcelianej Cmica,"' 


and Sir Henry Atkins, baronet, who, being patron of the church of 
Clapham, in Surrey, prefented him, October 12, 1726, to that rec- 
tory (then fuppofcd to be worth 300!. a year), as a mark of his gra- 
titude and i-fleem. This happened late in Mr. Biackwall's life* 
The Grammar whereby he initiated the youth under his care into 
Latin was of his own composing, and fo happily fitted to the pur- 
pofe, that in 1728 he was prevailed upon to make it public, though 
his modefty would not permit him to fix his name to it, becaufe he 
would not be thought to prefcribe to other inftrudlors of youth. 
Early in 1729 he rcfigned the redory of Clapham, and retired to 
Market Bofworth, where he was equally refpecled for his abilities 
and conviviality. He died at his fchool there, April 8, 1730. 

BLACKWELL (THOMAS), an eminent Scottifh writer, was 
fon of a minifter at Aberdeen, and born there on the 4th of Auguil, 
1701. He had his grammatical learning at a fchool in Aberdeen, 
ftudicil Greek and philofophy in the Marifchal college there, and 
took the degree of mafter of arts in 1718. Being greatly diftin- 
guiflied by uncommon parts, and an early proficiency in letters, he 
was, December 1723, made Greek profellbr in the college where he 
had been educated ; and continued to teach that language with ap- 
plaufe even to his death. In 1737 was published at London, but 
without his name, " An Enquiry into the Lite and Writings of Ho- 
mer," 8\o. a fecond edition of which appeared in 1736 ; and, not 
long after, " Proofs of the Enquiry into Hom'er's Life and Writ- 
ings," which was a tranflation of the Greek, Latin, Spanifh, 
Italian, and French notes, fubjoined to the original work. We 
agree with thole who efteem this the bed of our author's perform- 
ances. In 1748 he publilhed u Letters concerning Mythology," 
8vo. without his name alfo. The fame year he was made principal 
of the Marifchal college in Aberdeen, and is the only layman who 
hath been appointed principal of that college fince the patronage 
came to the crown by the forfeiture of the Marifchal family in 
1716; all the other principals having been minifters of the church 
of Scotland. March 1752 he took the degree of dodtor of laws; 
and the year following came out the firft volume of his " Memoirs 
the Court of Augustus," 4to. The fecond volume appeared in 
1755 ; and the third, which was pofthumous, and left incomplete 
by u.c author, was fitted for the prefs by John Mills, Efq. and pub- 
li'.hed in 1764. 

Soon attcr he became principal of his college, he married a mer- 
chant's daughter of Aberdeen, by whom he had no children. Se- 
.veral years before his death his health began to decline: his diforder 
was of the confumptive kind, and thought to be forwarded by ah 
excefs of abftemioufnefs, which he impofed upon himfelf. Hisdif- 
eafe increafuig, he was advifed to travel, and accordingly fet out in 
February 1757: however, he was not able to go -farther that Edin- 

BLACKWEL!, r Alexander). r 29 

burgh, in which city he died the 8th of March following, in his 56th. 
year. He was a very ingenious and learned man: he had an eqiiab'le 
flow of temper, and a truly philofophic fpirit, both which he leeaiS 
to have preierv-d to the latt; for, on the day of his death, he wrote 
to feveral of his friends. 

BLACKWELL (ALEXANDER), Ton of a dealer in knit hofe at 
Aberdeen, where he received a liberal education, itudied phyfic under 
Boerhaave at Leyden, took. the degree oi doctor in medicine 1 , an3 
acquired a proficiency in the modern languages, On his return 
home, happening to Iby fome time at the Hague, he contracted an 
intimacy with a Swediih nobleman. Marrying a gentleman's 
daughter in the neighbourhood of Aberdeen, he propofed pract'ifing 
his protcflion in that part of the kingdom ; but in two years finding 
his expectations di ("appointed, he came to London, where he met 
with (lill lefs encouiagement as a phyfician, and commenced cor- 
rector ot the prefs fur Mr. Wilkins a printer. After fome years. 
fpent in this employment, he fet up as a printer himfeli, and carried 
on feveral large works, tiii 1734, when he became bankrupt. .In 
what mariner he fubfifted from this event till the above-mentioned 
applicatiun we do nut l^arn, unlef- it was by the ingenuity of his 
wife, who publiihed " A curious Herbal, containing Five Hun- 
dred Cuts, of the mod ufefnl Plants, which are now ufed in the 
Practice of Phyfic, engraved on folio Copper Plates, after Draw- 
ings taken from the Life, by Elizabeth BUickwell. To which is 
added, a ihort Defcription of the Plants, and their common Ufes 
in Phyfic, 1739," 2 vols. folio. In or about the year 1/40 he went 
to Sweden, and, renewing his intimacy with the nobleman he knew 
at the Hague, again afiumed the medical profefllon, and was very 
well received in that capacity; till, turning projector, fie laid a' 
fcheme before his Swedifh majefty for draining the Tens and 
marfhes, which was well received, and many thoufands employed in 
piofecuting it under the doctor's direction, from which he had fome 
frruil allowance from the king. This fcheme fucceeded fo well, he 
turned hi> thoughts to others of greater importance, which in the 
end proved fatal to him. He was fufpected of being concerned in 
a plot with Count Teffin, and was tortured ; which not producing a 
confeffion, he was beheaded Aiiguft 9, 1748; and foon after this 
event appeared " A genuine Copy of a Letter from a Merchant in 
Stockholm, to his Correfpouclent in London ; containing an Im- 
partial Account of Doftor Alexander Elnckwell, his Plot, Trial, 
Character, and Behaviour, both under Examination, and at the 
Place of Execution ; together with a Copy of a Paper delivered to 
a Friend upon the Scaffold." He poffeffed a good natural genius, 
but was fomevvhat flighty, and a little conceited. 



ii "^_^T^^^^^^^^-^ M ^^^^'j'"-^Ti-T- "! ir-c-r^-^iri^'r-^ft^Mt^ 

BLADEN (MARTIN) Efq. a gentleman of Abrey^ Hatch in 
EfTex, and formerly a lieutenant-colonel in Queen Anne's reign, is 
more diftinguifhed by a tranilation of " Cedar's Commentaries," 
which he dedicated to his general, the great duke of Marl borough, 
than by his dramatic pieces " Orpheus and Euridice," a mafque, 
and " Solon," a tragi-comedy. However, it. is but juftice to him 
to fay, that thefe were printed, 1705, without his confent. This 
gentleman was in five parliaments. In 1714. he was made comp- 
troller of the Mint; in 1717, one of the lords commiilioners of 
trade and plantations; and, the fame year, appointed envoy ex- 
traordinary to the court of Spain, which he declined. He died in 


Oxford. He foon quitted the univerfity, and retired to Southcote 
Lodge at Reading, where he devoted his time to ftudy and contem- 
plation. His genius feemed to be turned moft to mathematics ; 
and that fee might ftudy this fcience without interruption, he demoted 
himfelf to a retired life. He employed himfelf chiefly in compil- 
ing fuch works, as might render fpeculative mathematics accurate* 
and the practical parts eafy. He accordingly finifhed fome learned 
and ufeful works on mathematical fubje&s. 

Blagrave was a man of great beneficence in private life. As he 
v : as born in the town of Reading, and fpent moft of his time there, 
he was therefore defirous of leaving in. that place fome monuments 
of his beneficent difpofition, and fuch too as might have reference 
to each of the three parifnes of Reading. He accordingly be- 
queathed a legacy for this purpofe, of which we have an account 
by AHimole, in the following words. " You are to note, that he 
doth devife-that each church-warden fliould fend on Good Friday 
one virtuous maid that has lived five years with her mailer: all 
three maids appear at the town-hail before the mayor and alder- 
men, and call dice. She that throws molt has ten pounds put in a 
purfe, and fhe is to be attended with the other two that loil the 
throw. The next year come again the two maids, and one more 
added to them. He orders in his \\lil that each inzid ihouid have 
three throws before /he lofes it ; and if fhe has no luck in the three 
years, he orders that full new faces may come and be prcfented. 
On the fame Good Friday he gives eighty widows money to at- 
tend, and orders ten (hillings for a good fermcn, and fo he wifhes 
veil to all his countrymen. It is iuckv money, for I never heard 
but the maid that had the ten pounds fuddcnly had a good hufband." 
Blagrava died at his own houfe near Reading, Auguft 9, 1611. 


BLAIR (John). -131 

J3JLA1R. JAMES), mailer of arts, was born and bred in Scotland, 
and ordained and beneficed in the epifcopal church there: but meet- 
ing with fonie difcouragements, under an unfettled ftate of affairs, 
and having a profpel of difcharging Ins minifterial function more 
ufeftilly ellewhere, he quitted his preferments, and came into Eng- 
land near the end of Charles the Second's reign. It was not long 
before he was taken notice of by Compton bifhop of London, who 
prevailed with him to go as miffionary to Virginia, about 168,5; 
where, by regular converfation, exemplary conduct, and unwearied 
labours in the work of the rniniitry, he did good fervice to religion, 
and gained to himfelf a good report nmonglt all: fo that the fame 
Bifhop Compton, being well appriled of his true and great worth, 
made choice of him, about 1689, as his commiiTary for Virginia, 

While his thoughts were intent upon doing good in his office, he 
obferved with concern that the want of fchools, and proper femi- 
naries for religion and learning, was fuch a damp upon all attempts 
for the propagation of the go f pel, that little could be hoped for, 
without iirir. removing that obliacle. He therefore formed a vaft 
defign ft-f creeling and endowing a college in Virginia, at Williamf- 
burgh, the capital of that country, for profeffors and fhidents in 
academical learning: in order to which, he had himfelf fet on foot a 
voluntary fubfcriptiisn, amounting to a great fum and, not content 
with that, came over into England 1693, to folicit the affair at court. 
Queen Mary was fo well pleafed with the noble defign, that fhe 
efpotiicd it with a particular zeal; and King William alfo very 
readily concurred with her in it. Accordingly a patent patted for 
erecting ar.o endowing a college, by the name of " The William 
and Mary ^ ,ilege;" and Mr. Blair, who had the principal hand in 
laying, foliating , and concerting the defign, was appointed prcfident 
of the college. He was betides redlor of Wiiliamfburgh in Virginia, 
and prelident of the council in that cclor.y. He continued preiident 
of the college near 50, and a minifter of the gofpel above 60 years. 
He was a faithful labourer in God's vineyard, from fir tl to laft; an 
ornament to his profeffion and his feveral offices ; and died in a good 
old agt; in the year 1743. 

Ilis works are, " Our Saviour's divine Sermon on the Mount, 
explained; and the Practice of it recommended in divers Sermons 
and Difcourfes, Lond. 1742,'' fonr volumes octavo. 

BLAIR (JOHN ) : was educated at Ldinburgh ; and came to Lon- 
don in company .ith Andrew Henderion, a voluminous writer, 
who, in his tie p - ; .ges, ftyled himfelf A. M. and for fome years kept 
.a bookfel!'./s ihop i.. Weftminlter-hall. Henderfon's firft em- 
ployjnenJ wug that of an ufher at a fchool in Hedge-lane, in which 
he \vae fucceeded by his friend Blair, who, in 1754, obliged the 
wcrid \ ith a valuable publication, under the title of " Tlie Chro- 
nology and Hiitory of the World, from the Creation to the Year 

R 2 of 


of Ch'ift 1753." This volume, which is dedicated to Lord Chan- 
cellor Hardwicke, \vas publifhed by (ubfcription, en account of the 
great expence of the plates, for which the author apologized in his 

Ereface, where he acknowledged great obligations to the earl of 
atli, and ann unced Come Chronological Differtations, wherein he 
propofed to illuftrate the difputed points, to explain the prevailing 
fyftems of chronology, and to eftablifh the authorities upon which 
fome of the particular ceias depend. In January 1755 he was eledl- 
eci a fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1761, of the Society of 
Antiquaries. In 1756, he publiftied a fecond edition of his " Chro- 
nological Tahles." In Sept. 1757, he was appointed chaplain to 
the princefs dowager of Wales, and mathematical tutor to the duke 
of York; and, on Dr. Townfhend's promotion to the deanry of 
Norwich, the fervices of Dr. Blair were rewarded, March 10, 1761, 
with a prebendal ftall at Weftminfter. The vicarage of Hinckley 
happening to fall vacant fix days after, by the death of Dr. Morres, 
Dr. Blair was p re fen ted to it by the dean and chapter of Weltmin. 
fter ; and in Auguft that year he obtained a difpenfation to hold with 
it the rectory of Burton Coggles in Lincolnfhire. In September 
1763 he attended his royal pupil the' duke of York in a tour to the 
comment; had the fatisfac'lion of vifiting Lifbon, Gibraltar, Mi- 
norca, moft of the principal cities ifi Italy, and feveral parts of 
France; and returned with the duke in Auguft 1764. In 1768 he 
publifhed an improved edition of his " Chronological Tables," 
v. iiich he dedicated to the princefs of Wales, who had expreffed her 
early approbation of the former edition. To the new edition were 
annexed, " Fourteen Maps of Ancient and Modern Geography, for 
illuftrating the Tables of Chronology and Hiftory. To which is 
prefixed a Diflertation on the Progrefs of Geography." In March 
1771, he wasprefented by the dean and chapter of Weftminfter to 
the vicarage of St. Bride's in the city of London ; which made it ne- 
cefTary for him to refign Hinckley, where he had never refidcd for 
any length of time. On the death of Mr. Sims, in April 1776, he 
rciigncd St. Bride's, and was preferred to the rectory of St. John the 
Evangelift in Weftminfter; and in June that year obtained a dif- 
penfation to hold the recloiy of St. John vv'ith that of Horton, 
nca Colebrcoke, Bucks. His brother Captain Blair falling glo- 
noully in the fcrvice of his country in the memorable fea fight of 
April 12, 1782, the (hock accelerated the dodtor's death. He had 
at the fame time the influenza in a fevere degree, which put a period 
to his life, June 24, 1782. 

i (ROBERT), a famous admiral, was born Auguft 1599, 
at Bridgevvnter in. Somerfetfliire, where he was educated at the 
grammar fch ! Ie went from thence to Oxford, where he was 

ent.-rcd at S? kfcaiv^hall. bnt removed to Wadham college ; and 
y, toof; the degree of bachelor of arts. In 1623, he\vrote a 


BLAKE (Robert}. 133 

copy of verfes on the death of Camden, and foon nfter left the imi- 
verfry. He was tinclured pr-tty early with republican principles; 
and difliking thnt feverity with which Laud, then biihop of Bath 
ami Wells, prefTed uniformity in his diocefe, he began to fall into 
the puritanical opinions. The natural blnntncfs and fincerity of 
his difpofition led him to fpcak freely upon all occafions, infomuch 
that his fentiments being gene-rally known, the puritan party got 
him elecled member for Bridgewater in 1640. When the civil 
war broke out, he declared for the parliament. In 1643, he was 
at Briftol, under the command of Col. Fiennes, who intruded him 
with a little fort on the line; and, when Prince Rupert attacked 
Briftol, and the governor had agreed to furrender it upon articles, 
Blake nevertheltfs for fome time held out his fort, and killed feveral 
of the king's forces : which exafperated Prince Rupert to fuch a 
degree, that he talked of hanging him, had not fome friends inter- 
pofed, and excnfed him on account of his want of experience in 
war. He fervcd afterwards in Somerfetfhire, under the command 
of Popham, governor of Lyme ; and, being much beloved in thofe 
parts, he had fuch good intelligence there, that, in conjunction with 
Sir Robert Pye, he furprifed Taunton for the parliament. In 1644, 
he was appointed governor of this place, which was of the utmoft 
importance, being the only garrifon the parliament had in the well. 
The works about it were not itrong, nor was the garrifon numerous, 
yet, by his Uriel difcipline, and kind behaviour to the townfmen, 
he found means to keep the place, though not properly furnifhed 
with fupplies, and fometimes belieged, and even bjocked up by the 
king's forces. At length Goring made a breach, and atually took 
part of the town ; while Blake {till held out the other part and the 
caiile, till relief came. For this fervice the parliament ordered the 
garrifon a bounty of 2000 1. and the governor a prefent of 500!. 
When the parliament hud voted no farther addrclfcs fhould be made 
to the king, Blake joined in an addrefs from the borough of Taun- 
ton, expreffing their gratefulnefs for this ftep taken by the Houfe 
of Commons. However, when the king came to be tried, Biake 
difapproved of that meafure, as illegal ; and was frequently heard to 
fay, he would as freeiy venture his life to fave the king's, as ever he 
did to ferve the parliament. But this is thought to have been chiefly 
owing to the humanity of his temper; fmce after the death of the 
king he fell in wholly wi.ivihe republican party, and, next to Crom- 
well, was the ableft officer the parliament had. 

February 1 2, 1648-9, he was appointed to command the fleet, in 
conjunction with Col. Deane and Col. Popham. Soon after he 
was ordered to fail with a fquadron of men of war, in purfuit of 
Prince Rupert. Blake came before Kinfale in June 1649, where 
Prince Rupert lay in harbour. He kept him in the harbour till the 
begicning of October, w hen the prince, defpairing of relief by fea, 
and Cromw.cll being ready to take the town by land, provifions of 



all forts falling Ihort, he refolvcd to force his way through B;akc's 
fquadion, which he tffcded with the lofs of three of his fhips. 
The prince's fleet fleered their cwurfe to,Lifbon, where they w..-re 
protected by the king of Porti^al. Bbke flr.c to the king for leave 
to ei.ttr, and coming near with his (hips, the caftle fhot at him; 
upon which he dropt an i<or, ;md fent a bon- to know the reafon r>f 
this hoitility. The captain of the cattle anfvrred, he had no orders 
from the king to let his Ibips pafs : however, the king commanded 
one of the lords r. :he co-jrt to wait upon Blake, and to defirc hinp 
rot to corne in exctp lie wea'he-r proved bad, left forr;equarrel 
ihould happen between him and Prince Rupen , the king ient him, 
at the lame time, a 'large '/relent of frelh proviiions. The weather 
proving bad, Blake fallal up the river into 'he bay of Wyers, but 
two miles from the place where Prince Rupert's fhips lay ; and 
thence he fcnt C^pt- M .Hilton, to iulorm the king of the falfities 
in the prince's declaration. The king, however, ftill retufing to 
allow the admiral to attack Prince Rupert, Blake took five of the 
Brazil fieet richly laden, and at the fame tune fent notice to him, 
that unkf; he ordered the prince's fhips out from his river, he would 
feize the reft of the Portuguese fleet from America. Sept. 1650, 
the prince endeavoured to get out of the harbour, but was ibon 
driven in again by Blake, who Cent to England nine Porluguefe 
fhips bound for Brazil. October following, he and Popham met 
with a fleet of twenty-three fail from Brazil for Liibon, of whom 
they fun!: the admiral, took the vice-admiral, and eleven other Ihips, 
having ten thoufaml chcfts of fugar on board. In his return home, 
he met with two fhips in fearch of the prince, whom he followed 
up the Strtights : when he took a French man of war, the captain 
of which had committed hoiHhtie?. He fent this prize, which was 
reported worth a million, into Calais, and followed the prince to 
the port of Carthagena, where he lay with the, remainder of his 
fleet. As foon as Blake came to an anchor before the fort, he fent 
a meffenger to the Spaniih governor, informing him, that an ene- 
my to the ftate of England was in his port, that the parliament had 
commanded him to purfuc him, and the king of Spain being ija 
amity with the parliament, he delired leave to take all advantages 
againft their enemy. The governor replied, he could not take no- 
tice of the difference of any nations or perfons amongft themfelves, 
only fiich as were declared enemies to ^,_' king his mafter, that they 
came in thither for falety, therefore he could not refufe them pro- 
tection, and that he would do the like for the admiral. Blake ittll 
preffed tiie governor to permit him to attack the prince, and the 
Spa ma: . |>ioa off till he could have orders from Madrid. While 
the admiral u.. -;\-/. : .ng in the Mediterranean, Prince Rupert got 
out of Carthage: -snd failed to Malaga. Blake having notice of 
his deliroying r.i . Fr.glifh flaps, followed him with all expedi- 
tion ; and attack .^ ! :-n in the port, burnt and deftroyed his whole 

i fleet, 

BLAKE (Robert). 135 

fleet, two lhips otiiv excepted; this was in January 1651. In Fe- 
bruary, Blake took a French man of war of forty guns, and fent it, 
with four other prizes, to England. Soon after he came with his 
f quad ran to Plymouth, when he received the thanks of the parlia- 
ment, and was made warden of the Cinque Ports. March follow- 
ing, an a-l pafTed, whereby Colonel Blake, Colonel Popham, and 
Colonel D?ane, or any two of them, were appointed admirals and 
generals or. the fleet, for the year enfuing. The next fervice he was 
put upon, was the reducing the ifles of Scilly, which were held for 
the kir.g. He failed in -May, with a body of 800 land troops on 
board. Sir John Grenville, who commanded in tho(e parts for the 
king, after ibme fmall refi (lance fubmitted. He failed next for 
Guernfey, which was held for the king, by Sir George Carteret; 
He arrived there in Oftober, and landing what forces he had-the 
very next day, he did every thing in his power in order to make a 
fpeedy conqueft of the ifland, which was not completed that year. 
In the beginning of the next, however, the governor, finding all 
hopes of relief vain, thought proper to make the bed terms he 
could. For this fervice Blake had thanks from the parliament, and 
,was eleited one of the council ot ftate. March 25, 1652, he was 
appointed fole admiral for nine months, on the profpect of a Dutch 
war. The States fent Van Trump, with forty-five fail of men of 
war, into the Downs, to infult the Englilh ; Blake, however, though 
he had but twenty-three fhips, and could expert no fuccour but 
from Major Bourne, who commanded eight more, yet, being attack- 
ed by Van Trump, fought him bravely, and forced him to retreat. 
This was on the igth of May, 1652. After this engagement the 
States feemed inclined to peace ; but the commonwealth of England 
demanded fuch terms as could not be complied with, and therefore 
both fides prepared to carry on the war with greater vigour. Blake 
now haraifed the enemy by taking their merchant (hips, in which 
lie had great fuccefs. On the loth of June, a detachment from his 
fleet fell upon fix and twenty fail of Dutch merchantmen, and took 
them every one; and, by the end of June, he had fent into port 
fcity prizes. On the 2d of July, he failed, with a ftrong fquadron, 
northwards. In his courfe he toqk a Dutch man of war ; and about 
the latter end of the month, he fell on twelve men of war, convoy to 
their herring buffes, took the whole convoy, a hundred of their buries, 
and difperfed the reft. Auguft 12, he returned into the Downs, 
with fix of the Dutch men of war, and nine hundred prifoners. 
Thence he ftood over to the coaft of Holland, and, on Sept. j8th 
having difcovered the Dutch about noon, though he had only three 
of his own fqtradron with him, Vice-Admiral Penn with his fqua- 
dron at fome diltance, and the reft a league or two aftern, he bore in 
among the Dutch fleet, being bravely feconded by Penn and Bourne ; 
when three of the enemy's fhips were wholly difabled at the firft 
brunt, and another as fhe was towing off. The rear-admiral was 



taken by Captain Mildmay; and had not night intervened, it was 
thought not a Tingle fhip of the Dutch fleet would have efcaped. 
On the 29th, about day-break, the Englifh fpied the Dutch fleet 
N. E. t*-o leagues off; the admiral bore up to them, but the enemy 
having the wind of him, he could not reach them; however, he 
commanded his light frigates to ply as near as they could, and keep 
firing while the reft bore up after them ; upon which the Dutch 
hoifted their fails and run for it. The Englifh, being in want of 
provifions, returned to the Downs. Blake having been obliged to 
make large detachments from his fleet, Van Trump, who had again 
the command of the Dutch navy, confifting of fourfcorc men of 
war, refolved to take this opportunity of attacking him in the 
Downs, knowing he had not above half his number of fhips. He 
accordingly failed away to the back of the Godwin. Blake having 
intelligence of this, called a council of war, wherein it was refolved 
to fight, though at fo great a di {advantage. The engagement began 
November 29, about two in the morning, and lafttd till near fix in 
the evening. Blake was aboard the Triumph; this (hip, the Vic- 
tory, ancl the Vanguard, fuffered moft, having been engaged, at one 
n:iie, with twenty of the enemy's beft fhips. The admiral, finding 
his mips much di fabled, and that the Dutch had the advantage of 
the wind, drew off his fleet in the night into the Thames, having 
loft the Garland and Bonaventure, which were taken by the Dutch ; 
a fmall frigate was alfo burnt, and three funk; and his remaining 
ihips much (battered anddifabled: Trump, however, bought this 
vjciory dear, one of his flag fhips being blown up, ail the men 
drowned,, and his own fhip and De Ruyter's both unfit for fervicc 
till they were repaired. This fuccefs puffed up the Dutch exceed- 
ingly ; Van Trump failed through the channel w-ith a broom at his 
main-top maft, to fignify that he had fwept the feas of Englifli fhips. 
In the mean time Blake having repaired his fleet, and Monk and 
De-ine being now joined in commiiTion with him, failed February 
otli, 1653, from Queenfborough, with fixty men of war, which 
Vvjre foon after joined with twenty more from Portfmouth. On 
the ^8th they difcovered Van Trump with fe \enty men of war, and 
three hundred merchant fhips under his convoy. Blake, with 
twelve Chips, came up with, and engaged the Dutch fleet, and, 
though grievoufly wounded in the thigh, continued the fight till 
night, when the Dutch, who had fix men of war funk and taken, 
retired. After having put afhore his wounded men at Portfmouth, 
he followed the enemy, whom he came up with the next day, when 
the fight was renewed, to the lofs of the Dutch, who continued re- 
treating towards Bulloign. All the night following Blake con- 
tinued the purfuit, and, in the morning of the aoth, the two fleets 
fought again till four in the afternoon, when the wind blowing fa- 
vourably for the Dutch, they fectired themfelves on the flats of 
Dunkirk and Calais. In thefe three engagements the Dutch loft 


BLAKE (Rolert). 137 

eleven men of war, ihirty merchant fhips, and had fifteen hundred 
men ilain. The Englilb iolt only one fhip, but not fewer men than 
the enemy. In April, Cromwell turned out the parliament, and 
fhortly after alfumed the fupreme power. The States hoped great 
advantages from this, but weredifappointed ; Blake faid on this oc- 
cafion to his officers, " It is not lor us to mind ftate affairs, but to 
keep foreigners from fooling us." Towards the end of the month, 
Blake and his colleagues, with a fleet of a hundred fail, flood over 
to the E)u'tch coaft, and forced their fleet to take flicker in theTexel; 
where, for fome time they were kept by Monk and Deane, while 
Blake failed northward : at laft Trump got out, and drew together a 
fleet of an hundred and twenty men of war. June 3d, Dcane and 
Monk engaged him off the Northforeland. On the 4th, Blake came 
to their aililtance with eighteen frefli fliips, by which means a com- 
plete victory was gained ; and if the Dutch had not again faved 
themfelves on Calais fands, their whole fleet had been funk or taken. 
Cromwell having called the parliament, fly led the Little Parlia- 
ment, Blake, October 10, touk his feat in the houfe, where he re-r 
ceived their folemn thanks for his many and faithful fervices. The 
proteclor alfo called a new parliament, confiding of four hundred, 
where Blake fat alfo, being the reprefentative for his native town of 
Bridgewater. December 6th, he was appointed one of the commif- 
fioners of the admiralty. November 1654, Cromwell fent him with 
a ftrong fleet into' the Mediterranean, with mftruclions to fupport 
the honour of the Englifh flag, and to procure fatisfa&ion ior any 
injuries that might have been done to cur merchants. In Decem- 
ber, Blake came into, the road of Cadiz, where he was treated with 
vaft refpecl: ; a Dutch admiral would not hold his flag while he was 
there. The Algerines were fo much afraid of him, that they (topped 
theSallee rovers, obliged them to deliver up what Englifh prifoners 
they had on board, and fent them to Blake, in order to procure his 
favour. Nevertheless, he came before Algiers on the loth of 
March, when he fent an "officer on (hore:to.the Dey, to tell him he 
had orders to demand fatisfalion for the piracies committed on the 
Englifh, and to infill on the releafe of all fuch Englifh captives aS 
were then in the place. To this the Dey made anfvver, that the cap- 
tures belonging to particular men he could not reftore them ; but, 
if Mr. Blake pleafed, he might redeem what Englifh captives were 
there, at a reasonable price ; and, if he thought proper, the Alge- 
rines would conclude a peace with him, and, for the future, offer n<- 
afts of hoftility to the Engiifh. This anfvver was accompanied 
with a preft-nt of frefli provifions. Blake failed to Tunis on the 
fame errand. The Dey of Tunis fent him a haughty anfvver. 
" Here," faid he, " are our caftles of Goletta and Porto Ferino, do 
your worft ; do you think we fear your fleet?" On the hearing 
this, Blake, as his cuftom was when in a pailion, began to curl his 
\vhifkers ; afcd after a fhort confutation with his officers, bore into 
VOL. II. S the 


the bay of Porto Ferino with his great fnips when, coming within 
mufquet Ihot of the caflle, he fired on it fo brifkly, that in two hours 
it was rendered defencelefs, jand the guns on the works along the 
fhore were ci;fniounted> though fixty of them played at a time on the 
Englifh. He found nine ilups in the road, and ordered every cap- 
tain, even of his own ihip, to man his long boat with choice men, 
and thefe to enter the harbour, and fire the Tunifeens, while he and 
his fleet covered them from the caflle, by playing continually on it 
with their cannon. The feamen in their boats boldly affaulted the 
pirates, and burnt all their (hips, with the lofs of twenty-five men 
killed, and forty-eight wounded. This daring a&ion fpread the terror 
of his name through Africa and Afia, which had for a long time be- 
fore been formidable in Europe. He alfo ftruck fuch terror into 
the piratical ftate of Tripoly, that he made them glad to ftrike up a 
peace with England. Thefe and other exploits raifed the glory of 
the Englifh name fo high, that moft of the princes and ftates in 
Italy thought fit to pay their compliments to the protector, parti- 
cularly the grand duke of Tufcany, and the republic of Venice, 
who fent magnificent embattles for that purpofe. The war in the 
mean time was grown pretty hot with Spain ; and Blake ufed his 
ntmoll efforts to ruin their maritime force in Europe, as Penn had 
done in the Weft Indies. But, finding himfelf now in a declining 
ftate of health, and fearing the ill confequences which might enfue, 
in cafe he fhould die without any colleague to take charge of the 
fleet, he wrote letters into England, defiring fome proper perfon to 
be named in commiffion with him, upon which General Montague 
was fent joint admiral with a flrong fquadron to aflift him. Soon 
after his arrival in the Mediterranean, the two admirals failed with 
their whole fleet to block Hp a Spanifh fquadron in the bay of 
Cadiz. At length, in September, being in great want of water, 
Blake'and Montague flood away for the coaft of Portugal, leaving 
Captain Stayner, with feven (hips, to look after the enemy. Soon 
after they were gone, the Spanifh plate fleet appeared, but were in- 
tercepted by Stayner, who took the vice-admiral and another gal- 
leon, which were afterwards burnt by accident, the rear-admiral, 
With two millions of jjlate on board, and another Ihip richly laden. 
Thefe prizes, together with all the pri loners, were fent into Eng- 
land, under General Montague, and Blake alone remained in the 
Mediterranean ; till, being informed that another plate Meet had put 
into Santa Cruz, in the ifland of Teneriffe, he failed thither in 
April 1657, with a fleet of twenty-five men of war. On the 2oth 
he came into the road of Santa Cruz ; and though the Spanifh go- 
vernor had timely notice, was a man of courage and condudl, and 
had difpofed all things in the propereft manner, fo that he looked 
upon an attack as what no wife admiral would think practicable; 
yet Blake having fummoned him, and received a fhort anfwer, was 
determined to force the place, arid to bum the fleet therein : and he 
3, performed . 


performed it in fueh a manner, as appears next to incredible. It is 
allowed to be one of the moft remarkable actions that ever happened 
at fea. As foon as the news arrived of this extraordinary action, 
the protetor fent to acquaint his fecond parliament, then fitting, 
therewith ; upon which they ordered a public thankfgiving, and 
directed a diamond ring, worth five hundred pounds, to be fent to 
Blake ; and the thanks of the Houfe was ordered to all the officers 
and feamen, and to be given them by their admiral. Upon his re- 
turn to the Mediterranean, he cruifed fome time before Cadiz ; but 
finding himfelf declining faft, refolved to return home. He ac- 
cordingly failed for England, but lived not to fee again his native 
land, for he died as the fleet was entering Plymouth, the lyth of 
Auguft, 1657, aged 58. 

BLAKE (JOHN BRADLY), fon of John Blake, Efq. was born in 
Great Marlborough-ftreet, London, November 4, 1745, educated 
at Weflmmfter fchool, and afterwards instructed in mathenv-cs, 
chemiftry, and drawing; but botanv was his favourite object., in 
xvhich he made a great progi"~? With thefe advantages he fet out 
into life, and 'ui 1766 was fent as one of the Eaft India Company's 
fupercargoes at Canton in China ; where he was no fooner fixed, 
than he refolved to employ every moment of his time, which could 
be fpared from the duties oi his ftation, to 'he advancement of na- 
tural fcience for the benefit cf his countrymen. His plan was, to 
procure the feeds of all the vegetable' found in China, whicn are 
ufed in medicines, manufactures, and fcod; and to fend into Eu- 
rope not only fuch feeds, but th? plants by whi;:i they were pro- 
duced. His view in this was, that they might be propagated either 
in Great Britain and Ireland, or in thofe colonies of America, uie 
foil and climate of whi. h m ;:.t fuit them heft. 3ut it was not to 
botanic fubjects alone uu;t . Tr. Blake's genius was confined; he 
had begun to collect foffils aud ores, and 'ue now attended as much 
to mineralogy as he had done to botany. He is fuppofed to have 
facrificed his life to the clofenefs and ardour of his purfuits. By 
denying himfelf the needful r-. Creations, and by fitting too intenfeiy 
to i^is drawing and fludie?, 1 <; brought on a gravelly complaint; and 
this increafing to the ftone, and being accompanies \vhh a fever, 
carried him offal Canton, November 16, 1773, in his Uventy-nimh 
year. The friends of natural knowledge in England were ore- 
paring to have enrolled him amcng the members of the Royal So- 
ciety, when the news of his death arrived. 

BLANCHARD (JAMES), an eminent painter, was born at Paris 
in 1600. He learnt the rudiments f his proteTion under his uncle 
Nicholas Bolleri, but left him at twenty years of age, with an inten- 
tion to travel to Italy. He ftopt at Lyons in his way thither, wiiere 
he flayed for fome time ; and during his refidence here reaped both 

S 2 profit 


profit and improvement. He palled on to Rome, where he conti- 
nued i.bout t\vo years. Fu>m thence he went to Venice; where he 
was lb much pleafed with the works ot Titian, Tmtoret, and Paul 
Vcn.nefe, that he refolved to follow their manner: and in this he 
fticceeded fo far, that: at his return to Paris he foon got into high 
employment, being generally eUeemed for the novelty, beauty, and 
force of his pencil. He painted two galleries at Paris ; one belong- 
ing to x'ne riril prefident Perrault, and the other to Monfieur de 
Bullion, fuperintendnnt to the finances. Ewt his capital piece is 
reckoned to be that at il.e church of Notre Dame, St. Andrew kneel- 
ing before the crofr, and the Holy Ghoft defcending. Blanchard 
- in a likely way of making his fortune; but a fever and an 
impouhume in ihe lungs carried him off in his thirty-eighth year. 
Of all the French painters, Bianchard was efteemed the belt eo- 
lourift, iiaving fludied this part of painting with great care in the 
Y. Nan fchool. Thtic zre few grand competitions of his; but 
what he has left of this kinu ii,- w him to have had great genius. 

BLETERIE (}O:;N PHILIP RENC DE LA), born at Rennes, 
enteied early into the congregation of the Oratory, and was there a 
diftinguiihed profeffor. The order againft wigs occafioned his quit- 
ting it ; but he retained the friend (hip and efteem of his former 
brethren. He went to Paris, where his talents procured him a 
chair of eloquence in the College Royal, and a place in the Aca- 
demy of Belles Letups. He publifhed feveral works, which have 
been well received by the public, i. The Life of the Emperor 
'Julian, Paris, 1735, 1746, I2mo. a curious performance, well 
written, and diliinguifhed at once by impartiality, precifion, ele- 
gance, and judgment. 2. The Hiftory of the Emperor Jovian, 
with Tranflations of fome Works of the Emperor Julian, Paris, 
l 7-j$> two v ls- I2mo. a hook no lefs valuable than the former. 3. 
A Franflation of fome Works of Tacitus, Paris, 17^5, two vols. 
i2rno. "The Manners of the Germans," and ""'I'lie Life of 
Agricola," arc the two pieces comprifed in this verfion, which is 
equally elegant an:l i'aitV '.. . ted is *s "Life of Tacitus," 
\ is alfo worthy of this writer, by the ftren^th of it's fenti- 
ments, and the animation of it's ftyle. 4. Tiberius, or the fix firft 
s of the Annals of Tacitus, tranflated into French, Paris, 1 768, 
three vols. i2mo. 5. I.utcrs occafiontd by the Account of Qui- 

fm given by M. Phelypeaux, 1737, i2mo. 6. Some Diflertations 
Vlemoirs of the Academy of JBelies Lettres. 7. Molt humble 

:monftrances of M. dc Ivlontrempuis. The Abbe de la Bleterie 
died at an advanced 3ge, in 1772. He was a man of learning, at- 
tached to religion, and his morals did not belie his principles. 

iMAR.T, ^a celebrated painter, was born at Gorcum, in 
.olland, 1567. H.5 fa her was m architect, who retired from the 


BLONDEL (David). 141 

1MMHI 11 ! -' 

Low Countries, during (he disturbances there, to Utrecht, whither 
his fon followed him; and here it was that he learnt the firft prin- 
ciples of his profeffion. He was never fo lucky, however, as to be 
under any able mailer. He formed a manner to himfelf, as nature 
and his genius directed him : it was eafy, graceful, and univerfal. 
He understood the " Claro Ohfcuro." The folds of his draperies 
were large, and had a good effecl ; but his manner of defigning had 
too much of his own country in it. There were a vaft number of 
prints graved after his -works. He died in 1647, aged eighty. 

BLONDEL (DAVID), a Proteltant mii-iifter, famous for his 
knowledge in ecclefiaftical and civil hiftory, was born at Chalons, in 
Champagne, 1591. He was admitted miniiter at a fynod of the 
Ifle of France, in 1614. A few years afterwards he "began to write 
in defence of Pruteitantifm, for in 1619 he publifhed a treatife en- 
titled " Modefte Declaration de la Sincerite et Verite des Eglifes 
Reformees de France." This was an anfwer to feveral of the Ca- 
tholic writers, efpecially to the bifliop of Lucon, fo well known af- 
, terwards under the title of Cardinal Richelieu. From this time he 
was confidered as a perfon of great hopes. He was fecretary more 
than twenty times in the lynods of the Ifle of France, and was de- 
puted four times fucceffively to the national fynods. That of 
Caftres employed him to write in defence of the Proteftants. The 
national fynod of Charenton appointed him honorary profeffor in 
1645, with a proper falary, which had never been done to any before. 
He wrote feveral pieces, but what, gained him moft favour amongft 
the Proteftants are the following: his " Explications on the Eucha- 
rift," his work entitled " De la Primaute d'Eglife," his treatife of 
" The Sybils," and his piece " De Epifcopis et Prefbyteris." 
Some of his party, however, were diffatisfied with him for engaging 
in difputes relating to civil hiftory ; and alfo offended at the book he 
publilhed, to Ihew what is related about Pope Joan to be a ridicu- 
fous fable. 

Upon the death of Voffius, he was invited to fucceed him in the 
hiftory profefTormip in the colk-ge of Amfterdam. He accordingly 
went thither in 1650, where he continued his fhidies with great 
afiiduity. This intenfe application, and the air of the country not 
agreeing with him, greatly impaired his health, and deprived him of 
his fight. In this condition he is faid to have dictated two volumes 
in tolio, on the genealogy of the kings of France, againft ChifHet: a 
work which we are told he undertook at the defire of Chancellor 
Seguier. He had like to have come into trouble in Holland, from 
the malice of fome perfons who endeavoured to render him fufpecled 
of Arminianifm, and who inveighed againft him for the " Confi- 
derations Religieufes et Politiques," which he publifhed during the 
war betwixt Cromwell and the Hollanders. He died the 6th of 
April, i6cs, aged lixtv-four. 



BLONDEL (FRANCIS), regius profelTor of mathematics and 
architecture, was a man of great fame ior ;he fk ; .u he acquired in 
bis profellion. He was governor to Lewis-p^nry ccunt de Brienne, 
whom he accompanied in his travels from Ju'y 1-52 to November 
1655. He wrote a Latin account of rne.i , which was printed 
twice, in 1660 and 1662. He had fcveral hcucwrable employments 
borh in the army and navy; he was alfo intrn led with the manage- 
ment of fome ntgociations with foreign prirces, and at length ar- 
med at the dignity of marfhal (iecamp, arid vunfellor of ftare. He 
hod the honour to be appointed mathe'natical preceptor to the 
dauphin. It was lie who drew the defign of the new gates fince the 
Dutch war in 1672, and he wrote Ibrne of the infcrtptions on them ; 
fur he was no lels verfed in the knowledge of the belle? lettres than 
in that of geometry, as may be feen by the comparifon he pub'.ifhed 
between Pindar and Horac. He was director of the Academy of 
Architecture, and a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences. 
Hedied Feb. i, 1686. He has left behind him, i. Notes on the 
Architecture of Savot. 2. A Courfe of Architecture, in three vols. 
in folio. 3. The Art of throwing Bombs. 4. The Hiflory of the 
Roman Calendar. 5. A new Manner of fortifying Places. 

BLONDUS (FLAVIUS), was born at Forli in Italy, in 
He was fecretary to Pope Eugenius IV. and continued in this em- 
ployment under Eugenius's fuccelTorsto Pope Pius II. under whofe 
pontificate he died, June 4, 1463. He compofed feveral works; 
the mod famous of which is, his " Hiftory from the year 400 to the 
year 1440.'* 

BLOOD (THOMAS), generally called Colonel Blood, as extraor- 
dinary an adventurer as ever lived in this or any other country. He 
was, according to fome accounts, the fon of a blackfmith in Ireland; 
but from other accounts his father appears to have been concerned 
in iron works, and to have acquired an eafy fortune in that king- 
dom. He was horn about the year 1628, came over to Engbnrt 
while a very young man, and married, in Lancashire, the daughter of 
Mr. Holcraft, a gentleman of good character in that county. This 
iec-ms to have been in 1648-; for he was in England when Colonel 
Rainslord was furprized and killed at Pontefraci. He returned af- 
t^rwanls into Ireland ; and though his family owed the befl parr of 
what they had to the pure favour of the crown, yet he ftruck in with 
the prevailing party, fcrveclas a lieutenant with the parliament forces, 
md obtained an alignment of land for his pay; befides which, 
Henry Cromwell, when he governed that country, had fo good an 
.. nir-n of him, ,as to put him into the commiltion of the peace, 
fhnugfi fcaroely twenty-two, years of age. Thefe favours, and the 
<;:rnot his education, in all probability gave him fuch an : nclination to 
* 1 T- republican party ai was not to be a.ltcreJ ; ana after the king's 


BLOOD (Worn as}. 143 

rcftoration there happened Tome accidents which contributed to in- 
creafe his difaffedlion to the government. The A&. of Settlement. 
in Ireland, and the proceedings thereupon, certainly atfe&ed him 
deeply in his fortune, and he believed unjultly, which eafily drejv 
him to turn his thoughts any way that prom i fed redrefs. He knew 
there were multitudes in the fame condition that had been old fot- 
diers, and were equally capable of contriving, concealing, and car- 
rying into execution, a plot for altering or lubverting any form of 
government, or which he had ft en fome examples. Upon ailo- 
ciating a little with the rnalecontents, he found his notions exactly 
juftified, and that there was a deiign on foot for a general infurrec- 
iion, which was to be begun by furprizin^; the caitle of Dublin, and 
feizing the perfon of the duke of Ortnond, then lord lieutenant. 
Into this he entered without any hefitation; and though many of the 
perfons involved in this ciapp/'-rv.:: undertaking v\ere much his fupt> 
riors in rank, yet hevc:y loon was at the head of the atTair, prefixed 
in all their councils was the oracle in laying their projects, and de- 
pended on for con ticking them in the exe^ \\ tion. He Jhewed his 
dexterity in things of this nature, by laying fuch a plan for kir- 
prifmg Dublin cattle, and the duke's pcr'^u at tH fan.e time, as no- 
thing but it's being divulged could have prevented; and at tfie fame 
time he penned a declaration fo accommodated to the humour ar.4 
underftanding of the foldiers, as would infallibly have drawn ovc-r 
the belt r. ait of the army : but, on the very eve ot it's execution, The 
whole conipiracy, which had been long fufpecled, was abfohtteiy 
difcovered ; and fo Colonel Blood had only the honour of the con- 
trivance. His brother-in-law, one Lackie, a minifter, who u.;> 
embarked in the bufmefs, was, with many others, apprehended, 
tried, convicted, and executed, but Lieutenant Thomas Blood maiic 
hisefcape, and kept out of reach, notwithstanding the duke of Or- 
mond, and the earl of Orrery, both laboured to have him fectired, 
and a proclamation was publi'hed by the former, with the promiit- 
of an ample reward for apprehending him. Nor was he only f 
lucky as to prevent confinement and punifhment, but, by aji airdaciu- 
ftill more fingular, had almoll frighted away the guards that attended, 
Lackie's execution, and even alarmed the friends of the lord litu- 
tenant on the (core of his fafety ; fo high was Blood's fame t<tf 
lagacity and intrepidity at this time, and fo capable he was of un- 
dertaking any thing his palTion or intereft dictated, and of conduct- 
ing fkillully whatever was by him undertaken, how defperate or 
difficult foever. 

He (laid as long amongft the fl-6taries and remains of Oliver*^ 
forces as he found it pra&icable to conceal himfelf, and then haif 
recourfe to the mountains and the protection of the old native fnlh ; 
and the better to attach thofe he converled with to his interests h<- 
became all things to all men ; he was a Quaker to fome, an Ana- 
baptilt to others-, an independent where thdt would b^t recumrncn<t 

hiir, , 


'him; and to b> (peak the favour of the poor ignorant natives, he 
took the character of a prieff.. By thefe arts he fhifted about from 
one place to another, making himfeif acquainted with all parties in 
the ii! '.ad, nnd with all their interests and conntctic'ns at home and 
abroad. At Uft, finding all his haunts known, and that it was im- 
poflible to raife, at that juncture, any infurreclion, he found means 
to get over into Holland, where he was very we'll received, and ad- 
'miued into great intimacy with fome of the inoft confiderable perfons 
in the republic, particularly Adruiral de Ruyter. He went irom 
thence to England, with fuch recommendations to the fifth-mo- 
narchy men, and other malecontents, that he was immediately ad- 
mitted into all their councils, and had a large fhare in all thofe 
dark intrigues that were then carrying on for throwing the nation 
again into confufion. In this fituation he gave another flrorg in- 
ftance of his bo'd enterprifing genius; but finding the government 
apprized of their -defigns, and lorefeeing that the perfons prin- 
cipally concerned could not efcape being apprehended, lie refolved to 
withdraw into Scotland, -vt here he fo wrought upon the difcontents 
of the people, that he contributed not a little to the breaking out of 
the inlurrecliion there, and was prefent in the action of Pcntl?.nd- 
hills, November 27, i6fc6, in which the infurgents were routed, 
and about five hundred killed. He fled, after this defeat, back to 
England, and from thence to Ireland, where he landed within three 
rmles of Carrie kfergus ; but Lord Dungannon purfued him fo 
clofely, that he was obliged to retire very fpeedily into England. 
He had not been long in this kingdom before he performed a irefh ex- 
ploit, which was as extraordinary, more (ucccfsful, and made much 
gieater noife in the workl, than any thing he had yet done. This 
was the refcue of his friend Captain Maton from a guard of fol- 
diers, who were conducting him to his trial at the affixes. Before 
he engaged himfeif in this affair, he had placed h;s wife and Ion in 
an apothecary's (hop, under the name of Wefton.aiul had lived him- 
\ at Rum ford, by the name of Ayliffe, and pretended to practife 
ph}fic. After he v. as cured of his wounds, and heard that all that 
were concerned with him were fafe, which was in about fix. 
\v neks, he returned to Rumford, and lived there urnler the fame dif- 
guife for a confiderabje time, without being lufpected or molefted, 
. notwithftanding a proclamation was publifhed, v\ith an offer of five 
hundred pounds reward, for apprehending the perfon concerned in 
this refcue. 

It was impoilible for one of his bufy, reliefs, ana impatient tern- 
per, to continue long quiet; but whether his next emerprife was 
entirely his own contriving, or. was intended purely to ferve his own 
purpofes, is a point at prefent not to be decided : however that 
might be, the undertaking \vas in every refpel more fmgular, and 
more hazardous, than any he had hitherto attempted ; and as it was 
altogether without example that he went upon it, fo it is certain no 


BLOOD ( c TbomAs). 143 

fuch thing vas ever thought of fince : it was the feizing the perfon 
of his old aatagonift, the duke of Ormond, in the ftreets of London ; 
biu whether with a view to murder, or carry him off till he had an- 
fwered their expectation, is not perfectly clear. He actually put 
his defign in execution, December 6, 1670, and was very near com- 
pleting his purpofe on his grace, whatever that purpofe might be. 
However, the duke was fortunately refcued out of his hands \ but 
himfelf and his ailbciates all efcaped, though clofely purfued. An, 
account of this amazing tranfadtion was immediately publifhed by 
authority, together with a royal proclamation, offering a reward of 
one thoufand pounds for apprehending any of the perfons concerned 
therein, but to no purpofe, though fome of their names were difco- 
vered: however, Blood was not fo much as thought of, or fufpedted. 

The mifcarriage of this daring defign, inftead of daunting him, or. 
creating the lead intention of flying out of the kingdom, put him on 
another more ftrange and hazardous defign, to repair his broken for- 
tunes. He propofed to thofe defperate perfons who affixed him in. 
his former attempt, to feize and divide amongfl them the royal en- 
figns of majefty kept in the Tower of London ; and as they were 
blindly devoted to his fervice, they very readily accepted the propofal, 
and left it to him to contrive the means of putting it into execution, 
lie devifcd accordingly a Icheme for that purpofe, fuitable to fo 
bold and bafe an undertaking, which was fo cunningly laid, and 
executed with fuch an audacious fpirit, May 9, 1671, that he fo far 
carried his point, as to get the regalia into his polTeilion, and was 
near carrying off his booty, when he was purfued and taken ; by 
which means the crown, and all the jewels belonging to it, were 
happily recovered. Upon this difappointment his fpiriis failed him ; 
and while he remained a prifoner in the gaol of the Tower, he ap- 
peared not only filent and referved, but dogged and fullt-n. He 
foon changed his temper however, when, contrary to all reafon, 
probability, and his own expectation, he was informed the king 
intended to fee and examine him himfelf. This was brought about 
by the duke of Buckingham, then the great favourite and rirft mi- 
nifter, who infnfed into his ir.ajefly, over whom he had for fome 
time a great afcendancy, the curiofity of feeing fo extraordinary a 
perfon, whofe crime, great as it was, argued a prodigious iorce of 
mind, and made it probable, that, if fo difpofed, he might be capable 
of making large difcoveries. Thefe infmuations had Inch an effect 
upon the king, that he confented to what the duke defired, which 
in the end proved difadvantageous to them all; for it brought dif- 
credit on the royal character, an indelible load of infamy upon the 
duke, and this afterwards produced BlooJ's ruin : fuch are the con- 
fequences of incon^derate actions it; perfons in high ftations, who 
ought always to be jealous of their dignity, and of doing what may 
hazard the wounding public opinion, upon which that dignity is 
chiefly founded. Colonel B'.ood was no focner acquainted that he 

VOL. II. T was 


was to be introduced to the royal prefence, than he conceived imme- 
diately he ftood indebted for this honour to the notion the king, or 
fome about him, had of his intrepidity, and therefore was not at all 
at a lofs about the part he was to act, and on the acting of which 
well his life entirely depended. He is allowed on all hands to have 
performed admirably upon this occafion : he anfwered whatever his 
majefty demanded of him clearly, and without referve ; he did not 
pretend to capitulate or make terms, but feemed rather plcafed to 
throw his life into the king's hands hy an open and boundk-fs con- 
fefllon. He took care, however, to prepofTefs his majefty in his 
favour by various, and thofe very different, methods. At the fame 
time he laid himfelf open to the law, he abfolutely refufed to im- 
peach others. While he magnified the fpirit and refolution of the 
party to which he adhered, and hnd always acted againft monarchy, 
he infinuated his own and their veneration for the perfon of the king ; 
and though he omitted nothing that might create a belief of his con- 
temning death, yet he expreffed infinite awe and refpect for a mo- 
narch who had condefcended to treat him with fuch unufual indul- 

It was forefeen by the duke of Ormond, as foon as he knew the 
kingdcfigned to examine him, that Blood had no caufe to fear ; and 
indeed fuch an impreffion his ftory and behaviour made on the mind 
of his fovereign, that he was not only pardoned, but fet at liberty, 
and had a penfion given him to fubfift on. This conduct of his ma- 
jefty towards fo high and fo notorious an offender, occafioned much 
fpeculation, and many conjectures. Of thefe fome are ftill pre- 
ferved, amonglt which the fentiments of Sir Gilbert Talbot are 
very fenfible. He fecms to think the king's apprehenfions deter- 
mined him. Another writer fuggefts, that the duke of Bucking- 
ham having put him on the firft defign, to prevent it's becoming 
public, was obliged to procure his pardon for the fecond; but it is 
more probable that he infinuated his intereft with fome defperate 
malecontents then in Holland, whom he could induce to come 
home and live peaceably. At leaft this is certain, that on the 
breaking out cf the war foon after, a proclamation was pnblifhed, 
requiring fuch perfons to come over; upon which Dcfborough, 
Relfey, and many more, came, furrendered, and had pardons, very 
probably ?.t Blood's requeft ; far with him they met almoft every 
day, in a room kept on purpofe for them, at White's Coffee-hcufe, 
near the Royal Exchange. His intereft was for fome time very 
great at Court, where he folicited the fuits of many of the unfor- 
tunate people of his parly with fuccefs : but as this gave great of- 
iencc to fome very worthy perfons while it laded, fo, after the dif- 
grace^and falling to pieces of tfa^miniftry ftyled the Cabal, it began 
quickly to decline, and perhaps his penlion alfo was ill paid ; for we 
find him again amongfl the malecontents, and acting in favour of 
jopuiar mcafures that were difpleafing IQ the court, In the bufy 

BLOOD (Thomas). 147 

time of plotting too, fo a&ive a perfon as Colonel Blood could not 
but have fome (hare. He behaved, however, in a new manner, 
fuitable to the great change of times ; and inftead of attempting on 
the perfons of great men, took up the character of a great man 
himfulf, and exprelfed an apprehenfion that attempts might be 
made upon his perfon. In this manner he fpim out between nine 
and ten years, fometimes about the court, fometimes excluded from 
it, always uneafy, and in fome fcheme or other of an untoward kind, 
till at lalt he was met with in his own way, and either circumvented 
by fome ot his own inftruments, or drawn within the vortex of a 
fliam plot, by fome who were too dinning for this matter in his pro- 
feffion. It feems there were certain people, who had formed a de- 
fign of fixing an imputation of a moft fcandalous nature upon the 
duke of Buckingham, who was then at the head of a vigorous oppo- 
fition againft the court, and who, notwithstanding he always courted 
and protected the fanatics, had not, in refpect to his moral cha- 
racter, fo fair a reputation as to render any charge of that kind in- 
credible. But whether this was conducted by Colonel Blood, 
whether a counter-plot was fet on foot to defeat it, and entrap 
Blood, or whether fome whifper thrown out to alarm the duke, 
which he fufpecled came from Blood, led his grace to fecure him- 
felf by a. contrivance of the fame (lamp, better concerted, and more 
effectually executed; fo it was, that his grace, who was formerly 
fuppofed fo much a patron to the colonel, thought it requifite, for 
his own fafety, to contribute to his ruin. What notion Mr. Blood 
inclined the world fhould entertain of this affair, may be difcovered 
from the cafe which he caufed to be printed of it ; but it fell out that 
the Court of King's Bench took the thing in fo different a light, 
that he was convicted upon a criminal information for the confpi- 
racy, and committed to the King's Bench prifon ; and while in 
cuftody there, he was charged with an action of fcandalum magna- 
tum, at the fuit of the duke of Buckingham, in which the damages 
were laid fo high as ten thoufand pounds ; but, notwithstanding this, 
Colonel Blood tound bail, and was difcharged from his imprifon- 
ment. He then retired to his houfe in the Bowling-alley, in Weft- 
rninfter, in order to take fuch meafures as were requifite to deliver 
him out of thefe difficulties; but finding fewer friends than he ex- 
pected, and meeting with other and more grievous difappomtments, 
he was fo much affected thereby, as to fall into a diftemper that 
fpeedily threatened his life. He was attended in his ficknefs by a 
clergyman, who found him feniible, but referved, declaring he was 
not at all afraid of death. In a few days he fell into a lethargy, and 
Wednefday, Auguft 24, 1680, he departed this life. On the Friday 
following he was privately, but decently, interred, in the new chapel 
in TothiH-fields. Yet fuch was the notion entertained by the gene- 
rality of the world of this man's fubtlety and reftlefs fpirit, that they 
could neither be perfuaded he would be quiet in his grave, nor. would 

T 2-. they 


they permit him to remain fo ; for a ftory being fpread that this 
dying, and being buried, was only a new trick of Colonel Blood's, 
preparative to fume more extraordinary exploit tha: any he had been 
concerned in, it became in a lew days fo current, and fo many ar- 
cumllances were added to render it credible, that the coroner thought 
fit to interpofc, ordered the body to be taken up again on the 
Thurfday following, and appointed a jury to fit upon it. But fo 
ftrongly were they prepofleffed with the idle fancy of it's being all an 
amuiement, that though they were his neighbours, knew him per- 
fonally, and he had been fo few days dead, they could not for a long 
time agree whether it was or was not his body. An intimate ac- 
quaintance of his, at laft, put them on viewing the thumb of his left 
hand, which, by an accident that happened 10 it, giew to twice it's 
natural fize, which was commonly known to iuch as converfed 
\vith him. Bv this, and the various depofitions of p.erf.m* attending 
him in his laft illnefs, they were at length convinced, and the coroner 
caufed him to be once more interred, and left in his vault in quiet. 

BLOUiStT (THOMAS), a learned Englifh writer, was born at 
Bordefk-y, in VvVrcefterlhire, 1619. He had net the advantage of a 
tmiverfity education, but by firength of genius, and great appli- 
cation, made a confidcrahle progrefs in literature. Upon the break- 
ing out of the popifh plot in the reign of Charles II. being much 
alarmed on account of his being a zt.dons Roman Catholic, he con- 
tracled a palfy, as he informed Mr. Wood in a letter dated April the 
28th, 1679; adding, that he ha^.1 then quitted all books, except 
thofe of devotion. He died the 26th of December following. 

BLOUNT (Sir HENRY), an Englifh writer, was born Dec. 
15, 1602, at Tittenhanger, in Hertt. rdmire. He was educated at 
the free-fchool of St. Alban's, from whence he was removed to 
Trinity college, Oxford, 1616. He was a youth of a chearful dif- 
polition, and had a ftrong talle for claflical learning. He had fnch 
a fprightly wit, fo eafy an addrefs, and was fo entertaining in con- 
verfation, that he became uni^erfally beloved, and was efteemed as 
promifing a genius as any in the univerfity. In 1618 he took his 
degree of bachelor of arts, and foon after left Oxford. Then he 
went to Gray's Inn, where he applied himfelf to the law, and in 
1634 fet out on his travels. After having vifited France, Spain, and 
Italy, he went to Venice, whirehe contracted an acquaintance with a 
janizary, whom he refolved to accompany to the Turkifh dominions. 
He accordingly embarked, May 1634., on board a Venetian galley, 
for Spalatro, and thence continued his journey by land to Conitan- 
tinople. His Hay at Constantinople was fhort, for he went from 
thence to Grand Cairo ; and, after having been abroad two years, 
returned to England, where, in 1 636, he printed an account of hi* 

BLOUNT (Sir Thomas Pope'). 149 

In 1638 his ... .li cf, and left him the feat of Blount's Hull, 
in Sraffordfhire, with a confiderable iortune. March 21, 1639, the 
king conferred on him the honour of Knighthood ; anu upon the 
breaking out of the civil war, he attended his majeity to fe\erul 
places, was prefcnt at the battle of Edgehill, and at this juncture is 
iuppofed to have had the care of the young princes. He afttrwaids 
quitted his majefly's fervice, and returned to London ; where he was 
called to an account for adhering to the king, but brought himfelf off 
by alledgmg hi^ duty on account of his port. In 1651 he was 
named by the parliament in a committee of twenty perfons for in- 
fpecting the practice of the law, and remedying it's abufes ; and 
about this time he (hewed himfelf very active againfl the payment 
of tithes, being deiirous to have reduced the income of pauih mi- 
ni (ters to one hundred pounds a year. He alfo fat with Dr. Zotich, 
Dr. Clarke, Dr. TAirner, civilians, and other eminent perfons', in 
the court of King'? (then called the Upper) Bench, in Weihnimter- 
hall, on the 51!! of July, 1654, by virtue of a con? million from Oli- 
ver Cromwell, for .trying Don Parralion Sa, brother t the Poriu- 
gtiefe ambaflador, for murder. Nov. i, 1655, he was appointed 
one of the twenty-one commi dinners to confider el the trude aaJ 
navigation of the commonwealth. 

But notwithftanding he complied with the forms of government 
fet up between 1650 and 1660, yet he ieems to have been eftcemed 
a friend to the royal family : for he was received into favour and 
confidence on the king's reftoration, and appointed high fherift ,-f 
the county ot Hertford, in 1661. From this time he lived as a 
private gentleman, fatisfied with the honours he had acquired, .nd 
the eftatt he pofTefTed ; and after having paifed upwards of twenty 
years in this manner, died Oct. 9, 1682. 

BLOUNT (Sir THOMAS POPE), an eminent Englifh writer, fort 
of the p.eceding Sir Henry Blount, was born at Upper Holloway, in 
Muidleftx, September 12, 1649. Charles II. conferred upon him 
the degree of a baronet in 1679. He was elected burgefs for St. 
Alban's, in Hertfordihire, the fame year, and was knight of the 
fhire in three parliaments after the Revolution; being alfo ap- 
pointed commi.lioner of accounts for the three laft years of his life, 
by the Hotife of Commons. He always diftinguifhed himfelf as a 
lovqr of liberty. He was a man of great learning, and well verfed 
in the befl writers; of which he gave a proof in his famous work, 
" Cenfura celebriorum Authorum," &c. His capacity for writing 
on a variety oi important and entertaining fubje&s appears from his 
elfays. His extenfive knowledge is farther difplayed in another 
learned piece of his, on natural hiflory. He wrote alfo a work on 
poetry, " De Re Poetica, or Remarks upon Poetry." After hav- 
ing acquired great honour in his (everal public characters, with 
efteem and friendfhip in private' life, he quietly ended his days at 
.Tittenhanger, June 30, 1697, not qu.ite forty-eight yqarsold. 



BLOUNT (CHARLES), younger fun of Sir Henry Blount, and 
an eminent writer alfo, was born April 27, 1654. He had an ex- 
cellent capacity ; and, being trained by his father, quickly acquired 
an extraordinary fkiil in the arts and fciences. In 1679, he pub- 
liibed his " Anima Mundi," which giving great offence, complaint 
\\as m^do thereof to Compton, bifhop of London. Blonnt was a 
ih-ciHioiis advocate for liberty, of which he gave teftimony in a 
pamphlet on the " Popiili Plot, and the Fear of a Popifh fuccef- 
for," fubicribed junius Brutus. In 1680, he printed his work 
which rendered him mod known to the world, " The Life of Apol- 
IOMUIJS Tyar/us," which was foon after fupprefled, it being an at- 
tack upon revealed religion. The fame year came out his " Diana of 
tilt- Luhefians, 1 ' which gave alfo great oifence; for, under colour of 
expoftng fuperftition, he ttruck at revelation. In 1684, he published 
a Hind of " Intyoduftion to polite Literature/' Blount was a 
warm friend -to the Revolution ; he gave a ftrong teftimony of at- 
tachment to his principles, and the love of freedom, in a treatife he 
\vrote for the liberty of the prefs ; wherein he fhews, that all re- 
i\raints thereon can have no other tendency than to eftablifh fuper- 
ftition and tyranny, by abafin^ the fpirits of mankind, and injuring 
the human undsriland'ing. Warmth of temper, affection for King 
William, and (trong defire to fee things fettled according to his 
withes, led him to write a pamphlet, in which he aderted King 
William and Queen Mary to be conquerors: which piece, however, 
gave fuch offence, that it was condemned to be burnt, by both 
Qotifes of parliament. After the death of his wife, he became 
enamoured of her fifter, a lady of beauty, wit, and virtue, who is 
fcid not to have been infenfible on her fide, but fcrupulous only as 
to marrying him after her filter. He wrote a letter on this fubjedl, 
wherein he Rates the cafe as of a third perfon, and treats it with 
great learning and addrefs. It is alfo faid that he applied to the 
srchbifhop of Canterbury, and other divines, who. decided againlt 
his opinion ; and this decifion rendering the lady inflexible, threw 
him into a fit of defpair, which ended in a frenzy, fo that he Ihot 
iiimfelf. The wound, however, did not prove immediately mortal: 
he lived after it fome days, and died in Auguft, 1693. 

IT-- *"' ' """ '~ 

BLOW fDr. JOHN}, an eminent mufician, was horn at Col- 
Hngham in N on in gharri (hi re, about the year 1648. In 1674 he 
was appointed mailer of the children of the Royal Chapel; in 
168^, corppofer to his majefty ; in 1687, almoner and mafter of the 
ch;>rifters of St. Paul's cathedral. Blow was not a graduate of 
fAther i.Miverfity ; but Archbifhop Sancroft conferred on him thede- 

tree of Jodor in mufic. Upon the deceafe of Purcell, in 1695, he 
ecair.e urganift of Wellminiter-abhey. He died O61. I, 1708; 
nJ was bu-ed in the noith aile of Wdtrninfter-abbey. 



BOADICEA, a famous Britifh queen, in the time of the Roman 
emperor Nero-; was widow of Prafutagus, king of the Iceni, who, 
having fuffered the moll barbarous indignities from the Romans, 
exeched the Britons to a revolt. Accordingly, to the number of an 
hundred and twenty thoufand, with Boadicea at -their head, they at- 
tacked the Roman colony at Camalodunum, and ilaughtered feventy 
or eighty thoufand Remans ; committing the mod ihocking and 
unheard-of cruelties. But Suetonius Panlinus marching againft 
them with about ten thoufand men, a bloody battle enfued, in 
v/hich eightv thoufand Britons were ilain, and the Romans gained 
the victory with a very inconiiderable lofs. This battle was fought 
in the year of Chrift 61, of Nero 8. Some have thought it was 
fought on Salisbury Plain, and that Stonehenge was erecled as a 
monument to Boadicen. This valiant queen loon after difpatched 
herielf by poifon, or died by ficknsfs. 

BOCCACE (JoiiN\ an cteiitieny writer, was born at Certalclo, 
in Tufcany, 1313. His father defigned him for bufinefs, and 
placed him with a merchant of Florence, who took him to Paris, 
and with whom Boccace lived fix years ; but being at length tired of 
trade, and having declared his averfion to it, he was fent to ftudy the 
canon law. He difliked this alfo, his paflion being for poetry ; nor 
could his father's commands, or the exhortations of his friends, in- 
duce him to fupprefs this natural inclination. However, he could 
not wholly difengage himfelf from the law, till after his father's 
death; but then renounced it, and gave himfelf wholly up- to poetry. 
He put himfelf under the inflruction of Petrarch, and fought every 
where for the moft eminent matters; but not having an income 
{efficient for his expences, he was reduced to the neceifity of being 
affifted by others ; and was particulary obliged to Petrarch, who fur- 
nifhed him with money as well as books. Boccace was a -great 
admirer of the Greek language : he found means to get Homer tranf- 
lated into Latin for his own ufe ; and procured a profeifor's chair at 
Florence for Leontius Pyhutus, in order to have this poet explained 
by him. The republic of Florence honoured Boccace with the free- 
dom of that city, and employed him in public affairs, particularly to ne- 
gociate the return of Petrarch ; but Petrarch not only refufcd to return 
to Florence, but perfuaded Boccace alfo to retire from thence, on ac- 
ountof the factions which prevailed in that republic. Having quitted 
Florence, he went to feveral places in Italy, and flopped at lait at 
Naples, where King Robert gave him a very kind reception. He 
conceived a violent affection for the natural daughter of that prince, 
which made him remain a confiderable time at Naples. He alfo 
made along flavin Sicily, where he was in high favour with Queen 
Joan. When the troubles were foinewhat abated at Florence, he 
returned thither ; but foon returned toCertaldo, where he fpent his 
June in (tody. . His intenfe application brought on him a tkknefs 



in the ftomach, put .m enu an in 1375. -h c ' eft ^ ' f *l 
works, fome in Latin, and lorne in Italian. Ot all his competitions 
his 4 ' Decameron" is the molt famous. 

BOCCALINI (TKAJANJ, a fatirical wit, was born ai Rome, 
about the beginning of the lyth century. The met!. >d he took to 
indnlge his turn for fatire was, by feigning that Apollo, Holding his 
courts on Parnalfus, heard the complaints of the whole WL r'd, and 
^ave judgment as the cafe required. He was received into the aca- 
demies of Italy, where he gained great appluuie by his political dif- 
courfes, and his elegant criticifms. The cardinals L>< /gheie and 
Cajetan having declared themfelves his patrons, he publiflied his 
' Ragguagli di Parnairo," and " Secret;<ria di Apollo," aco.stin* .- 
tion thereof: which works being well received, he proceeded ! ae- 
ther, and printed his " Pietradi Paragone ;" \vht-: cin nc atvaci- ihe 
court of Spain, fetting forth their deligns agamft tlic liberty ot Italy, 
and inveighing particularly againft them for tht tyranny they exer- 
cifed in the kingdom of Naples. The Spaniards complained of 
him in form, and were determined at any rate to be revenged. 
Boccalini was frightened, and retired to Venice. lime alter 
he was murdered in a furprizir-.g manner. He lodged wit'; one of 
his friends, who having got up rarl-y one morning left B; :ralini 
a- but; when a minute after four anned men entered his chamber, 
and gave him fo many blows with bags full of fand that they left 
him for dead; fo that his friend, upon his return., found him unable 
to utter one word. Great fearch was made at V uice fur the authors 
of this murder; and though they were never di (covered, yet it was 
univerfally believed that they were fet to work by the cucirt of 

BOCCONI (SvLVio), a celebrated natural hiftorian, was born 
at Palermo in S.cily, the 24th of April, 1633. Aiier he had gone 
through the courfe of fiudieb, he applied himfelf chiefly to na- 
tural hiftory, in which he nidd<^ a mft furprifing progrefs. He was 
afterwards ordained piieft, and entered into the Ciitercian order, 
but this new way of life did not in the leaft divert him from his fa- 
vourite ftudy ; for he purfotd it with greater vigour ihan ever, and 
travelled not only over Sicily, but likewife vilited the ifle ot Malta, 
Italy, the Low Countries, England, France, Germany, Poland, and 
feveral other nations. In 1696, he was admitted a member ol the 
academy of the virtuofi in Germany. He was at Pr.rHia fome time, 
where he ftudied under James Pighi, firfl prof. . <r of anatomy 
there : upon his return to Sicily, he retired to a conven of his own 
order, near Palermo, where he died Dec. 22, 1/04. He left many 
curious works in different languages. 



BOCHART (SAMUEL), a learned French Proteftant, was horn 
31 Ruan, in Normandy, 1599. He made a very early progrefs in 
.learning, particularly in the Greek language, of which we have a 
proof in the verfes he compofed in praife of Thomas Dempfler, 
under whom he ftudied at Paris. He went through a courfe of phi- 
lofophy at Sedan, and itudied divinity at Saumur under Camero, 
whom he followed to London, the academy at Saumur being dif- 
perfed during the civil war. He made however but a fliort fhy in 
England ; for about the end of" 1621 he was at Leyden, where he 
applied himfelf to the ftudy of the Arabic under Erpenius. When, 
Bochart returned to France, he was chofen ininifterof Caen, where 
he dh'tinguifhed himfelf by public difputations with Father Veron, 
a very famous controverHalift. The difpute was held in the cattle of 
Caen, in prefence of a great number of Catholics and Proteitants. 
Bochart came off with honour and reputation, which was not a 
little increafcd upon the publication of his Phaleg and Canaan, which 
are the titles of the two parts of his " Geographica Sacra, 1646." 
He acquired alfo great fame by his " Hierozoicon," printed at Lon- 
don, 1675. This treats " de animalibus facras fcripturae." The 
great learning difpbyed in thefe works rendered him efteemed not 
only amongii thofe of his own perfuafion, but amongft all lovers of 
knowledge of whatever denomination. In 1652, the queen of 
Sweden invited him to Stockholm, where fhe gave him many proofs 
of her regard and eileem. At his return into France, in 1653, he 
continued his ordinary exerciles, and was one of the members of the 
academy of Caen, which confided of all the learned men of that 
place. He died fuddenly, when he was fpeaking in this academy, 
May 6, 1667. 

Befides what we have mentioned, he wrote a treatife on the ter- 
reftrial paradife, on the plants and precious ftones mentioned in 
fcripture, and fome other pieces ; but he left thefe unfinifljed. He 
left alib a great number of fermons. 

BOCHIUS (JOHN), was born at Bruifels in 1555. He was a 
good Latin poet, and thence ftyled the Virgil of the Low Countries. 
He accompanied Cardinal Radzivil to Rome, where he (ludied 
under Beliarmin. Bochius, after having vifited mod parts of Italy 
went through Poland, Livonia, Ruffia, and Mufcovy. In going 
from Smolenfko to Mofcow he fuffered much from the cold, and 
his feet were frozen to fuch a degree that fome thought he wou!4 
be obliged to have them cut off: but he recovered without the ope- 
ration. Upon his return to the Low Countries, the duke of Parma 
rjsade liim Secretary ot Antwerp. He died Jan, 13, 1609, 

BODIN (JOHN), a celebrated French lawyer, was born at 
Angers. He ftudied the law at Toutoufe, where he took degrees, 
and afterwards read le&ures with great applaufc. He intended to 

Vol. II, U fettle 


- .__a .-.- - -_j -_-_-.- ~ ~ I~T 

fettle there as law profeiTor, and, in order to ingratiate himfelf with 
the Touloulians, compofsd his oration, " De iriftituenda in repub- 
lica juventute :" which he addretTed to the people and fenate of Tou- 
loufe, and recited it publicly in the fchools. But he at length pre- 
ferred the common to the civil law, and quitted the fchool at 
Toulon fe for the bar of Paris: where, however, not fucceeding, 
he applied himfelf wholly to com poling book?, in which he had 
furpnzing fcccefs. The firft work he publiihed was his " Com- 
mentary on Oppian's Books of Hunting," and his tranftation of 
them into Latin verfe, 1555; " Method of Hiftory, 1566;" " Dif- 
courfe on Coins, &c. 1568 ," " Republic, 1576," in iolio, and after- 
wards feveral times in 8vo; the fame year, " Account of the States 
of Blois;" " Law Tables," entitled "Juris univerfi diftributio, 
1578^" " Demonomanie des Sorciers, 1579 ;" and a little before his 
death, " Theatre de la nature univerfelle." He ordered by will 
that his books " De imperio, et jurifdiclione, et legis a&ionibus, et 
dccretis, judiciis," Ihould be burnt, which was accordingly done. 
Befides what we have mentioned, he wrote alfo a book by way of 
dialogue on religions, which, however, was never publiihed. 

The reputation of Bodin as a man of wit and learning induced 
King Henry III. to fee him ; and as he was alfo extremely agree- 
able in converfation, his majtfty conceived a fondnefs for him, and 
took delight in his company ; but the royal favour was not of long 
continuance. However he found means to get into the good graces of 
the duke of Alencon, whom he accompanied to England ; where he 
had the pleafure to find that his books of the " Republic" were 
read publicly in the univerfity of Cambridge, and that the Englith 
had tranflated them into Latin from the French original, which in- 
duced him 'afterwards to tranflute them himfelf into Latin. They 
were likewife tranflated from the French and Latin copies into Eng- 
li'fh by Richard Knolles, and publiihed at London, 1606, in folio. 
Upon the death of the duke of Alencon, Bodin retired to Laon> 
where he married. He had an office in the prsiidial of this city ; and 
it was perhaps on account of this office, that he was deputed in 
i}/6, by the third ftate of Vermandois, to the ftates of Bluis. He 
there fpoke with great fpirit for the rights of the people. In 
Charles the Ninth's time he was the kind's folicitor with a com- 
milTion for the forefts of Normandy. He died of the plague at 
Laon, in 1596. 

BODLEY (Sir THOMAS), from whom the Bodleian library at 
Oxford takes it's name, the eldeft fon of Mr. John Bodley, was 
born at Exeter, March 2, 1544. He was about twelve years of age 
when his father removed with his family to Geneva. The univer- 
fity of Geneva being then newly erected, young Bodley applied him- 
felf to the ftudy of the learned languages under the molt celebrated 
rofeffors. He frequented the public lectures of Chevalerius in the 
\bn\v tongue, Beroaldus in ths Greek, and Calvin and Beza in 


BODLEY (.SYr Thomas). 155 

divinity. Upon the acceffion of Queen Elizabeth in 1558, he re- 
turned to England with his father, who fettled in London ; and foon 
after was fent to Magdalen college, in Oxford. In 1563, he tr.ok 
the degree of bachelor of arts, and the year following wasadmitted 
fellow of Mertofj college. In 1565, he undertook the reading of a 
Greek ledtire in the hall of that college. In i 566, he took the de- 
gree of mafter of arts^ and the fame year read natural philofophy 
in the public fchools. In 1569, he was elected one of the proctors 
of the univerfity ; and, for a confulerable time, fnpplied the place of 
univerfity orator. In 1576, he went abroad, and fpent four years 
in France, Germany, and Italy. Upon his return, he applied him- 
fdf to the ftudy of hiftory and politics. In 1585, he was made 
gentleman ufher to Queen Elizabeth. About two years after, he 
was employed in f&veral embaffies, to the king of Denmark, duke of 
Brunfwick, the landgrave of Helle, and other German princes, to 
engage them in the affiftance of the king of Navarre, afterwards 
Henry IV. of France; and, having difcharged that cornmiffion, he 
was fent to Henry III. at the time when this prince was forced by 
the duke of Guife to quit Paris. In 1588, he was fenfr to the 
Hague ; where, according to an agreement between the queen and 
the States, he was admitted one of the council of Rate, and took his 
place next to count Maurice. In this Ration he behaved entirely to 
the fatisfaclion of his royal rniftrefs. After about five years refidence 
in Holland, he obtained leave to return to England, to fettle his 
private affairs; but was fhortly alter remanded to the Hague. 
At length, having finifhed all his negociations, he had his final re- 
vocation in 1597. After his return, finding his advancement at 
court obftru&ed by the jealoufies and intrigues of the great men, he 
retired from all public bufmefs, and never after would accept of any 
employment. The fame year he fet about the noble work of re- 
goring the public library at Oxford. 

Bodley wrote a letter, dated London, Feb. 23, 1597, to Dr. Ravis, 
,deaa of Chrift-church, then vice-chancellor, to be communicated 
to the .univerfity; offering therein, .to reftore the fabric of the li- 
brary, and to fettle an annual income for the purchafe ot books, and 
the flipper* of fuch officers as might be neceffary to take care ot it. 
This letter was received with the greateft fatisfaclion by the uni- 
verfity, and an anfwer returned, teftifying their mof,t grateful ac- 
knowledgment and acceptance vof his noble offer. Whereupon. 
Bodley immediately fet about the work, and m two years time 
brought it to a good degree ot perfection. ,Hc fnrnifhed it with 
a large collection of books, purchafed in foreign countries at a great 
expence; and this collection in a fhort time became fo greatiy en- 
larged, by the generous benefactions of feveral noblemen, bifhops, 
and others, that neither the (helves nor the roorncouid cootain them. 
Whereupon Bodley offering to make a confideraWe addition U> the 
building, the motion was readily embraced; and, July 19, 1610, 
2ke firft ftone of the new foundation was laid with great folemuity, 

U 2 the 


the vice-chancellor, doctors, matters of arts, &c. attending in their 
proper habits, and a fpeech being made upon the occafion. ButBodley 
did not live to fee this part of his defign completed, though he lelt 
fufHcient to do it with fome "oi his friends in trull; for, as appears 
by the copy of his will, he bellowed his whole eftate (his debt?, le- 
gacies, and funeral charges defrayed) to t!;e noble purpofes of this 
foundation,. By this means$ and the help of other benefactions, in 
procuring which he was very ferv ; ceable by his grea^ intereft with 
many eminent perfons, the univerfity was enabled to add three other 
iides to what was already built ; whereby was formed a noble qua- 
drangle, and fpacious rooms for fchools of art?. By his will 2co 1. 
per annum was iettled upon the library for ever; out of which he 
appointed 40!. to the head librarian, lol. for tlu- fub-librarian, and 
ill. for the jut;ior. He drew in hkexvife a body of excellent fta- 
tutes for the government of the library. In tins library is a ftatue 
erected to the memory of Sir Thomas Bodlev (for he was knighted 
by King Jai-nes upon his acceflion to the throne) by the earl of 
Dorlet, chancellor of the univerfity. The Bodleian library is juftly 
c-ileemed one, of the nobleft in the world. James I. we are told, 
when he came to Oxford in 1605, and among other edifices took u 
view of this famous library, at his departure, in imitation of Alex- 
ander, br^ke out into this fpeech : "III weie not a king, I would 
be an univcrfity man ; and if i: were f> that I mud be a pnfoner, if 
I might have my wiih, 1 would have no osher prifon than that li- 
brary, and be chained together with fo many good authors," 

Sir Thomas Bodley.died Jan. 28, 1612, and wa- buried with great 
folemnity at the upper end of the Merton college choir. Over him 
is creeled a monument of black and white marble, on which is 
placed his effigies, in a fcholar's gown, furrounded with books. An 
annual fpeech in his praife is ftill made at Oxford, Nov. 8, at which 
time is the vilitation of the library. 

BOECLER IJOHN HENRY), hiftoj-.ingraphef of Sweden, and 
profeflTor of hiitory at Strafburg, was born~in Franconia 1611, and 
died in 1686. lie received penfions from fevcral princes; among 
others, from Lewis XiV. and Chriftina, which latter invited hi: 
to Sweden. His principal work? are, r. Commentationvs Plinianas. 
2. Timnr, vulgo Tamerbnus, 1657, 4:0. 3. Notitia Sancti Ro- 
mani Imperii, 1681,410. 4. Hiflo:i.i, fchola Principum. 5. Com- 
mentatio in Grotii librum de Jure BJii et Pacis. With all the 
warmth and zeal, which commentators and biographers ufually 
have for their principals, he lavifhes panegyric upon Grotius. He 
iwcars, -,n a letter piiblifhed after his death, that no man will ever 
approach him; and that whoever fljould attempt to canal this work 
of his, would only furnifh ma'.ter of laughter to pofterity. 

[>IIIHI i i in ni ii MI 4 

Ii\IFN *J ACOB\ a 'I'eutonir philnfophcr, was born in a 
Village oi Gtimany, nciii G-jrlitz, i<i^. His education was fuit-~ H 


BCEHMEN (Jacob}. 157 

able to the circumftances and views of his parents, who, defigning 
him for a mechanic trade, took him from fchool as foon as he could 
read and write, and put him apprentice to a fhoemaker. He firft 
began to life that occupation as a mailer at Gorlitz, in 1^91; and 
getting into fuch bufinefs as enabled him to fupport a family, he 
entered after fome time into matrimony, and- had feveral children. 

In the mean time, being naturally of a religious turn of mind, he 
was a conftant frequenter of fermons from his youth, and took all 
opportunities of reading books of divinity. Whereby not being able 
to fatisty himfelf about the differences and controverfies in religion, 
he grew very uneafy, till happening one day to hear from the pulpit 
that fpeech of our Saviour, " Your heavenly Father will give the 
holy fpirit to them that afk it ;" he was prefently fo affected, that 
Irom this moment he never ceaied afkint:, feeking, and knocking, 
that he might know the truth. Upon this, as he tell us himfelf, by 
the divine drawing and will he was in fpirit rapt into the holy Sab- 
bath, where he remained fcven whole days in the higheft joy ; after 
which, coming to himfelf, he laid alide ail the follies of youth, and 
was driven by divine zeal earneltiy to reprehend impudent, fcanda- 
lous, and blalphemous fpeeches, and in all his actions forbore the 
leait appearance ot evil, continuing to earn a comfortable livelihood 
by diligent application to his trade. In 1600, he was a fecond time 
poifeited with a divine light, and by the fight of a fud'den object 
brought to the inward ground or center of the hidden nature ; yet' 
fomewhat doubting, he went out into an open field, and there be- 
held tht: miraculous works of the Creator in the fignattires, figures, 
or fhapes of all created things very clearly and manifeftly laid open/ 
whereupon he was taken with exceeding joy, yet held his peace, in 
filence praiiing God. But ten years atterj in 1610, through the 
overfhadowing of the holy fpirit, he was a third time touched by 
God, and became fo enlightened, that, left fo great a difgrace be- 
flowed upon him fhould Hip cut of his memory, and he refift his 
God, he began to write privately for his own ufe (without the help 
of any books except the holy fcripture) the truths which had been 
thus revealed to him. In this fpirit he firft publifhed his treat He,,' 
entitled " Aurora, or theRifing of the Sun," in 1612 : which book 
was immediately carried to the rnagiftrates of Gorlitz by George 
Richterus, dean of the minifters of that place, who complained ot 
it's containing many of the errors of Paracelfus and Wige.lius ; for 
Ecehmen had amufed himfelf with chemiftry in his youth. The 
magiftrates fuppreffed the piece as much as poffible.and commanded 
the author to write no more; obferving to him, that fuch employ- 
ment was properly the bufinefs of the clergy, and did. not belong to 
his profeffion and condition. 

Thus rebuked, he remained filent for feven years ; but finding 
that the director of the electoral laboratory had recommended him 
V) a great many perfons of the court as a good chemift, he lifted up- 



his h'ad, and boldly oppofed Richterus : and, taking up his pen 
again, was refolved to redeem the time he had loft ; infomuch, that 
in the remaining five years of his life he wrote above twenty books, 
the lafl of which, entitled, 4< A Table of his Principles, or a Key 
of his Writing?," was publilhed in 1624.. He d'ld not long furvive 
it; for betimes in the morning, November 1 8, of that year, hz 
called one of his fons, and 3&ed him, " if he alfo heard that excel- 
lent mufic ?" To which being anfwered in the negative, he ordered 
the door to be fet open, that the mufic might be the better heard. 
He afked afterwards what o'clock it was ? and being told it had 
Irruck twoj he faid, " It is not yet my time, my time is three hours 
hence." In the interim he wa-s heard to fpeak thefe word?, " O 
thou ftrongGod of hofts, deliver me according to thy will : O thou 
crucified Lord j?fu, have mercy upon me, and receive me into thy 
.kingdom." When it was near fix o'clock, he took leave of his 
wife snd fons, and bletfed them, and laid, " Now I go hence into 
paradife ;" then bidding his fon turn him, he immediately expired. 
The famous Quirinus Kahlman, in Germany, fays, that he had 
learned more being alone in his findy from Bcehmen, than he could 
have learned from all the wife men of that age together: and that 

o o 

we may not be in the dark, as to what fort of knowlegethis was, he 
acquaints us, that amidO: an infinite number of vifions \i happened, 
that being fnatched ut of his ftudy, he faw thoufands of thoufands 
of lights ri.Gng round about him. But our author is better known 
among ourfclves in England, where he Ins hundreds of admirers; 
and among the reft the famous Mr. William Law, author of 
' Chriitian Perfection," &c. (lands characterized as a principal one, 
As Bcehmen's books have been all tranflated into Englifh, and are 
much inquired after, we (hall give a lid of them as follows: I. Au- 
rora, or the Rif:ng of the Sun. 2. Of the three Principles, together 
Vith an Appendix of the Threefold Life of Man. 3. Of the Three- 
fold Life of Man. 4. An Anfwer to the forty QuelUons of the 
Soul, propounded by Dr. Walter, &c. 5. Three Books, the firft 
of the Incarnation of Jefus Chrift ; the fecoad, of the Suffering, 
Death, and Refurre61ion of Chrifl ; the third, of the Tree of Faith. 
6. Of fix Parts. 7. Of the heavenly and earthly ?Jyfterium. 8. Of 
the lad Times. 9. De Signatura Rerum, or the Signature ef all 
Tilings. 10. A confolatory Book of the four Complexirms. 
li. An Apology to Balthazar Tilken, in two Parts. 12. A Con- 
iiderntion .upon Efaias Steeiel's Book. 13. Of true Repentance. 
14. Of true^Re fig nation. 15. Ol Regeneration. 16. Of Predelti- 
nation an<! iilcelion of Gut! ; at the end of which is a treatife en- 
tkied, 17. A Ihor.t Compendium of Repentance. 18. The My- 
fterium Magnum upon Genefis. 19. A Table of the Principles or 
Key of Writings. 20. Of" the Superfenfual Life. 21. Of the two 
Teftamtnts of Chrift, viz. Baptifm and the Supper of the Lr;rd. 
2^. A Dialogue between the enlighieptji and unenlightened S,ouK 


BOF.RHAAVE Herman). 

23. An Apology upon the Book of True Repentance, directed againil 
a Pafquil of the principal Minifter of. Gorlitz, called Giegory 
Rickter. 24. An Epitome ot the Myiterium Magnum. 25. A 
Table of the Divine Manifeftation, or an Expofltion of the Three-. 
fold Word. --The following are without date. 26. Of the Errors 
of the Seels of Ezekiel Meths ; or an Apology to Efaias Steefel. 
27. Of the Lait Judgment. 28. Certain Letters to diveifc Perfons, 
written at diver fc Tunes, with certain Keys for Tome hidden Words. 
- BefiJes thefe our author left unfinithed, 29. A little Book of Divine 
Contemplation. 30. A Book of One Hundred and Seventy- fcven 
Theofophick Qut-ttions. 31. The Holy Weeks, or the Prayer 

BOERHAAVE (HERMAN), an illuftrious phyfician and pro- 
fellbr at Leyden, was born December 31, 1608, at Voorhoot, a 
fnall village in Holland, about two miles from that city. His fa- 
ther intended him for divinity, and with this view initiated him in 
letters himfelf. About the twelfth year of his age, he was afiliSed 
with an ulcer in his kit thigh, which feemed to baffle the art of 
furgery, and occafioned ftich exceilive pain, as greatly interrupted 
his ftudies for ibme time ; but at length, by fomenting it with fait 
and wine, he effected a cure himfelf, and thereupon conceived his 
firit thoughts of itudying phyfic. In 1682 he was fent to thepublic 
fchool at Leyden, and at the expiration of the year got into the fixtht 
and highelt clafs, whence it is cuftomary, after fix months, to be 
removed to the univerfity. At this juncture his father died, who 
left a wife and nine children, with but a (lender provifion ; of whom 
Herman, though but fixteen, was the eldell. Upon his admif- 
fion into the univerfity, he was particularly noticed by a friend of 
his father, Mr. Trigland, one of the profeflbrs of divinity, who 
procured him the patronage of Mr. Daniel Van Alphen, burgo- 
maiter of Leyden ; and by the advice of thefe gentlemen he attended 
Senguerd's lectures on logic, the ufe of the globes, natural philofophy, 
mathematics, and ethics: he likevvife attended the learned Jacob Gro- 
novius on Greek and Latin authors, Rykius on Latin clafiics, rhe- 
toric, chronology, and geography, and Trigland and Scaafe on the 
Hebrew and Chaldee languages, in order to underihnd the facred 
writings in their originals. In 1687 he applied tj mathematics, 
and found the ftudy fo entertaining, that ) after having gone through, 
geometry and trigonometry, he proceeded to algebra, under Voider, 
in 1689. This year he gave a fpecimen of his learning in an aca- 
demic oration, proving that the doctrine of Epicurus concerning the 
chief good was well understood by Cicero ; and for this received the 
golden medal, which ufually accompanies the merit of fuch proba- 
tionary exercife. In 1690 he took a degree in philofophy; In his 
thefis on this occafion, with great flrength of argument, he confuted 
the fyftems of Epicurus, Hobbes, and Spinofa. After having laid a 



^olid foundation in all other parts of learning, he proceeded to divi- 
nity under the profeflbrs Trigland and Spanheim ; the firft of whom 
^ave ledtures on Hebrew antiquities, the fecond on ecclefiaftical 

Notwithflanding he was thus qualified for entering into holy or- 
ders, which, according to his father's intention, he had hitherto 
chiefly in view, and that his patrimony was by this time almoft 
ivholly exhauftcd, yet fuch was his diffidence, that he attempted 
rather, by teaching mathematics, to defray the expence attending 
the farther prolecution of his theological ftudies. By this means he 
not only increafed his reputation, but (what laid the foundation of 
his future fortune) was introduced to an intimate friendfhip with 
John Vandenburgh, burgo-mafter of Leyderu By this new con- 
nection he was recommended to the curators, to compare the Voflian 
manufcripts (purchafed in England for the public library at Leyden) 
with the catalogue of fale ; which he executed with fuch accuracy 
as procured him the efteem of the univerfity, and recommended him 
in fo particular a manner to Mr. Vandenbnrgh, that this gentleman 
became ever after folicitous for his advancement ; and obierving the 
amazing progrefs Boethaave made in whatever he applied to, per- 
fuaded him to join the ftudy of phyfic to phiiofophy and theology. 
As a relaxation, therefore, from divinity, and in comphifance to 
this gentleman, he dipped into phyfic, being duly prepared for it by 
his acquaintance with the learned languages, mathematics, and na- 
tural phiiofophy; and he refolved to take a degree in phyfic before 
his ordination. The ftudy of medicine commencing with that of 
anatomy, he diligently perufed Vefalius, Fallopius, and Bartholin, 
oftentimes himfelf differing, and attending the publ'c defections of 
protetfor Nuck. He next applied himfelf to the fathers of phyfic, 
beginning with Hippocrates, and, in their chronological order, 
reading carefully all the Greek and Latin phyficians: but foon 
finding that the later writers were almoft wholly indebted to that 
prince of phyhcians for whatever was valuable in them, he refumed 
Hippocrates, to whom alone in this faculty he devoted himfelf for 
fome time; making extracts, and digefling them in fuch a manner, 
as to render thefe ineftunable remains of antiquity quite familiar to 
him. He afterwards made himfelf acquainted with the belt mo- 
dern authors, particularly with Sydenham, whom he ufually ftyled 
the immortal Sydenham. He next applied to chemiftry; which fo 
captivated him, that he fometimes fpent days and nights fucceffively 
in the ftudy and proceffes of this art. He made alfo a confiderable 
proficiency in botany : not contented with infpedting the plants in 
theph\fic garden, he fought others with fatigue in fields, rivers, c. 
and r otnetimes with danger in almoft inacceffible places, thoroughly 
examining what he found, and comparing them with the delineations 
oi authors. 

His progrefs in phyfic hitherto was without any affiftance from 


BOERHA A VE (Herman). 1 6 1 

Jectures, except thofe mentioned in anatomy, and a few by pro-, 
fellbr Drelincourt, on the theory. Nor had he yet any thoughts of 
declining the prieithood: amidft mathematical, philofophical, ana- 
tomical, chemical, and medical refearches, he Hill earnettly purfued 
divinity. He went to the nniverfity of Harderwick in Guclderland, 
and in July 1693 was created there doctor of phyfic. Upon his re- 
turn to Leyden, he ftill per lifted in his defign of engaging in the 
miniftry, but found an invincible obftrudtion to his intention. In a 
pafTage boat where he happened to be, foine difcourfe was acci- 
dentally ftarted about the doctrine of Spinofa, as fubverfive of all 
religion ; and one of the paflengers, who exerted himfelf rr.oft, op- 
pofing to this philofopher's pretended mathematical demonftrations 
only the loud invective of a blind zeal, Boerhaave sliced him calmly, 
whether he had ever read the works of the author he decried ? The 
orator was at once ftruck dumb, and fired with filent refentmenr. 
Another pairengerwhifpered the perfon next him, to learn Boerhaave's 
name, and took it down in his pocket-book ; and as foon as he ar- 
rived at Leyden, gave it out every where that Boerhaave was become 
a Spinofifr.. Boerhaave, finding that fuch prejudices gained ground, 
thought it imprudent to rifque the refufal of a licence for the pulpit, 
when he had fo fair a profpcct of rifing by phyfic. Ke now, there- 
fore', applied wholly to phyfic, and joined practice with reading. 
In 1701 he took the office of lecturer upon the inftitutes of phyfic; 
and delivered an oration the iSth of May, the fubject of which was 
a recommendation of the fludy of Hippocrates : apprehending that, 
either through indolence or arrogance, this founder of phyfic had 
been fhamefully neglected by thofe whofe authority was likely to 
have too great weight with the /Indents of medicine. He officiated 
as a profelfor, with the title of lecturer only, till 1709, when the pro- 
ieflbrihip of medicine and botany was conferred on him. His 
inaugural oration was upon the fimplicity of true medical fcience; 
wherein, exploding the fallacies and oftentation of alchemiftical and 
metaphyfical writers, he reinftates medicine on the ancient founda- 
tion of obfervation and experiments. In a few years he enriched 
the phyfic garden with fuch a number of plants, that it was tound 
necetfary to enlarge it to twice it's original extent. In 1714 he 
arrived to the higheft dignity in the univerfity, the rectoHhip ; and 
at it's expiration delivered an oration on the method of obtaining 
certainty in phyfics. Here having averted our ignorance of the firfl 
principles of things, and that all our knowledge of their qualities is 
derived from experiments, he was thence led to reprehend many 
Jyftems of the philofophers, and in p.irticular that of Des Cartes, the 
idol of the times. This drew upon him the outiageous invectives 
of Mr. R. Andala, an orthodox Cartefi,.-m prcieilbr of divinity and 
philofophy at Franeker, who fomlde'd the alarm that the church was 
in danger, and that the introduction of fcepticilm, and even Spino- 
iifm, mu!;; be the confequence of undermining the Cartefian fyftem 
VOL. II. X by 


by fuch a profaned ignorance of the principles of things. His viru- 
lence was carried to fuch a degree, that the governors of the uni- 
verfity thought"themfelves in honour obliged, notwithftanding Buer- 
haave's remonftrances to the contrary, to infift upon his retracting 
his afperfions. He accordingly made a recantation, with offers of 
further fatisfaclion ; to which Boerhaave generoufly replied, that the 
moft agreeable fatisfadion he could receive was, that fo eminent a 
divine ihould have no more trouble on his account. 

In 1728 he was elected of the Academy of Sciences at Paris, and 
in 1730 of the Royal Society of London. In 1718 he fucceeded Le 
Mort in the profellbrfhip of chemiftry; and trade an oration on this 
fubjed, " That chemiftry was capable of clearing^itfelf from it's own 
errors." Auguft 1722 he was taken ill, and confined to his bed for 
fix months with exquilite arthritic pains ; he fufiered anoiher violent 
illnefs in 1727; and being threatened with a relapfe in 1729, he 
found himfelf under a neccffily of refigning the proielforfhips of 
botany and chemiftry. This gave occaiion to an elegant oration, 
in which he recounts many fortunate incidents of his life, and returns 
his grateful acknowledgments to thofe who contributed thereto. 
Yet he was not lefs afliduous in his private labours till the year 
1737, when a difficulty of breathing firit feized him, and afterwards 
gradually increafed. September 8, 1738, he wrote his cafe to 'Dr. 
Mortimer, fecretary of the Royal Society, ar.d for feme days there 
were flattering hopes of his recovery; but they foon vanifhed, and he 
died the 23d, aged almoft feventy. 

No profeiTor was ever attended in public, as well as private lec- 
tures, by fo great a number of fludents, from fuch different and dif- 
tant parts, for fo many years fucceffively : none heard him without 
conceiving a veneration for his perfon, at the fame time that they 
exprelfed their furprize at his prodigious attainments ; and it may be 
juilly affirmed, that none in fo private a llation ever attracted a more 
univerfal efteem. He amaffed greater wealth than ever any phyfi- * 
cian in that country from the practice of phyfic ; which was owing 
as much, at leafr, to the frugality of his ceconomy, as the largenefs 
of his fees. He was falfely accufed of penurioufnefs, fur he was 
liberal to the diirreifed, but without cftentation. His manner of 
obliging his friends was fuch, that they often knew not, unlcfs by 
accident, to whom they were indebted. 

The fo'.lowinig is a lift of his works, as given by himfelf, in the 
preface to his " JLlementa Chemia;." i. Oratio de commtndanil,* 
Studio Hippocratico. An. 1701. * 2. De ufu Ratiocinii mechanic! 
in Medicina. 1703. 3. Oratio qua repurgataj Medicinne facilis 
afleritur {implicitas. 1709. 4. DC coaiparando Certo in Phyficis. 
1715. 5^. De Chemia fuos errores expurgante. 1718. 6. De Vita 
et Obitu Cl. Bernardi Albani. 1721. 7. Oratio quam habuit, 
quum iicn.,'j millione impetrata, JBotanicam et Cnemicam profd- 
ii<niv!Ti ^ublicc ponercm. 1729. 8. De honore mcdici, forvi'tute. 

BQETHIUS -( Flavins, &c. and Heffor). 1 63 

1731, 44, 45. 9. Infiitutionis Medicas inufus annuse exercitationi 5 
doraeiticos. 1708. 10. Aphorifmi de cognofcendis et curandis 
Morbis, in ufum dodiince rtomefticae. 1709. n. Index Plantarurn 
.in Horto Lugd. Bat. report. 1710. 12. Libellus de materiamedica, 
et remedionun lormulis qua? ferviunt Aphorifmis, 1719. 13. In- 
dex: alter Plantarr.m, qure in Horto Lugd. Bat. aluntur, 1720. 2 vol. 
14. Epiftola ad Ruyfchiu'm de fabrica Giandularum in corpora hu- 
mano. 1722. 15. Atrocis nee defcripti priiis morbi hiftoria. 1724. 
16. Atrocis rariifimique rnorbi hiftoria alters. 1728. 17. Tradatus 
Medicus de Lue Aphrodifiaca, &c. 1728. 

TORQTATUS SEVHRINUS), a profeas well as poetical writer of the 
ilxth century, was born of one of the nobleft families in Rome. His 
father dying when he was an i.nant, he was,fent to Athens, where he 
not only attained to a perfect knowledge of the Greek toi<rue, but 
alfo of philofophy, and all other kinds of fcience. Returning to 
Rome, he foon became univerfally efteerned, and v/as advanced to 
the chief dignities of his country. In 1523, having remonftrated 
.with great fpirit again:! the conducT; of Thepdorjc, who began every 
day to exert new inuance? of tvi-annv, he fell under his refentment, 
and foon after was ace u fed of having carried on a confpiracy with 
the Emperor juftin again ft the Goths. 7 '"-reverie brought thecaufe 
before the fenate ; where the accufers producing fuborned evidence, 
who exhibited forged letters to Juilin ]r t the name of Boethius, 
though abfent, unheard, undefended, he was condemned to death ; 
but the king, fearing tlve cc: . nee of fuch rnjuftice and inhu- 
manity, changed his fentencc from death to banUhment. He was 
baniihe-d to Milan, or (as others fay) confined to Tic : >' :m, now Pa- 
v.a ; and all his friends forbidden to accompany him on his way, or 
to follow him thither. During I. is exile, he wrote his books of 
" Ihe Confolation of Philofophy/' and that upon " The Trinity." 
The year fallowing, or fomewhat later, according to-fome writers, 
he was beheaded in prifon, by the coinmand of Theodoric. 

Boethius wrote many pmlofophical works, the greater part in the 
logical vvay; but his ethic piece, " De Confolaticne Philofophicc," 
is his chief performance, and has always been juftiy admired both 
for the matter and for the ftyle. It is a fuppofed conference be- 
tween the author and philofophy. who, as a perfon, endeavours to 
comfort him; and is partly profe, and partly verfe. It was En- 
glifhed by our Chaucer ; and Camdcn tell- us, that Qi:een Eliza- 
.beth, after having read it to mitigate grief, tr-anflatcd it aifo into 
very elegant Englifh. 

BOETHIUS, BOECE, or BOEIi . c r, .R), a famous Scot- 
iifh hiftorian, was born at Dundee, .hire of Angus, about 

1470. After having ftudied at Dundee a;. . Aberdeen, he was f^nt 
to the univerfity of Paris, where he applied to philofophy, ar.d bc- 

X 2 cams 


caoie a profelfor of it there. Here he contracted an acquaintance 
with feveral eminent perfons, particularly with Erafmus, who kept 
a correfpondence with him afterwards. Elphinfton, bifhop of 
Aberdeen, having founded the king's college in that city, about 1500, 
fent for Boiis from Paris, and appointed him principal. He took 
for his colleague Mr. William Hay, and by their joint labour the 
kingdom was furndhed with feveral eminent Icholars. Upon the 
death of hfs patron, he undertook to write his life, and thofe of his 
predecelTors in that fee. The work is in Latin, and entitled 
" Vitas Epifcoporum Murthlacenfium et Aberdonenfium." Paris, 
1522, quarto. He begins at Beanu?, the firft bifhop, and ends at 
Gawin Dunbar, who was bifhop when the book was publifhed. A 
third part of the work is fpent in the life of Elphinfton, for whofe 
fake it was undertaken. He next applied to write, in the fame lan- 
guage, " The Hiftory of Scotland \" the firft edition of which was 
printed at Paris, by Badius Afcenfius, in 1526, which confifted of 
Seventeen books, and ended with the death of James I. but the next, 
in I574> was much enlarged, having the addition of the eighteenth 
book, and part of the nineteenth. The work was afterwards 
brought down to the reign of James III. by Ferrerius, a Pied- 
mont efe. 

Mackenzie obferves, that of all Scots hifiorians, next to Bu- 
chanan, Boetius has been the mod cer.fured and commended by the 
Ivaii'C 1 men who have mentioned him. Nicolfoh tells us, that in 
the firft fix books there are a great many particulars not to be found 
in Fordun, or any other writer now extant; and that, " unlefs the 
authors which he pretends to have feen be hereafter difcovered, he 
will continue to be ihrevvdly fuipecled for the contriver of almoft as 
many tales as Jeofney of Monmouth.." His eighteenth book, how- 
ever, is highly commended by Feirerius, and other writers. He 
was a great inafter of polite learning, well {killed in divinity, philo- 
fophy, and hiftory ; but fomewhat credulous, and much addicted to 
tlic belief of legend'arv ftorics. 

BOFFRAND (GERMAIN), a celebrated French archileS, was 

the fon of a fculptor, and of a fifterof the famous Quinaut; and born 

at Nantes, in Bretagne, 1667. He was trained under Harduin 

Manfarad, who trufted him with conducing his greateft works. 

Boffrand was atlmirted into the French academy of architedure in 

i 709. Many princes of Germany chofe him for their architect. 

and raifed considerable edifices upon his plans. His manner of 

building approached that of Palladio, and there was much of gran- 

dairinali hi? deHgns. As engineer and infpeclor general of the 

ridges and highways, he caufed to be cfu.tiruclcd a number of 

Unices, brides, and other mechanical works. There is of 

s illuitrious architect a curious and ufeftil hoc!:, which contains 

the general principles of his art; to which is added, an account of 


BOILEAU Sieur Defpreaux (Nicholas). 165 

, M - L ._ --T -_-__ V _ _ - "I I L I ! ^ Hi ! I I T 

^"T? TT^ - - ^^jn^oauMrt*Mtft f r - "*' '-*--* **--*--'* -aa^tt: -Tr 1 ~*a n * u*^-- -* -- ry> JT. .^,u i 1 1 j 

the plans, profile?, and elevation?, of\the principal works which he 
executed in France and other countries. A very gracious idea is 
tranfmitted to us of this artift, who is^reprefented as of a noble and 
difmtereited ipirit, and of a pleafing' and agreeable manner. He 

died at Paris, in 1755- 

-. . 

BOILEAU, Sieur DESPREAUX (NICHOLAS), a celebrated 
French poet, was born at Paris, Nov. I, 1636. His mother died 
when he was in his infancy, c.r;d he loft his father before he was 
feventeen. After he had finifhed his philosophical ftudies, he was 
perfuaded to ftudy the law ; In which he made a confiderable pro- 
ficiency, and was admitted advocate, December 4, 1656. But 
though he had all the qualifications neceiTary to make him a great 
lawyer, y?t the profeflion, dealing fo much in falfehood and chi- 
canery, did not fuit the candour and fincerity of his dilpofition, tor 
which' reafon he quitted the bar. He has expreiTed his averfion to 
the law in his fifth epiftle. 

He now refolved to ftudy divinity, and accordingly went to the 
Sorbonne : but in a little time he contracted a ilrong averfion to 
this purfuit ; for he found, to his aftonimment, the molt important 
points of falvation reduced to empty fpeculation, wrapped up in 
terms of obfcurity, anil thereby giving rife to endlefs difputes. He 
therefore left the Sorbonne, and applied himfelf to the more polite 
itudies, efpecially to poetry, for which his genius was particularly 
formed; and he foon carried the palm from every poet in France. 
The fuccefs which his firft works met with, is humotirouily hinted 
at in his epiftle to his book. 

He wrote fatires, wherein he expofed the -bad tafte of his time. 
He was likewife extremely fevere againlt vice, and the corrupt 
manners of the age. His pieces gained him valt applaufe, but he 
was blamed for mentioning names. As incorrect copies of his 
performances wer^ handed about in manufcript, and others afcribed 
to him, of which he was not the author, he therefore got a privilege 
from the king, and published his works himfelf. With regard to 
his naming of perfon?, he publifhed a fatire in his own detence : 
he wrote alfo a difcourfe upon fatire, wherein he vindicated himfelf 
by the example of both French and Roman fatirifts. In 1660; 
he infcribed an epiftle to the king, upon the peace then lately con- 
cluded with Spain. There is likewife a fmall prccjc~lion of his, 
entitled " A Dialogue of the Dead ;" expoiing the abfurdity of 
feveral dramatic pieces and romances, which were then in high 
reputation. The fuccefs of Lewis in Holland, in 1672, furnifliecJ 
Boileau with an occafion of addreftlng another epiftle to his ma- 
jefty. The king was a great admirer of Boileau's performances; 
nor was he fatisfied with only {igmfying his approbation in private, 
but likewife gave a public teflimony thereof, in the license granted 
htm ferpubhihinghis works. Odober 1677, Boileau was fixed m 

4 ty 


by the king to write his hiftory, in conjunction with Racine; and in 
1684 he was chofen a member of the French Academy. Boileau's 
fatirical pieces raifed him many enemies : his " Satire againft the 
Women," in particular, was much talked of, and occafioned great 
clamour. Having been attack d by the authors of a journal printed 
at Trevonx, he 'made reprifals on them in 'feme Epigrams, and in 
his " Satire agnintr. Equivocation." In 1701 he was eleded pen- 
Jionary of the Academy of jLnfcriptjons and Medals^* which place he 
filled with honour till 1705, when, being grown deaf and infirm, 
he de fired and obtained leave to refign. Fie quitted the courr, 
and fpent the remainder of his life, in quiet and tranquillity, amongft 
a few feleft friends. He died March 2, 1711, sged feventy-four. 

BOISSARD (JoHN-jAMEs), a famous antiquary, was born at 
Befancon, in France, 1528. He publidied feveral collection?, 
which are of great ufe to fuch as would under/land the Roman anti- 
quities. He had a violent pa-fiion for thi? fiudy; he drew plans of 
all the ancient monuments in Italy, and vifited all the antiquities of 
the ifles of Corfu, Cephalonia, and Zar>t. He went alfo to the 
Morca, and would have proceeded to Syria, had he not been -pre- 
vented by a dangerous fever, which feized him at Methone. Upon 
his return to his own country, he was appointed tutor to the fons of 
Anthone de Vicnn?, baron de Clervant, \vith. whom he travelled into 
Germany and Italy. He had left at Montbeliard his antiquities 
which he had been c; : :h to much .pains, and \vas fo un- 

Jucky as to lofe them all, \\hrn the people of Lorraine ravaged 
Franche-Compte. He had none ielt except thole which he had 
transported to Metz, where he himfel! had retired; but as it was 
publicly k; ..vended to pubiifh a large collection of an- 

tiquities, t! LO him, if. . - y fketches and 

draughts of old tnonutnems. Ev this means lie was enabled to fa- 
vour the publk'. with his wnil. I )e Romans urfeis Topo-' 
graphia et Ant;j::i;a*c." It cnniifts of four volumes in folio, en- 
riched vviiii !cver::l prir.ts. He publithed a!(b the lives of many 
famous perfon?, with their portraits. This work, entitled " The- 
atrum vit?j humans:, i^ divided into four parts, in quarto: the fiift 
printed at Frankfort, 1597 ; the fccond and third in 1598; and the 
the fourth in 1599. Hi? treatife, " De r.i\'inatione et magicis 
Praifiigiis," \vas not printed till after his death, which happened at 
Motz, October 30, 1602. There have been two editions ot it; one 
at Hanau, in 161 r, quarto ; Another at Oppenheim, in 1625, folio. 
He wrote alfo a book of Epigrams, Elegies, and Lei'.ers; but thefe 
a;e not fo much eileemed as his other works. 

BCLEYN (ANNE), wife of Henry VIII. King of England, and 
memorable for givirg occafion to the ReformatU,n in this country, 
was the daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn, and born in 1507. She 


BOLINGBROKE (Henry St. John). 167 

~' _, LJ '-.'.-j' ^.^-^i--^-^^-i'iri 1 :; m - 

was carried into France atfeven years of age by Henry the Eighth's 
filler, who was wife of Lewis XII. nor did ihe return into Eng- 
land when that queen returned thither, after the death of her huf- 
band ; but ftaid in the fervice of Queen Claudia, the wife of Francis 
I. and after the death of that princefc, went to the duchefs of 
Alencon. The year of her return is not well known : fome will 
'have it (o have been in 1527, others in 1525. Thus much is certain, 
that (ha was maid of honour to Queen. Catherine of Spain, Henry 
the Eighth's firil wife ; and that the king fell extremely in love with 
her. She behaved herfcif with fo much art ancLsddrefs, that, by 
refufing to fat i sty his paffion, fiie brought him to think of marrying 
her; and the king, deceived by her into a perfuafion that he fhould 
never enjoy her unlefs he made her his wife, was induced to fet oh 
foot the affair of his divorce with Catherine, which at la ft was exe- 
cuted with great folemnity and form. 

In the mean time, Henry could not procureadivorce from the pope; 
which, we know, made him at length refolve to difown his autho- 
rity, and to fling off his yoke. Nevertheless, he married Anne Boleyn 
privately upon the I4th of November, 1532, without waiting any 
longer for a releafe from Rome ; and as foon as he perceived that his 
new wife was with child, ho made his marriage public. He caufed 
Anne Boleyn to be declared queen of England, on Eafter-eve 1533, 
and to be crowned the firil of June following. She was brought to 
bed, upon the yth of September, of a daughter, who was afterwards 
Queen Elizabeth; and continued to be much beloved by the king, 
till the charms of Jane Seymour had fired that prince's heart in. 
1536. Then his love for his wife was changed into violent hatred: 
he believed her to be unchaite, and caufed her to be imprifoned arid 
tried. She was indicted of high treafon ; for that me had p ured 
her brother, and other four, to lie with her, which they ha._: .'.one 
often: that the had laid to them, that the king never had her L-art, 
and had faid to every one of them by themfelves, that (lie loved him 
better than any perfon whatever, which was to the flander of the 
iffue that was begotten between the king and her. And this was 
the treafon according to the itatute made in the a6th year of this 
reign: fo that the law, which was made for her and the iiliie of her 
marriage, was now made ufe of to deflroy her. She was condemned 
to be either burnt or beheaded; and me underwent the latter, on the 
1 9th of May, 1536. 

EOLINGBROKE (HENRY ST. JOHN, Lord Vifcount), was 
born in the year 1672, at Batterfea, in Surrey, the feat of that noble 
family from which he was defcended ; a femiiy confpicuous for it's 
antiquity, dignity, fpiendor of merit, and large poifeffibris. It ap- 
pears from good authority, to trace it's original as high as Adam de 
Port, Baron of Dafing, in Hampthire, before the Conqueil; and in a 
fiicceflion of age?, to have produced warriors, patriots, and itatefmen, 



of diftinguifhed luftre. His grandfather, Sir Walter St. John, mar- 
ried one of the daughters of Lord Chief Juftice St. John, who was 
ftrongly attached to the Republican party; and both he and his 
lady being inclined to think well of the piety and fan&ity of the 
DilfeBters, the education of their grandfon, Henry, tkiring his child- 
hood, was chiefly directed by perfons of that denomination. The 
rnitlaken zeal of thefe early preceptors feems to have made a ftrong 
and difagreeable inrfpreflion upon his mind ; and he appears to have 
long remembered, with difguft, the abfurdity of the nrft le&ures he 
received. Indeed no talk can be more mortifying than that which 
was impofed upon him, if we may judge from the hint he himfelf 
has given us; where he fays, that when he v- is a boy, he was con- 
demned fbmetimes to read in a huge folio, compofed by Dr. Man- 
ton, a puritanical parfon ; whcfe boaft it was, that he had made an 
hundred and nineteen fennons on the hundred and nineteenth ptalm. 
But whatever four religionifts any of his firft preceptors may have 
been, it was not in their power to inffill any part of their acidity 
into their pupil, whofe nature was far from being fufceptible of fuch 

Thefe dreary inflitutions, however, were of no very long conti- 
nuance ; for, as f^on as it became proper to take him out of the 
hands of the women, he was fL.,; t,< A<m llhool. and from thence re- 
moved to Chritt-church college, in Oxford. His genius and un- 
derftanding were perceived and admired in both thele places; but 
his love of pleafure had fb much the afcen'dancy, as to prevent any 
particular exertion of his talents. He w<is dcfigned by his friends 
for public buHnefs ; and when he left the uiiiveriity, he was confi- 
dered by thofe who knew him moft intimately, and who were fen- 
iible of the extent of his abilities, as one who had the faireft oppor- 
tunity of making a fnining figure in adlive life. With *the graces 
of a handfome perfon, and a face in which dignity was happily 
blended with fweetnefs, he had a manner and addrefs that were 
irrefiflibly engaging. His vivacity was always awake, his appre- 
henfion M r as quick, his wit refined and penetrating, and his me- 
mory of uncommon ftrength ; his fubtlety of thinking and reafoning 
\vas very peculiar, and his elocution truly admirable. But, for fome 
years, all thefe extraordinary endowments were mifemployed and 
perverted : the time which fhould have been devoted to the acqui- 
fition of knowledge, was proftitured to diflipation and riot; and, 
inuesd of aiming to excel in praife-worthy purfuits, Mr. St. John 
feemed ambitious ot being thought the greateft rake about town. 
Yet, even at this period of his life, he was not without his lucid in- 
tervals, and hours of cool reflection. Some of thefe lucid intervals 
w.ere employed in verfifrcation. We have a copy of his verfes pre- 
fixed to Dryden's Virgil, complimenting that poet, and praifing his 
tranflntion. There is another, not fo well known, prefixed to a 
Irtnch work, publifhed in Holland, entitled " Le Chef d'Oeuvra 


EOLINGBROKE (Lord Wf count), i 

l'ur Inconnn." This performance is a humourous piece of cri- 
ticifm upon a miferable old ballad ; and Mr. S:. John's compliment, 
though written in Englilh, is printed in Greek characters, fo that 
-at the firil glance it may he miftaken for real Greek, fie aifp 
wrote the prologue to a tragedy called " Altemira," compofed by 
(Roger Boyle, Earl of Orrery. But his attempts in poetry were 
matter of amufement only ; and, at this period of h;s life, his Itudies, 
like his other attachments, feem to have leaned wholly to pleafure. 

Having continued his mad career for fome time, he at length 
made his firtt tffort to break from his ftate of infatuation, by mar- 
rying, in the year 1700, the daughter and coheirefs of Sir Henry 
Winchefcomb, of B'.icklebury, in the county of Berks, Bart. 
Upon this marriage, Mr. St. John had the family eftates both of his 
iadv's father and grandfather, which were very confmerable, fettled 
upon him; the good effect of which he felt in his old age, though 
a great part of what fhe brought -him was taken away by his at- 
tainder. Soon after his marriage, he procured a feat in the Houfe 
of Commons, being elected for the borough of Wotton-Baffet, in, 
Wiltihire, by a family intereft, his father haying feryed feyeral 
times for the fame place. 

Upon his firft coming into parliament, Mr. St. John prefently 
chofe his party, and joined hiinfelf to Mr. Harley, afterwards earl 
of Oxford, who was now, for the firft time, chofen fpeaker of the 
Houfe of Commons. He had entertained a high efteem for Mr. 
Harley; and, before the end of this tirft feflion, he diftinguifhed 
himfeif greatly in the fervke of his party. This parliament was 
but of fhort continuance, for it ended on the 24th of June, 1701, 
but in the next parliament, which met on the 3Oth of December 
following, and which was 'the laft in the reign of King William, 
and the firft in that of Queen Anne, Mr. St. John was sgain mem- 
ber for Wotton-BafTet, and Mr. Harley again fpeaker. That par- 
liament being toon after diffolved, he was chofen a third time for 
Wotton-Baffet, in the fecond parliament of Queen Anne, fum 
moned to meet in Auguft, 1702; and her majetty making a tour 
that fummer from Windfor to Bath, by way of Oxford, Mr. St. 
John attended her ; and at Oxford he had, amongft other perfons of 
the higheft diftinclion, the de,gree of doclcr of laws conferred upon 

Though the choice of his party in parliament was evidently 
made againft the inclinations of his family, both his father and his 
g-randfather being what were then called Whigs, Mr. St. John psr- 
fevered fteadily in the -fame Tory connections, and in a (hort time 
acquired fuch an authority and influence in the Houfe, that it was 
thought proper to reward his merit; and, on the icth of April, 
1.704, he was appointed fecretary of war, and of the marines, 
friend Harley having a little before been made fecretary of 

.IJ. y 


/Vs this pott created a conftant correfpondence with the duke of 
Marlborouf>h, he became perfectly acquainted \vith the worth of 
that great gene r al ; am! though his grace might be confidered as the 
head of the oppofite party, yet Mr. St. John zealoufly promoted his 
honour and interefl. Ii is remarkable, that the greatefl events of 
the war, inch as the battle of Blenheim and Ramiilies, and feveral 
olortous attempts made by the duke to fhorten ti.e war by fome de- 
cifive aiStion, fell out while Mr. St. John was fecretary of war. This 
gave him occalion, more than once, to fet his grace's conducl in a 
true light, and as no one underftood the duke's behaviour better, fo 
none was more inclined to do juftice to his intentions, as well as 
liis actions. He was, in fad!, a fincere admirer of that illuftrious 
perfon, and avowed it, upon all occafions, to the laft moment of his 
life. But though he was a fincere admirer of the duke's merit, yet 
was he in no fcnfe his creature, as fome have weakly aflerted : he 
difavowed that charge, when the duke was in the zenith of his 
power, and his conduct makes it utterly incredible ; to fay nothing 
of his natural difpofition, which rendered him incapable of following 
any man with implicit obfequioufnefs. 

Mr. St. John was created, in July 1712, Baron St. John of Le- 
diard-Tregoze, in Wiltlhire, and Vifcount Bolingbroke ; by the laft 
of which titles he is now generally known. He was alfo the fame 
year appointed lord lieutenant of the county of EfTex. 

tlpon the acceffion of King George the Firft to the throne, 
dangers began to threaten the late miniftry on every fide; and his 
majefty foon began to mew that they were to expect no favour at 
his hands. The feals were taken from Lord Bolingbroke, and all 
the papers in his office fecured. Before this removal, he had re- 
ceived a (till higher mortification from the regency appointed to go- 
vern the kingdom till his majelty's arrival ; who, having made 
choice of Mr. Addifon fur their fecretary, gave direction, at the fame 
time, to the port- matter-general, to fend all letters and packets di- 
rected to the fecretary of Hate, to the fecretary of the regency ; fo 
that his lonfihip was, in fa ft, removed from his office, that is, from 
the execution of it, in two days after the queen's death. 

The new parliament met in the latter end ot March, 1715 ; and 
in the king's firlt fpeech trom the throne, inflaming hints were given, 
and methods of violence were chalked out to the two Houfes. In 
confequence of this, his lordihip took the firft opportunity to with- 
draw from danger. He went off to Dover in difguife, as a fervant 
to Le \ igne, one of the French king's mefTengers, having the night 
before appeared at the play-hoiife in Drury-lane, and befpake ano- 
ther play for the next night, and fubfcribed to a new opera, that 
was to be performed forr.e time alter. Upon his arrival at Dover, 
o >e Morgan, v\ ho had been a captain in General Hill's regiment, 
hired a veiiel, and carried him over to 'Calais, where the governor 
attended him in his coach, and carried him to his own houfe. The 


BOLINGBROKE (Lord Vifcount). 1 7 1 

next day it was publicly known that his lordfhip was gone to France,- 
and a letter from him to Lord Lanl'downe was handed about in 
writing, and two days after in print, wherein he affigned the reafon 
for his abrupt departure. Upon his arrival at Paris, he received an 
invitation from the pretender, who was then at Bar, to engage in 
his fervice, which he abfolutcly refufed, and made the ben: appli- 
cation his prefent circumftances would admit, to prevent the extre- 
mity of his profecution. But the Whigs were no ftrangers to the 
motive of his refilling the pretender's invitation, which was only 
becaufe he had no commiffion from his friends in England, who 
alone could determine him, if any could, to take fuch a itep. 

His lordfhip's flight to Paris was conftrued into a proof of hie 
guilt, and his impeachment was accordingly carried on with the ut- 
molt alacrity. The vote for impeaching hind of high treafon was 
palled in the Houfe of Commons on the roth of June, 1715 ; and 
Mr. (afterwards Sir Robert) Walpolc, brought the articles of im- 
peachment into that Houfe, and read them on the 4th of Aiiguft fol- 
lowing, enforcing them with great vehemence, and with his utmoft 
eloquence. He challenged any perfon in the Houfe to appear in 
behalf of the aecufed ; and aiferted, that to vindicate, were in a 
manner to fhare his guilt. For fome time none of the Tory party 
was feen to ftir ; but at length General Rofs flood up, and faid he 
wondered that no man more capable was found to appear in defence 
of the aecufed : however, in attempting to proceed, he hefitated fo 
much, that he was obliged to fit down, obferving, that he would 
referve what he had to fay till another opportunity. Two days after 
the articles of impeachment were fent up to the Houfe of Lords, in 
confequence of which his lordlliip was attainted by them of high 
treafon, on the loth of September. This attainder effentially af- 
fecting his fortune, Lord Bolingbroke began to confider how he 
might beft improve his fituation abroad. A correfpondence with 
him was by no means fafe, and therefore he heard but feldom, and 
darkly, from his Jacobite friends in England, and was entirely ig- 
norant of the meafures they took, and of the ufe they intended to 
make of him ; yet he faw well enough which way the current ran, 
and therefore was not wanting on his part to let them know, that 
they had but to command him, and he was ready to venture in their 
fervice the little that remained, as frankly as he had expofed all that 
was gone. At length their commands were brought to him, by a 
perfon who arrived at his retirement in Dauphine, in the beginning 
of July, 1715. This melfenger fpoke in the name of all thofe 
friends whole authority could influence his lordfhip ; and he brought 
him word that Scotland was not on'y ready to take arms, but undei 
fome fort of diffatisfaclion to be withheld from beginning; that in 
England the people were exafperated againft the government to fuch 
a decree, that far from wanting to be encouraged, they could not be 

Y 2 retrained 


retrained from infulting it on every occafion. He concluded by 
giving him a Ititer from the pretender, whom he had feen in hi? 
wav, wherein ?iis lordlhip was preiied to repair, without lofs of time, 
to Commercy ; and this i'nitance was grounded on the meffage 
which the bearer of the letter had brought his lord (hip from hist 
friends in England. His lordfhip immediately repaired to Com- 

fice his lordlhip fet out for Paris, in order to procure l;om the Court 
of France the neceffary fuccours for his hew matter's invafion of 
<?-.jrcat Britain. But the whole fcheme was rendered impracticable 
by two events; the death of Lewis the Fourteenth, by which ouf 
j'ecrttary loft all his irftereft in the French court ; and the arrival of 
the duke of Ovmonel at Paris, who carried on the negotiation's there 
by fuch tools as were unequal to the work, and became thereby the 
dupe of the regent of France. But notwithstanding tht-fe unfa- 
vourable events, his lordlhip difpatched federal packets and mef- 
iages to England for directions, to which he received no clear an- 
fwers. Soon after his lordfhip declined having any thing more to 
do with the pretender or his caufe. However, the trouble of his 
connection wiih that adventurer was not yet entirely at an end ; for 
he was no fooner difmiffed from his employment, than articles of 
impeachment were preferred againft him, branched out into feven 
heads, in which he was accufed of treachery, incapacity, and ne- 
glect. This impeachment, it is true, did not much affect his per- 
fon or fortune, but it affected his reputation, and therefore he drew* 
tip a defence of himfelf, which was anfwered by Mr. James Mur* 
ray, afterwards made earl of Dunbar by the pretender. His lord- 
fhip refers to this defence; in his letter to Sir William Wyndham^ 
where he adds fome other particulars, for the more effectual vindi- 
cation ot hi, conduct and character; at the fame time acknowledg- 
ing, and lamenting it as a misfortune which would accompany hirri 
to hi? grave, that he had fuffered a chain of accidents to draw him 
into fuch company and fuch mea Rives; that he had been obliged t6 
defend himielf againft fuch accufatiohs nnd Rich acculers; that by 
aflbciating himfelt with f<> much folly, and fo much knavery, he had 
become the vicfim of both ; and that he had put into the' hands of 
his enemies the means of loading him, like the fcape-goat, with all 
the evil cohfequences of their folly. His lordili-p appeals to all the 
minifters with whom he tranfacled bufincfs for the integrity of his 
proceedings at this juncture ; andj in truth, his integrity feems much 
lefs itnpeachable on this occafion than his ambition ; fince all the 
fteps he took m y be fairly accounted for by his defire of being at the 
head of the management of thechavalii ' Affairs, and his difpleafnre 
at feeing a little junto treated mure confidentially than himlelf. If 


BOLINGBROKE (Lord t'if count). 173 

was his aim always to be foremoft in every adminiftration, and he 
could not bear to ail as a fubaltern even in fo paltry a court as that 
of the pretender. 

Being thus difcarded abroad, Lord Bolingbroke refolved, if pof- 
fible, to make his peace at home. Whilft Lord Bolingbroke was 
engaged with the pretender, the Earl of Stair, the Britim ambaf- 
fad-jr at the court of France, had received a full power to treat with 
him ; but he had done his lordfhip the jufticc to believe him inca- 
pable of hearkening, in fuch circumftances, to any propofals of that 
kind. That objection was now removed, and foon afterwards the 
earl employed a proper peribn to communicate to Lord Bolingbroke 
his majeily's difpofition to grant him a pardon, and his own incli- 
nation to give his lordfhip, on this occafion, all the proofs he could of 
his inclination in his favour. Lord Bolingbroke embraced the 
offer, as it became him to do, with all poffible fenfe of the king's 
gjoodnefs, and of the ambailador's friendlhip. They immediately 
had a conference, and Lord Stair wrote to the court on that fubjeh 
The turn which the Engliili miniitry gave to this matter, was ta 
enter into a treaty to reverfe his lordihip's attainder, and to ftipulate 
the conditions on which this at of grace fhould be granted to him. 
But this was a method of proceeding to which Lord Bolingbroke 
difdained to fubrnit: the idea of a treaty (hocked him; he refolved 
never to be reftored, rather than go this way to work ; and accord- 
ingly he opened hiriifelf, without any referve, to Lord Stair. He 
told his lordlhipj that he looked upon himfelf to be obliged, in ho- 
nour and in confcience, to undeceive his iriends in England, both as 
to the ftate of foreign affairs, as to the management of the Jacobite 
intereft abroad* and as to the characters of perfons; in every one ot 
which points he knew them to be moft grofsly and moft dangeroufly 
deluded. He obferved, that the treatment he had received from the 
pretender and his adherents would juilify him to the world in doing 
this; that if he remained in exile all his life, his lordlhip might be 
allured that he would never more have to do with the Jacobite caufe; 
and that if he was reftored, he would give it an effectual blow, in 
making that apology which the pretender had put him under a necef- 
fity of making; and, in doing this, he flattered himfelf that he 
Ihould contribute fomething to the eilablilhment of the king's go- 
vernment, and to the union of his fubjels. He added, that if the 
court believed thefe profeilions to be fincere, a treaty with him was 
unneceilary for them; and that if they did not believe them fo, a 
treaty with them was dangerous for him. He concluded with de- 
claring, that he was determined, in this whole tranfa&ion, to make 
no one ftep which he could not own in the face of the whole world ; 
for that, in a cafe fo extraordinary as his, it was necefTary to act 
clearly, and to leave no room- for the lead doubtful conltrucYion. 
The earl of Stair, who has confirmed this account of Lord Boling- 
broke's, in a letter to Mr. Craggs, readily came into his lordfhip's 

fen ti men is 


fentiments on this head; and fo likewife did Mr. Craggs, who ar- 
rived f'oon after at Paris; and, upon their reprefentation, his ma- 
jefly was pleafed to give Lord Bolingbroke the moft gracious 
affurances of his favour. In July, 1716, his majefty created his 
lordlhip's father baron of Batterfea, in the county of Surrey, and 
vifcount St. John ; and this feeined preparatory to the fon's refto- 
ration. His lordfnip, therefore, was now induced to paufe from the 
tumult of political intrigues, and to exchange the purfuits of ambi- 
tion for the pleafures of ftudy, and the confolations ofr philofophy. 
The great variety of diftrefsful events which he had experienced, 
was fufficient to awaken and engage his attention ; and, to relieve 
his mind, he employed himfelt in writing a little treat ife which he 
afterwards publifhed under the title of " Reflections upon Exile." 
In this piece he has drawn the picture of his own exile, which he 
reprefents a 1 - a violence, proceeding folely from the malice of his 
enemies, 2nd offered to a man who, by ferving his country with abi- 
lity and integrity, had deferved a very different fate; and he under- 
takes to fhew, that a ftate of exile, thus incurred, is more honourable 
than diftrefsful. His lordfhip wrote ai(b, this fame year, feveral let- 
ters in anfwer to the charge brought againft him by the pretender 
and his adherents ; and in the following year he drew up a vindi- 
cation of his whole conduct with reipedt to the Tories, in the form 
of " A Letter to Sir William Wyndham." 

It was about this time that Lord Bolingbroke, who was now a 
\vidower, efpoufed a French lady of uncommon merit, and pof- 
feiled of a very large fortune, which was, however, encumbered with 
a long and troublefome law-fuit. She was the widow of the Mar- 
quis de Villette, and niece to the famous Madame de Maintenon, 
In the company of this lady, v/hofe underftanding, Voltaire allures 
us, was very uncommon, and who was particularly diftinguifhed by 
an amiable dignity and grace in her behaviour, his lordfhip paffed his 
time in France, fometimes in the country, and fometimes in the ca- 
pital, till the year 1723; when, upon the breaking up of the par- 
liament, his majefty was pleafed to grant him a full and free pardon, 
as to his perfonal fafety, but, as yet, neither reftoring him to his 
family inheritance, nor to his former honours. Upon the firft notice 
of this favour, the expectation of which had been the governing 
principle of his political conduct for feveral years, his lordihip re- 
turned to his native country ; and about two years after this he ob- 
tained an set of parliament to reftore him to his family inheritance, 
an eftate of about 2,500!. a year, which he had loft by his attainder. 

Lord Bolingbroke had now feen through the (ixtieth year of his 
age; and having gone as far towards reinllating himfelf in the full 
pofTeffion of his former honours as the mere dint of parts and appli- 
cation could go, but being convinced that the door of the Houfe of 
Lords was finally frmt againft him, he determined to give himfelf up 
to retirment and ftudy. He had not been long in his retirement, 

3 before 

BOLSEC (Jerome). i 75 

before he began a courfe of " Letters on the Study and Ufe of Hif- 
tory," which he addrelTed to a young nobleman, of diftinguifhed 
merit. Thefe letters difcovera true genius for politics, and abound 
with juft reflections; but in that part of the work where his lord- 
fhip treats of ecclefiaftical hiftnry, and ventures to give his opinion 
upon the divine original of the iacred books, he finks among the 
rabble of authors, and abundantly jnftines the truth of his friend 
Pope's remark, made long before, in one of his letters; where he 
fays, " Lord Bolingbroke is above trifling. When he writes of any 
thing in this world, he is more than mortal. If ever he trifles, it 
mud be when he turns divine." 

Thefe were the firlt fruits of Lord. Bolin^broke's {Indies in his re- 
treat; but as it was evident that a perlbn of his character could not 
relinquish the purfuits of ambition, and all at once refume the 
refigned and abstracted air of a philofopher, without expoSing him- 
felfto ridicule and derifion, he foon took care to obviate this cenfure 
by addreffing " A Letter to Lord Bathurft upon the true Ufe of 
Retirement and Study/' His lordfhip, when he wrote this, was 
fettled at Batterfea, in Surrey, the ancient feat of his family, to which 
he had returned upon the death of his father, in the year 1724, and 
where he fpent the remainder of his life. His palfions had now 
fub Tided, by vears and difappeintments ; and having improved his 
rational faculties by more grave ftudies and reflection, *' he fhone 
out in his retirement," fays Lord Orrery, " with a luftre peculiar 
to himfelf, though not feen by vulgar eyes. The gay Statefman 
was changed into a philofopher equal to any of the Sages of anti- 
quity. The wifdom of Socrates, the dignity and eafe of Pliny, and 
the wit of Horace, appeared in all his writings and converlation." 

In the year 1749 Lord Bolingbroke publifhed his " Letters on 
the Spirit of Patriotifm, on the idea of a Patriot King, and on the 
State o." Parties at the Acceffion of King George the FirSt." And 
in the fame year he began a piece entitled " Reflections on the 
prefent State of the Nation, principally with regard to her Taxes and 
her DebtSj and on the Caufes and Confequences of them ;" but he. 
left it unfinished; nor did he long furvive this undertaking. He 
had often wilhed that he might breathe his laft at Batterfea, where 
he was born ; and this he did on the I2th of December, i/5i> on 
the verge of fourfcore years of age, having long endured the excru- 
ciating difeafe of a cancer in his cheek. It is well known that his 
lordShip profeffed hirnfelf a Deift; and thofe principles which he 
had all along avowed, he confirmed with his dying breath, having 
given orders that none of the clergy Should be permitted to trouble 
him in his lateft moments. 

BOLSEC (JEROME), a Carmelite of Paris ; who, having preached 
fomewhat freely in St. Bartholomew's church, forfook his order, 
gnd fled into Italy. He fet up for a phyfician, and married; but 



alter did fumeihing or other for which he was driven away. 
He- fet u [> afterwards in Geneva as a phyfician; but not fucceedmg 
in that proieifion, he went ovjer to divinity. At firit he dogmatized 
privately on the myiiery of predeftmation, according to the prin- 
ciples of Pelagjus; and aite.rwar.ds had the boldnefs to make a public 
liifcourfe a^uinit the received opinion. Upon this Calvin went to 
fee him, itnd ccnfun.d him mildly. Then he lent for him to his 
houfe, and endeavoured t reclaim him from his error; but this dig! 
not hinder Bolfcc from delivering in public an infulting difcourfe 
against the decree of eternal predeftination. Calvin was among 
his auditors ; but, hiding himfelf in the crowd, was not feen by 
Bolfec, which made him the bolder. As foon as Bolfec had ended 
his lermon, Calvin Hood up, and confuted all he had beeji faying. 
This was not all; a magifirate, who was prefent in that affembly, 
called him a feditious fellow, and fent him to prifon. The caufe 
was difuified very fully; and at laft, with the advice of the Swjfs- 
churches, the fenate of Geneva dec lared^ Bolfec convieled of fedition 
and PeUgianifm ; and as fuch banilhed him from the territory of 
the republic, on pain of being whipped if he flioul.d return thither. 
This was done in 1551. He retired into a neighbouring place, 
which depended on the canton of Bern, and raiftd a great deal of 
disturbance there. He boldly accufed Calvin., of making God the 
author of fin. Calvin, to prevent the impreilions which Inch com- 
plaints might make upon the gentlemen of Bern, can fed himfelf to 
>be deputed to them, and pleaded his caufe before them. He was fo 
fortunate, that though he could not get a determination upon his 
do&rine, whether it was true or falfe, yet Bolfec was ordered to 
quit the country. 

He returned to France, and applied himfelf to the Proteftants ; 
fir ft at Paris, and afterwards at.Grkans. He (hewed a great defirc 
to be promoted to the miniftry, and to be reconciled to the church 
ot Geneva; but the perfecution that arofe agai nil the Proteftants, 
made him refolve to take up his firft religion, and the practice of 
phylic. He '.vent and fettled at Autun, and proftituted his wife to 
the canons oi that place; and, to ingratiate himfelf the more with 
the Papiils, exerted a tnoft flaming zeal againd the Reformed. He 
changed his habitation often : he lived at Lyons in 1582,35 appears 
by the t ; t!e of a book, which he can fed to be printed then at Paris, 
againft Bcza. He d-ed not long after; for he was not living in 
1585. The book juft mentioned is entitled, " The Hiflory of the 
Life, Doclrine, and Behaviour, of Theodorus Beza, called the Spec- 
table great M.inider of Geneva." This was preceded by the " Hif- 
tory of the Life, Actions, Doclrine, Confiancy, and Death of John 
Calvin, heretofore Minifter of Geneva ;" which was printed at 
Lyons, in 1577. "Borh thefe hiffories :;re altogether unworthy of 
credit ; as well becaufe they are written by an author full of refent- 
nieiu, as becaufe they contain feels notoriquflv falfe. 


and Dr. Robert). 177 

BOLTON or BOULTON (EDMUND), an ingenious E 
antiquary, who lived in the beginning of the ieventeenth century. 
His moft coniiderahle work is entitled " Nero Cafar, or Monarchic 
depraved;" an hiftorical work, dedicated to the duke of Bucking- 
ham, lord admiral, printed at London, 1624, folio. It is adorned 
with feveril curious and valuable medals, and divided into fifty-five 
chapters, in fome of which are introduced very curious obfervations. 
In the twenty-fourth arid twenty-fifth he gives a particular account 
of the revolt in Britain agairiir. the Romans, under the conduct of 
JBoadicea, which he introduces with a recspitulation of Britifh affairs, 
from the firft entrance of the Romans, under Julius Ceelar, till the 
revolt in the reign of Nero. The battle in which Boadicea was 
defeated, he fuppofes to have been fought on Salifbury plain, between 
two woods; and that Boadicea. was buried in this plain, and Stone- 
henge, or Stonage, erected for her monument. In chapter 36th, 
he treats of the Eaft India trade in Nero's time, which was then 
carried on by the river Nile, and thence, by caravans, over land to 
the Red Sea, and thence to the Indian Ocean ; the ready coin car- 
ried yearly from Rome upon this account amounting, according to 
Piiny's-oomputation, to above three hundred thoufand pounds fler- 
ling, and the ufual returns in December or January, yielding, in clear 
gain, an hundred for one. Befides this he wrote, i. The Life of 
King Henry II. 2. The Elements of Armories. 3. Hypercri- 
tica, or a Rule of Judgment for Writing or Reading our Hif- 


BOLTON (Dr. ROBERT), was born in Northamptondiire, 
about the year 1690, and received his education at Wadham college, 
Oxford, where, on the I3th of June, 1718, he took the degree of 
mafter of arts. Being a valetudinarian and hyponchondriac, he 
found a college life not agreeable to his temper; and being poflefled 
of a fmall private fortune, he did not long refide at Oxford. In 
1720 he lived at Fulham, where his acquaintance commenced with 
Mrs. Butler, which afterwards occafioned his being known to Mr. 
Pope; and he fometimes took up his abode with old Lady Biount, 
at Twickenham. About 1724 he refided at Kenfington, where the 
celebrated Mr. Whiiton then dwelt, and in part by his recom- 
mendation, on the relignation of Dr. Butler, afterwards B'fhop of 
Durham, of the chaplainfhip to Sir Jofeph Jckyl, mafter ot the rolls, 
our author was received into that gentleman's family in the fame 
capacity, and continued there unto the time oPSir j ofejph's dc-ath. 

Dr. Bolton's connection with Sir Jo r eph Jtkyl, introduced him 
to the patronage of L'jrd Hardwicke, by whofe mean?, in the year 
1735, he was promoted to the deanery or Catl/fle. In I 38 he was 
appointed vicar of St. Mary's, Reading; and both thele preferments, 
the only ones he ever received, he held until the time of his death. 
He was an excellent paji/h prieft. am) a ^wod preacher ; charitable to 

Voi. II. Z ' the 


the p.)or, and having, from his own valetudinary ftate, acquired 
FM.- '-'- e of phyfic, he kindly affiited them by advice and me- 

dicicv. He was greatly beloved by his parifhioners, and defervedly ; 
f-T he p-.MrormeJ every part of his duty hi a truly exemplary manner. 
O.i E.iiL-r Tuefday, 1739, he preached one of the Spital fermons at 
' 's, Fleet-ftreet, which was afterwards printed in quarto. 

not find that he afpired to the character ot an author, though 
f.. . ..lified for it, until late in life. His firft performance was 

entitled " A Letter to a Lady on Card-Playing on the Lord's Day," 
Svo. 1 7-}.8. (etiing forth, in a lively and forcible manner, the many 
evils attending the practice of gaming on Sunday?, and of an immo- 
derate attachment to that fatal purfuit at any time. In 1750 ap- 
peared " The Employment of Time/' three effays, Svo. dedicated to 
Lord Hardwicke ; the mod popular of our author's performances, 
and, on it's original publication, generally afcribed to Gilbert Weft. 
The next year, 1751, produced " The Deity's Delay in punifhin^ 
tiie Guilty confidered on the Principles of Reafon," 8vo. and in 1755 
" An Anfwer to the Queftion, Where are your Arguments againlt 
what you call Lewdnefs, if you can make no Ufeof the Bible r" Svo, 

Continuing to combat the prevailing vices of the times, he pub-? 
lifhed, in 1757, '" A Letter to an Officer of the Army on travelling 
on Sundays," Svo; and, in the fame year, " The Ghoft of Erneft, 
Great Grandfather of her Royal Highnefs the Princefs Dowager of 
Wales. With fome Account of his Life," Svo. Each of the 
above performances contains good fenfe, learning, philanthropy, and 
religion, and each of them is calculated for the advantage of ib- 

The lad work which Dr. Bolton gave the public, was not the 
leaf! valuable. It was entitled, " Letters and Tracts on the Choice 
of Company, and other Subjeds," Svo. 1761. This he dedicated 
to his early patron, Lord Hardwicke, to whom he infcribed " The 
Employment of Time," and who at this period was no longer chan- 
cellor. He died at London, on the 26th of November, 1/63, and 
was buried in the porch between the* firft and fecond door of the pa- 
rifh church of St. Mury, Reading. 


BONA (JOHN), a cardinal, famous for piety and learning, was 
defcended from an ancient and noble family, and born at Mdndovi, 
a town in Piedmont, upon the loth of October, 1609. He was de- 
voted to folitude, and had a contempt of the world from his infancy. 
At fifteen years of age he betook himftlf to a monaftery near Pig- 
r.erol, belonging to the begging friars of the order of St. Bernard, 
arid in 1651 was made genera! of his order. Cardinal Fabio Chigi, 
who wa Bona's great friend, and in 1655 cho fen Pope under the 
name of Alexander .VII. 'would have had him to have continued in 
this o^Hce, and ufed fome means' to prevail with hi.n ; but Bona 
prslTi-d fo earaeflly to be difchargeci, tkat ths p^pe at length fuf- 


BONAVENTURE (John Fidauzaj. 179 

fered him to refign it. He did it, however, upon this condition, that 
Bona IhouJd not depart from Rome ; aad, in order to reconcile him 
to it, gave him feveral confiderable places. Clement IX. conti- 
nued him in thefe places, conferred upon him new ones, a -id mace a 
cardinal of him in November 1669. This pontiff dying f >c?n after, 
many people wifhed that Bona might fucceed him in the holy fee ; 
but they \veredifappoir.ted. 

Bona was very learned, held a correfpondence with mo ft of the 
literati in Europe, and was fometimes at the pains of reviling and 
correcting; their works. He was the author of feveral things him- 
felf, chiefly written in the devotional way, which were much 
e'fteemed, and have been tranflated mod of them into French. B'JIU 
died at the age of lixty-five. 

BONAVENTURE QOHN FIDAUZA), a celebrated dodor, car- 
dinal, and faint, of the church of Rome, was born in Tufcany, 
1221. He was admitted into the order of St. Francis, about i 243 ; 
and fhidied divinity at the univerfity of Part?, it is fai.1, xvith fo much 
fuccefs, that at the end of feven years he was thought worthy to 
read public lectures upon the-fentences. He was created doctor in 
1255, and the year after appointed general of his order. He go 
verned with fo much zeal and prudence, that ,he perfectly reftored 
the difcipline of it, which had been greatly neglected. Pope Cle- 
r^nt IV. nominated him to the archbilhcprickof York in England ; 
but Bonaventure refilled it as earneflly as others ufually feek fuch' 
fort of things. After the death of Clement, the fee of Rome lay, 
vacant aimed three years, the cardinals not being able to agree 
among tbemfelves v ho ihould be pope. They came at length, 
however, -to a mo ft folema engagement, to leave the choice fo 'Bona- 
venture, and to eiei whomever he mould name, though it ihould be 
even himfelf. Bonaventure named Theobald, archdeacon of Liege, 
who \yas at that time in the Holy Land, and who took the title of 
Gregory X. By this pope he was made a cardinal, and bifhop of 
Alba ; and appointed to ailiil at -a general-council, which was heki' 
at Lyons foon after. He died there in 1274., and was magnificently" 
and honourably conducted to .his grave; the pope and whole council" 
attending, and the cardinal Peter of Tarantais, afterwards Pope In-' 
nocent V. making his funeral oration. Sixtus IV. made a faint of 
him in 1482 ; and Sixtus V. a doctor in 1588. Bellarmine has" 
pronounced Bonaventure a perfon d-oar to God and men ; which is'. 
nothing near to be wondered at fo much, as that Luther fhouid call 
him " fihprasftaHtimrnus,*' a moft excellent man. His works were 
printed at Rome in 1588, in eight volumes, folio. Excepting his 
commentary upon the mailer of the fentences, they are chiefly upon 
pious and myftical fubjefts. 



LONAVENTURE of Padua, a cardinal, was born in that city 
13-32, and tiefcended from a noble and illuftrious family. He 
fhidied d:v'mi;y at Paris, where he diHinguifhed himfelf by his un- 
common parts and application. He was of the order of St. An- 
^i.ftm, of \''hich he was made general in 13/7. Pope Urban VI* 
gave him a cardinal's cap the year after ; v. hich engaging him to 
fl ;nd up f,r the riglits ot the'church againft Francis de Carrario of 
Piidna, that petty monarch contrived to have him murdered. He 
was difpatchcd with the fhot of an arrow, as he was palling St. 
A " J 'o's i _. at Rome, in 1386. He was the author of fevcral 
works: a^, " Commentaries upon the Epiflles of St. John and 
t. Jame, Lives of the S^int?, Sermons, Speculum Manse, &c.'* 

BOND 'J:iHN\ a celebrated commentator and grammarian, was 
born in Spmerfe !h ie, 1550. He was educated at Winchefter- 
fcho 1, and in ICOQ was entered a flucient at New College in Ox- 

i ~J * O 

ford, \vKie he become highly, efteemed for his academical learning. 
Ir 1570, I e tci'N t'iv d- gree of mailer of arts; and foon after the 
xvarderi ann 'ell >w. of his rollege appointed him mafter of the free- 
fchool ot Taunton in Soinerfetfhire. Here he continued many 
years, and uvcral of his llholars became eminent both in church 
and Ihte. Bring at length, however, tired with the fatigue of this 
irkfojne erfiploymerrt, i'e turned his thoughts to the fludy of phyfic, 
and prufiifed it with great reputation. He died at Taunton the 3d 
of Angnft 1612. 

Jtfr. Bond ha<= left " Anrtotationes in Poemata Quintii Horatii, 
Lond. 1606," 8vo. Han. 1621, 8vo. His " Periius" was not 
printed till two years after his dtarh, in 8vo. under the following 
title, " Awli Perfii Flacci Satyras fex, cum pofthumis commentariis 
Johannis Bond." 

BONET (THEOPHILUS), a famous medicinal writer, was born 
at Geneva, 1620. He took his degree in phyfic in 1643, after he 
had gone through moft of the famous univerfities. Jie was fome 
time phyfician to the duke of Longueville, and {kill in his profef- 
fion got him confiderable practice; but, being feixed with an ex- 
ceflive deafnefs, was obliged to retire from bufinefs. Jn this retire- 
ment he found leifure to collect all the obfervations he had made 
during a pra&ire of forty years. I. The fir ft work he publifned 
\vas, ^ Pharos Medicorum, &c." It confifts of practical cautions 
extracted chiefly from the works of Ballonius ^ and he notes many 
errors which prevailed amongft the generality of phyficians. He 
gave another edition of it with many additions, It was alfo printed 
at Geneva, i6Sy, under the title of *' Labyrinth! Medici Extricati, 
&c." 2. In' 1675 he publifhed ?' Prodromus Anatomic prac- 
tica?j &c." This piece is parr of the following entitled, 3. " Se- 
pukh^retum five anatomia pradica ex cadaveribus morbo denatis. 

BONFADIUS (James). 1 8 1 

He rutli collected in this work a great number of curious obferva- 
lion" upon the difeafes of the head, breaft, belly, and other parts of 
the body. 4. " Mercurius Compitalius, &c." 5. " Medicina Sep. 
tentrionalis collatma," in two volumes; the firft publifhed in 1684* 
and the f rcond in 1686. It is a collection f the belt and rnoft re- 
mark ible obfervatipns in phyfic wlych had been made in England,, and Denmark, which our author has reduced into certain 
htad e according to the fevera! parts of the human b:~>dy. 6. *' Poly- 
althes. &c." 7. " Theodqri Turqueti de M^erne Tractatus de Ar- 
thritidc." 8. " Jacobi Rohaulti Tractatus Phyfkus, e Gallico in 
Latinum verfus. Geneva, 16*5," 8vo. Dr. Bonet died of a 
dropfy the 29th of March, 1689. 

BONFADIUS JAMES.), a very polite writer of the i6th cen- 
tury, was born in Italy, near the lake di Garda : but we do not 
know in what vear. He was three years fecietary to Cardinal Bari 
at Rome; but loft the fruits of his fervices by the death ol his 
mailer. He the.n ferved cardinal Glinucci in the lame capacity; 
but long ficknefs made him incapable of that employment. When. 
he was recovered, he i*und himfelf fo difgufted with the court, that 
he refolved to feek his fortune by other means. He continued a good 
while in the kingdom of Naples, but, fpringing no game there, he 
went to Padua, and then to Genoa ; where he read public lectures 
on Ariftotie's Politics. He was ordered to read fome likewife upon 
his Rhetoric ; and, fucceeding well in it, many fcholars flocked to 
learn good literature from him. His reputation increased daily, fo 
that the Republic of Genoa made him their hiltoriographer, and 
afligned him a very good penfion for that office. He applied him- 
felf laborioufly to compofe the annals of that ftate, and publifhed the 
five firft books ; by which, fpeaking too freely and too fatirically of 
fome families, he created himfelf enemies, who refolved to ruin, 
him. They caufed it to be laid to his charge, that, infrigated by 
an inordinate pailion for a very handfoine youth, his fcholar; he 
gratified his unnatural inclinations with him : and there being wit- 
neffcs to convict him of it, he was condemned to be burnt. Some 
have fufpected 3onfadius to have been innocent, and the fole caufe 
of his perfecution was the freedom of his pen : but that does not 
feem to have been the cafe. The generality of writers have agreed, 
that Bonfadius was guilty; yet are of opinion, that he had never 
been accufed, if he had not given offence by fomething elfe. 

Bon/adius was executed in 1560. Upon the day of his execution, 
he wrote a note to John Baptift Grimaldi, to teftify his gratitude to 
the p-jrfons who had endeavoured to ferve him, and promifed to in- 
form them, how he found himfelf in the other world, if it could be 
done without frightening them. Such pmmifes have been often 
made ; but we have feldom heard that any of them were performed. 
He recommended to them his nephew Bonfadius, who is perhaps the 



Peter Bonfadius, author of fome verfes extant in the Gareggiamento 
poetico dcf confufo Academico ordito." It is a co'leclion of verfes, 
divided into eight parts, and printed at Venice in the year 1611. 

BONFINIUS (ANTHONY), an hiftorian of the fifteenth century, 
was born at Afcoli in Italy. Mathias Corvin, king of Hungary, 
having heard of his abilities ar.d learning, fent for him to his court. 
jBonfinius paid his refpels to him at Rces, a few days before that 
prince made his public entry into Vienna. At his firi't audience, as 
he hiinfelf tells us, he presented him with his tranflations of Her- 
mos;enes and Herodian, arad his genealogy of the Corvin?, which he 
dedicated t:> majeity ; and two other works addreifed to the queen, 
one of which treated of virginity and conjugal ciiafnty, and the other 
an hirtory of Afcoli. He had dedicated a!fo a little collection of epi- 
grams to thi young prince John Corvin, to which there is added a 
preface. The king read his pieces with great pleafure, and diflri- 
biitfd ihcm among his courtiers in-high terms of approbation. He 
would not allow him to return to Italy, but detained him with a 
d pei.'lion, being defirous that he fhouid follow him in his army. 
He employed him to write the hiftory of the' Huns, and BonfiniuS 
accordingly fet about if before the death of this prince; but it was 
hy Ci'dtr of King UladiflauS that he wrote the general hiftr:ry of 
Hungary. Ho has carried it down to the year 1495. The original 
of this work was put into the library of Buciu, but was never pub- 
!>ihed. In 1543, one Martin Brenner publifhed thirty books of 
this. work from an impcifeil copy. The whole confided of forty- 
five books, which Sanbucus publiftied in 1568, revi fed and collat- 
ed with the belt copies. Bonnnujs is fuppofed to have died in 

BONGARS (JAMES), a diftiriguiftied perfon, was born at 
Orleans in 1554; and ftudied at Stralnurg in 1571, where he had an 
AnabaptiR for his tutor: for he was of tne Proteltant reiigion. In 
15/6, he ftudied the civil law under the celebrated Ccjacius: never- 
thelefs he followed the prevailing tafle of thofe time?, which was 
critical learning ; and though, fays Baylc, he went not fo far-as the 
Lipiius's and Cafaubon's, yet he acquired great reputation by it, and 
perhaps would have equalled them, if he could have devoted 
himfelf wholly to it, as they did. But ftate affairs did not permit 
h:m. He was employed near thirty years in the moft important 
iiegociations of Henry IV. for whom he was feverai times resident 
v/ith the princes ol Germany, and afterwards ambaffador. How-- 
ever, he publithed a good edition of Juftin at Paris, 1581, in 8vo. 
where he fhevved his fagacity, his learning, his care in tonfulting 
good manufcript?, by the many corrupted paffages- he reftored, and 
the many difficulties he cleared in the notes. He had a vaft know- 
oi books, both manqfcript and printed; and made a very 

BONNELL ( James). 

g:cat collelior} or them. Bciides an edition of Juitin, he was the 
author of other works; which, if they did not (hew his learning fo 
much, have fprcad his fame a good deal more. Thuanus highly 
commends an anfwer, which he publilhed in Germany, to a piece, 
wherein the bad fcccefs of the expedition of the year 1587 was im- 
puted to the French, who accompanied the Germans. 

The world is indebted to Bongars for the publication of feveral 
authors who wrote the hiftory of the expeditions into Paleftine. 
That work is entitled, " Gcfta Dei per Francos ;" and was printed 
at Hanaw in i6ir> in two volumes folio. There are letters of 
Bongars, written during his employments, which are much efleemed. 
Bongars died at Paris in 1612, when he was fifty-eight years of 

EONNELL ('JAMES), a man of Itricl virtue and exemplary piefy, 
was bom at Genoa the I4th of November, 1653, being the Ion of 
Samuel Bonncll, merchant, who refilled fome time at Genoa, and 
of Rebecca, daughter of Thomas Sayer, near Norwich, Efq. His 
grandfather was Daniel Bonnell of London, merchant, and his 
great-grandfather, Thomas Bonnell, a gentleman of good family 
near lores in Flanders, who, to avoid the duke of Aiva's perfecu- 
tion, removed with his family into England, and fettled at Norwich, 
of which, before his death, he was chofen mayor. Samuel Bonnell, 
father of James Bonnell, being bred up under that eminent mer- 
chant, Sir W. Courte'en, Knt. applied himfelf to the Italian tracfe, 
at Leghorn and Genoa, with fuch fuccefs, that about 1640,, he was. 
worth- at lead io,oool. and his credit much greater than his fortune. 
But both were foon impaired by feveral accidents, by great loiles at 
fea, and particularly by his zeal for King Charles II. during his 
exile, and the reft of the royal family, whom he privately fupplied 
with large films of money. About 1655, he removed with his fa- 
mily into England : and at the Restoration, on account of the fer- 
vices he had done the royal family, atid as a compenfation for ths 
large futns he had advanced them (which, it feems, were never re- 
paid othervvife), there was granted him a patent to be Accomptant 
General of the Revenue of Ireland, a place worth about 8ool. 
a year; his fon's life being included in the patent with his own. 
But this he was not long pofTefTed of, for he died in 1664, leaving 
his fon,'of whom we are- now to fpeak, and one daughter. After 
James Bonnell had been inftrucked in the firfr. rudiments of learning 
at Dublin, he was fent to Trym fchool, where he was eminent for 
fwectnefs of temper, and for a mod innocent, gentle, and religious 
behaviour. At fourteen years .of age, he left that place, and was 
fent to a private philosophy fchool in Oxfordlhire, kept by one 
Cole, who had formerly been principal. of. &t, Mary-hall in Oxford; 
and Itaid there two years and a Half. Bui nnding'his tmfh-r was- 
too remifs-in matters of morality and rcli^ioia, a thing quite unfuit- 

5 aule 


able with his ftricl: temper, and obferving there were in that place 
all the dangers and vices of the univerfity, without the advantages, 
he removed to Catherine-hall in Cambridge, where He profecuted 
his ftudies with indefatigable diligence, and performed all his exer- 
cifes with general approbation. Atter taking his degrees in arts, he 
removed into the family of Ralph Freeman of Afpeden-hall in 
Hertfordfhire, Efq. as tutor to his eldeft fon ; and there continued 
till 1678, when, going with his pupil into Holland, he flayed about 
a year in Sir Leoline Jenkins's family, at Nimmegen. From Nim- 
niegen he went in the ambiflador's company through Flanders and- 
Holland; and returning into England, continued with his pupil till 
1083, when Mr. Freeman was fent into France and Italy. In 
1684, Mr. Bonnell went into F/ance, and met Mr. Freeman at 
Lyons ; and in his company vifited feveral parts of France. Leav- 
ing Mr. Freeman in France, he went diredly from thence into Ire-, 
land, and took his employment of accomptant-general into his own 
hands, winch had, fince his father's death, been managed by others 
for his ufe. In the difcharge of it, he behaved in fo obliging a 
manner, and with fo much diligence and faithfulnefs, that he foon 
equally gained the efteem of the government, and the love of all who 
were concerned with him. During the troublefome reign of King 
James II. he neither umvoithily deferted his employment, as others 
did ; nor came into the arbitrary and illegal meafures of the court; 
and yet was continued in his office, without his defiling it: which 
proved a great advantage to the Proteflant intereft in Ireland; lince, 
whatever he received out of his place, he liberally diftributed among 
the poor oppreffed Proteltants, taking all opportunities to relieve the 
injured, and boldly pleading for them with thofe who were then 
in power. But though his place was very advantageous, and he 
had in it great opportunities of d.'ing good; yet, either the weight 
of that employment, or his ill ftate of health, or elfe his defireof 
entering into holy orders (which he ddigned for a confiderable time, 
but never effected , made him refolve to quit it ; and he accordingly 
parted with it to another perfon in 1693. 

Mr. Bonnell was mailer of the accomplishing, as well as necef- 
fary parts of learning ; had thoroughly digefted the Greek and Ro- 
man authors, understood French perftclly well, and had made good 
progreft in the Hebrew. In pi'ilofophy and oratory, he exceeded 
moft of his .contemporaries in the nmverfity; and applied himfelf 
\vith good fuccefs to mathematics and mufic. In the courfe of his 
ftwdie.s, he read fl-veral of the fathers; and tranflated fome parts of 
Synefius i,,to Engiim. This worthy perfon died of a malignant 
fever, Apr.l 2$, 4699, and was buned in St. John's church in 


BONNE'R ( Edmund), Bijbop of London. 1 85 

BONNER (EDMUND), biftiop of London, was the fon of an 
honeft poor man, and born at Hanley in Worcefterfhire. He was 
maintained at fchool by an anceftor of Nicholas Lechmore, Efq. a 
baron of the exchequer in the reign of king William ; and in 1512, 
he was entered at Broadgate-hall in Oxford, now Pembroke college. 
On June 12, 1519,116 was admitted batchelor of the canon, and the 
day following batchelor of the civil law. He entered into holy or- 
ders about the fame time ; and on the 1 2th of July 1525, was created 
doclor'of the canon law. He was a man of learning, but diftin- 
guifhed himfelf chiefly by his (kill and dexterify in the management 
of affairs. This made him be taken notice or by cardinal Wolfey, 
who appointed him his commiflTary for the faculties; and he was 
with this prelate at Cawo >d, when he wasarreiled for high treafon. 
He enjoyed at once the livings of Blayden and Cherry Burton in 
Yorkfhire, Ripple in Worctiferfhiie, Eaft Dereham in Norfolk, 
and the prebend of Chifwick in the cathedral church of St. Paul : 
but the laft he refigned in 1539, and Eaff Dereham in 1540. He 
was inflalled archdeacon of Leicefter, Oclobir. 17, 1535. 

After the cardinal's death, he got into the good graces of king 
Henry VIII. who appointed him one of his chaplains ; and he was 
a promoter of the king's divorce from queen Catherine of Spain, 
and of great ufe to his majelty in abrogating the pope's fupremacy. 
He was alfo in high favour with lord Cromwell, fecretary of irate, 
by whole recommendation he was employed as atnbafTador at feveral 
courts. In 1532, he was fent to Rome, along with fir Ed- 
ward Karne, to excufe king Henry's perfoual appearance upon the 
pope's citation. In 1533, ne was ^ ent a g aul to Rome to pope Cle- 
ment VII. then at Marseilles, "upon the excommunication decreed 
againft king Henry VIII. on account of his divorce ; to deliver that 
king's appeal from the pope to the next general council. He exe- 
cuted the order of Ins matter in this affair with fo muck vehemence 
and fury, that the pope talked of throwing him into a caldron of 
melted lead ; whereupon he thought proper to make his efcape. 
He was employed likeuife in other embaiiies to the kings of Den- 
mark and France, and the emperor of Germany. In 1538, being 
then ambaffador in France, he was nominated to the biihopric of 
Hereford, November 27 ; but before confecration he was tranflated 
to London. 

At the time of the king's death in 1547, Bonner was ambafTkdor 
with the emperor Charles V. and though during Henry's reign he 
appeared fo zealous againil the pope, and had concurred in all the 
fteps taken to abrogate his fupremacy, yet this leerris to have been 
owing to his ambition, becaufe he knew it to be the readied way to 
preferment ; for he was a Papift in his heart, as became evident from 
his fubfequent conduft. On the ift of September, 1547, not many 
months alter the acceffion of Edward VI. he fcrupled co take an 
oath, to renounce and deny tlv; bilhop of Rome, and to i'vvear obe- 

VOL. II. A a dien 


dience to the king, and .entered a protection againft the king's 
injunction and homilies. For this behaviour he was committed 
to the fleet ; but having fubmitted and recanted his proteftation, was 
rcleafed. He now indeed complied outwardly with the fteps taken 
to advance the Reformation, but ufed privately all means in his 
power to obftrudl it. After the lord Thomas Seymour's death, he 
appeared greatly remifs in putting the court orders in execution, 
particularly that relating to the ufe ot the common prayer book ; 
for which he was feverely reproved by the privy council. He feem- 
ed thereupon to redouble his diligence: but Mill, through his remifT- 
nefs in preaching, and his connivance at the mafs in feveral places, 
many people in his diocefe being obferved to withdraw from the 
divine fervice, and communion, he was accufed of neglect in the 
execution of the king's orders. He was fummoned before the privy 
council on the nth of Auguft, when, attera reproof of his neg- 
ligence, he was enjoined to preach the Sunday three weeks after at 
Paul's crofs, on certain articles delivered to him ; and alfo to preach 
there once a quarter for the future, and be prefent at every fermon 
preached there, and to celebrate the communion in that church on 
all the principal feafts : and to abide and keep refidence in his houfe 
in London, till he had licence from the council to depart elfewhere. 
On the day appointed for his preaching, he delivered a fermon to a 
crowded audience on the points affigned to him. But he entirely 
omitted the laft article, the king's royal power in his youth : for 
which contempt, he was complained of to the king by John Hooper, 
afterwards bifhcp of Worcefter : whereupon archbifhop Cran- 
mer, bifhop Ridley, fir William P<--,e, and fir Thomas Smith, 
fecretaries of Rate, and William May, LL. D. and dean of St. Paul's, 
were appointed commiffioners to proceed againlt him. Appearing 
before them feveral days in September, he was, after a long trial, 
committed to the Marfhalfea ; and towards the end of October de- 
prived of his bifhopric. 

On the acceffion of queen Mary, Bonner had an opportunity of 
fhewing himfelf in his proper colours,' he was reftored to his bi- 
fhopric, by a commiffion read in St. Paul's cathedral the 5th of 
September 1553. In 1554, he was made vicegerent, and prefident 
of the convocation, in the room of archbifhop Cranmer, who was 
committed to the Tower. The fame year he vifked his diocefe, in 
order to root up all the feeds of the Reformation, and behaved in 
the moft furious and extravagant manner; at Hadhatn, he was ex- 
ceffively angry becauie the bells did not ring at his coming, that 
the rood lott was not decked, nor the facrament hanged up. H 
fwore and raged in lirechurch at Dr. Bricket, the reior, and calling 
him knave and heretic, went to ftrike at him ; but the blow fell up- 
on fir Thomas Jofcelyn 'sear, and a 1 moft ftunned him. He fet up 
the mafs again at St. Paul's, before the act for reducing it was palled. 
The fame year, he v/as in commiflion to turn out fome of the re- 


BONNER (Edmund), Bifiop of London. 1*87 

formed bilhops. In 1555, and the three following years, he was 
the occafion of feveral hundreds of innocent perfons being put to 
death, for their firm adherence to the Proteftant religion. On the 
T 4-th of February 1555-6, he came to Oxford (with Thirlby bifhop 
of Ely), to degrade archbiftiop Cranmer, whom he ufed with great 
infolence. The 29th of December following he was put into a 
commiffion to fearch and raze all regifters and records containing 
profeffions againit the pope, fcrutinies taken in religious houfes, 
&c. And the 8th of February 1556-7, he was alfo put in another 
commidion, or kind of iuquiiition, for fearch ing after and punifh- 
ingall heretics. 

Upon queen Elizabeth's acceflion, things took a different turn : 
Bonner went to meet her at Highgate, with the reft of the bifhops ; 
but (he looked on him as a man itained with blood, and therefore 
could (hew him no mark of her favour. For fome months he re- 
mained unmolefled; but being called before the privy council on 
the3Oth of May 1559, he refufed to take the oath ot allegiance and 
fupremacy : for which reafon he was deprived a fecond time of his 
bifhopric the 29th of June following, and committed to the Mar- 
fhalfea. After having lived in confinement fome years, he died 
September 5, 1569. Three days after he was buried at midnight, 
in St. George's church-yard, Southwark, to prevent any diftur- 
bances that might have been made by the citizens, who hated him 
extremely. He had flood excommunicated feveral years, and might 
have been denied Chriflian burial ; but no advantage was taken 
thereof. As to his character, he was a violent, furious, and paf- 
fionate man, and extremely cruel in his nature ; in his perfon he 
was very fat and corpulent. He was a great mafter of the canon 
law, being excelled in that faculty by very few of his time; and 
alfo was well {killed in politics, but understood little of divinity. 
Several pieces were published under his name, viz. 

1. " Preface to the Oration of Stephen Gardiner, bifliop of 
Winchefter, concerning true obedience. 

2. " Several letters to the lord Cromwell." 

3. " A Declaration to lord Cromwell, defcribing to him the 
evil behaviour of Stephen [bifhop of Winchefter]. 

4. " Letter of his about the proceedings at Rome concerning the 
king's divorce from Catherine of Arragon." 

5. " An Admonition and Advertifement given by the bifliop of 
London to all readers of the Bible in the Englifh tongue." 

" 6. Injunctions given by Bonner, bifhop of London, to his 
clergy (about preaching) with the names of books prohibited." 
7". " Letter to Mr. Lechmore." 

8. " Refponfum & Exhortatio. Lond. 1553," ^vo. Anfwer 
and Exhortation to the clergy in praife of prietthood : fpoken by 
the author in St. Paul's cathedral, the i6th October, 1553." 

9. " A Letter to Mr. Lechmore, 6th September 1553." 

A a 2 10. "Articles 


10. " Articles to be enquired of in the general vifitation of Ed- 
mund bifhop of London, exercifed by him in the year 1554, in the 
city anddiocefe of London, 6cc." 

ir. "A profitable and neceflary Doctrine, containing an expo- 
fition on the Creed, feven Sacraments, ten Commandments, the Pa- 
ter Nofter, Ave Maria, with certain Homilies adjoining thereto, for 
the inftruction and information of thediocefe of London. 

12. Several letters, declarations, arguings, difputes, &c. of his 
are extant in John Fox's book ot Martyrs. 

13. His Objections agaiml: the Procefs of Robert Home, bifliop 
of Winchefler, who had tendered the oath of fupremacy to him a 
fecond time. *---- " ! 

BONWICKE (AMBROSE), a Nonjuring clergyman of great 
piety and learning, fon of the Rev. John Bonwicke, rector of 
Mickleham in Surrey, was born April 29, 1652, and educated at 
Merchant Taylors School ; he was elected to Sr. John's College, 
Oxford, in 1668, where he was appointed librarian in 1670 ; 
B. A. 1673; M. A. March 18, 1675; was ordained deacon 
May 21, 1676; prieir., June 6 (Trinity Sunday), 1680; proceeded 
B. D. July 21, 1682 ; and was elected mailer ot Merchant Taylors 
School, June 9, 1680. In 1689, the college of St. John's petitioned 
the Merchant Taylors Company, that he might continue mafter of 
the fchool (which is a nurlery for their collcgej for life ; but at 
Chriltmas, 1691, he was turned out for refilling to take the oath 
oi* allegiance, and was afterwards for many years mailer of a 
celebrated fchool at Headley, Leatherhead, in Surrey, where 
he had at one time the honour of having the poet Fenton for his 
ufher, and Bowyer (who was afterwards the learned printer) for a 

BOOTH (BARTON), a famous Englifh actor, who chiefly ex- 
celled in tragedy, was born in the county palatine of Lancalter, 
1 68 1. At the age of nine years he was put to Weftminfter fchool, 
under the tuition of the famous Dr. Bufby, where he foon dif- 
covered an excellent genius and capacity. He had a peculiar turn 
for Latin poetry, and had fixed many of the fine-It palfages of the 
ancients fo firmly in his memory, that he could repeat them ; which 
he would do with fuch propriety ot emphafis, and gracefulnefs of 
action, as to charm every body who heard him. Thence it was 
that when, according to cultom, a Latin play was to be aled, one 
of the firlt parts was given to young Booth; who performed it in 
fuch a manner, as gained him univerial applaufc, and particular re- 
fpect from the doctor. Th.s hrtt gave him an inclination for the 
{hg'-'. His father intended him for the church ; but when Barton 
rea neJ the a;j;e of feyenteen, and was about to be fent to the 
univerfity, he Itole away horn fehoo!, and went over to IreLiv.l in 
, /-;, \viiii M A.l.'oiiry. mait^r of the c.>mpjny at Dublin. FItre 
he v^s iouii cliitinguiiaeu gfv^ily by his theatrical abilities, 

BOOTH (Hetny). 189 

efpecially in tragedy, for which he feemed to be formed by nature ; 
for he had a grave countenance and a good perfon, with a fine voice 
and a manly adtion. When he had been three feafons in Dublin, 
in which time he had acquired a great reputation, he refolved to 
return to England ; which he accordingly did in 1701, and was re- 
commended to Mr. Eetterton, who behaved to him with great 
civility, and took him into his company. The firlt character in 
which he appeared on the Englifh (tage, was that of Maximus, in 
the tragedy of Valen.tinian ; and it was fcarce poflible for a young 
actor to meet with a better reception than he had. The Ambitious 
Stepmother coming on foon atter, he performed the part of Arta- 
ban, which added conik'erably to the reputation he had acquired, 
and made him efteemed one of the firfl actors. Nor was his fame 
lefs in all the fucceeding characters which he attempted ; but he 
fhone with greateft luttre in the tragedy of Cato, which was brought 
on the (tage in 1712. The reputation to which Booth was now- 
arrived feemed to entitle him to a fhure in the management of the 
theatre; but this perhaps his merit would never have procured, 
had it not been through the favour of Lord Bolingbroke, who, 
in 1/13, recalling all former licences, procured a new one, in which 
Booth's name was added to thoie of Gibber, \Vilk?, and Dogget. 
Dogget however was io much offended at this, that he threw up his 
mare, and would not accept of any con fi deration for it ; but Gibber 
tells us, he only made this a pretence, and that the true reafon of 
his quitting was his diflike to Wiiks, whofe humour was become 
infupportable to him. When Booth came to a lhare in the 
management of the houfe, he was in the 33d year of his age, and 
in the highefi reputation as an alor : nor did his fame as a player 
fink by degrees, as fometimes has happened to thofe who have been 
moft applauded, but increafed every day more and more. The 
health of Booth however beginning to decline, he could not a<5r. fo 
often as ufual ; and hence became more evident the public favour 
towards him, by the crowded audiences his appearance drew, when 
the intervals of his diftetnper permitted him to tread the ftage : but 
his conftitutian broke now very faft, and he was attacked with a 
complication of diRempers, which carried him off May io, 1733. 
His character as an actor has been celebrated by fome of the bed 

BOOTH (HENRY), Earl of Warrington and Baron Delamer of 
Dunham Mailcy, was a very dilVmguilhed perfon, and born of an 
ancient family, in 1651. He was knight of the Ihire for the county 
palatine ot Cliefter, in ievera! parliaments during the reign of 
Charles II.; and was very active in promoting the bill for ex- 
cluding the Duke of York from the throne. He was extremely 
zealous againit the Papiits ; and this circumftance, together with 
his conftant and vigorous opposition to the arbitrary meafures then 
prevailing, made him extremely obnoxious to the court. In 1684, 



by the death of his father, he became Lord Delamer ; but, about 
this time, was committed clofe prifouer to the Tower of London. 
Being fct at liberty, he was again commuted, foon after the 
acceflion of James II. After fome confinement, he was committed 
a third time, in July 1685 ; and, when official application from the 
peers was mach, to know the reafon, the king anfwered, That he 
itood committed for high treafon, teftified upon oath ; and that 
orders were given to proceed againft him according to law. He 
was brought to his trial, Jan. 1685-6; but, in fpite of all efforts 
by Jefferies and the court, was unanimoufly acquitted. After this, 
he lived for fome time, in a retired manner, at his feat at Dunham 
MaiFey; but, matters being at length ripe for the Revolution, he 
exerted himfelt" for bringing about that great event, by raifing 
forces and every other means. Soon after the Revolution, he was 
made a privy counfellor; chancellor and under treafurer of the 
exchequer ; lord lieutenant and cultos rotulorum of the county of 
Chefter ; which hit offices, with that of privy counfellor, he held 
for life ; the others, for only about a year. The reafon appears to 
have been, that his conduct after the Revolution was a good deal 
difpleafing to king William ; inafmuch as he oppofed the meafures 
of the court, and was thought to wiih for (till farther retrenchments 
of regal prerogative. Mr. Walpole fays, that " he was difmiffed by 
king William to gratify the Tories," and it feems to have been fo ; 
for, though he was removed from the adminiftration, it was thought 
neceilary to confer on him fome mark of royal favour. According- 
ly, he was created earl of Warrington, April 17, 1690, with a 
penfion of 2000!. per annum ; arid it was faid, in the preamble of 
the patent for his earldom, that it was conferred on him, for his 
" great fervices in raifing and bringing great forces to his Majefty, 
" to refcue his country and religion from tyranny and popery." 
He did not enjoy his new dignity long ; for he died, Jan. 2, 1693-4, 
aged 41. 

The works of Henry earl of Warrington were publifhed 1694, 
in one vol. 8vo. andconfift chiefly of fpeeches made by him in par- 
liament, prayers ufed by him in his family, fome fhort political 
trads, and the cafe of William earl of Devonfhire. 

pRDONR (PARIS), an excellent Italian painter, was born 

at Venice, about the year 1512; and, being defcended of a noble 

iamiiy, wasbrought up to letters, mufic, and other genteel accom- 

p' : was a dimple of Titian, and flotirifhed in the 

t ; but WJA more commeiuled for the delicacy of his 

K ~ il > t!l ' purity of his outlines. He came into France to 

court ot Francis I. with whom he was in great favour and ef- 

vm ; an.! mr whom, be fides abundance of hiitories, he made the 

trtraits of fcveral court ladies in fo excellent a manner, that ori- 

g'rta'l .... vas hardly more charming. From France he returned, 


BORGIA (C&far\. 191 

home to Venice, laden with honour and riches; and, having acqui- 
red as much reputation in Italy as he had done abroad, died in 1587, 
aged 75 years. 

EORELLI (JoHN ALPHONSO), a famous philofopher and ma- 
thematician, was born at Naples the 28th of January 1608. He 
was a profeffor of philofophy and mathematics in fome of the moft 
celebrated univerfities of Italy, efpecially at Florence ami Pifa, \vhere 
he became highly in favour with the princes of the houfe of Me- 
dicis ; but, having been engaged in the revolt of Medina, he was 
obliged to retire to Rome, where he fpentthe remainder of his life 
under the protection of Chriftina queen of Sweden, who honoured 
him with her friendship, and by her liberality towards him, foftened 
the rigour of his fortune, He continued two years in the convent 
of the regular clergy of St. Fantaleon, called the Pious Schools, 
where he inftructed the youth in mathematical fludies. He died 
thereof a pleurify Dec. 31, 1679, in the 7 ad year, of his age. 

BORGARUTIUS (PROSPER), an eminent Italian phyfician, 
\vholivedinthefixteenthcentury, and publiihed fome works ; the 
firft of which was a treatife of anatomy. He compofed it in his 
native language; and, finding it well received, tranflated it into 
Latin, with the addition of feveral new obfervations, which he had 
made vrhile he taught anatomy at Padua. He not only communi- 
cated to the public the difcoveries he had made by the diiledion of 
bodies, but ftuciied medicine alfo, and printed fomething on that 
fubjecl. He took a journey to the court of France in 1567, and 
found at Paris the manufcriptof the " Cnirurgia Magna" of Ve- 
falius. He bought it ; and then, correcting and digefting it into 
order, publiihed it at Venice, 1569, in 8vo. The trouble he was 
involved in during the printing of his ov/n treatife of anatomy, ar,d 
the vexation l.e met with from the printers, rrlade him in a fret take 
an oath, that he would never more have anything to do with them. 
When he was got from under the prefs, he broke his word ; and 
in this compares himfelf to thofe women who, in the pains of 
child-birth, proteft, they will never expofe themfelves to the like any 
more, nevertheiefs, when the pain is over, forget their prottitu- 

BORGIA (C^SAR), a natural fon of Pope Alexander VI. war a 
man of luch conduct and character, that Machiavel has thought fir 
to propofe him, in his famous book called " The Prince," as an 
original and pattern to all princes, who would act the part of v\j;e 
and politic tyrants. What year he was born in, we do not find : 
but he was at his ftudies in the univerftty of Pifa. when Alexander 
was elected Pope, which was in Auguft 1492. Upon the news of 


his father's advancement, he baniflied all thoughts of the private 
condition of life he had hitherto been in ; and, full of ambition and 
the highdl notions, as if himfelf was to be made emperor of the 
world, he haltencd dire<5tly to Rome. Alexander received him 
with formality and coldnefs, which, whether it was real or only af- 
fected, is not ealy to determine. C^far however took it to be real ; 
and, greatly difgufted as well as difappointed, went immediately and 
complained to his rnsther Vanozza. Vanozza comforted him ; bid 
him not be caft down ; and told him, that fhe knew the Pope's mind 
better than any body, and for what reafons his holinefs had given 
him that reception. In the mean time the court- flatterers folicited 
the Pope to make Csefar a cardinal, which the Pope abfolutely re- 
fufed ; nevertheless, that he might not feem altogether forgetful of 
him, he created him archbifliop of Valenza, a benefice which his 
holinefs had enjoyed in his younger days. This preferment was by 
no means acceptable to Casfar, yet he thought proper to take up 
with it ; fince the Pope, he found, was determined to confer the 
beft of his fecular dignities on his eldeft fon Francis, who at that 
time was made duke of Gandia by Ferdinand king of Caftile and 

Alexander VI. had five children by his miftrefs Vanozza ; Fran- 
cis and Cscfar, already mentioned, two other fons, and a daughter 
named Lucretia. Francis was a gentleman of a fine difpofition, of 
probity and real goodnefs, and in every refpeit quite oppoiaeto his 
brother Cxfar ; but Caefar feems to have pofTefltd abilities fuperior 
to thofe of Francis: which made a certain hi dorian fay, " that 
Caefar was great among the wicked, and Francis good among the 
great." Cosfar however was the mother's favourite, as having a 
temper and principles more conformable to her's : for which rea- 
fon, at the time when Alexander was undetermined on which of 
thefe brothers he Ihould beftow the cardinal's cap, Vanozza declar- 
ed herlelf in favour of Cselar, who was accordingly made a car- 
dinal in the fecond year of Alexander's pontificate. From hence- 
forward he acted in concert with his father, and was a great inftru- 
ment in executing all the fchemes of that molt wicked Pope : for he 
had notthekaft grain of virtue or goodnefs in his make, nor was 
there any thing too atrocious for him to perpetrate, if it could but 
tend to make him a great and formidable tyrant ; for that was the 
fole object, ot his ambition. This put him upon the murder ot his 
elder brother Francis, duke of Gandia. Ail the fecular dignities, 
which then were much more coveted than the ecclefiaftical, were 
heaped upon Francis ; and this ebRrucled Cccfar's projects fo en- 
tirely, thai he was refolved at all adventures to remove him. It 
tvas in the year 1497, l ' 1:U > hiring alfallins, he can fed him to be 
murdered, and thrown into the Tiber ; where his body was found 
fotne daysaticr, lull of wounds and extreme!) mangled. The Pope 
was afflicted to the laft degree : lor though he made ufe of C as far 
4 as 

BORGIA (Gefar). 193 

as the abler, he loved Francis as the better man. He can fed there- 
fore (tridr. inquiry to be made after the murderers ; upon which Va- 
nozzu, who ior that and other reafons was juftly fufpfcled to be 
privy to the affair, went privately to the Pope, and ufed all the 
arguments me could, to.dtffuade him from fearching any further. 
Some fay, that file went fo far as to affuie his holinefs, that if he 
did not defilt, the fume perfon, who took away his fun's life, 
would not fpare his own. 

Cxfar, who now fu acceded to his brother's fortunes and honour?, 
began to be tired of eccldlafHcal matters, and grew quite fick of t! e 
cardinalatc, and ihgrefore determined to throw it of}' as foon as pof- 
iible, that he mi^ht have th? greater (cope f:>r practifmg the excelfes, 
to which his natural ambition and cruelty prompted him : for cruel 
as well as ambitious he was in the highed degree. It is incredible 
what numbers he can fed to be taken offby poifon or the fword; and 
it is notorious, that fwarms of aflaflins were con!tant!y kept in pay 
by him at Rome, for the fake of removing all who were either ob- 
noxious or inconvenient to him. Getting rid of the cardinalate, he 
was foon after made duke of Vaientinois by Lewis XII. of France : 
with whom he entered into.a league for the conqueft of the Mila- 
nefe. From this time he experienced various turns of fortune, be- 
ing fometimes very profperous, fometimes much otherwife. He 
very hardly efcaped dying of poifon in the year 1503 : for, having 
concerted with the pope a defign of poifoning nine newly created 
cardinals at once, in order to pofTefs their effects, the poifoned wine, 
deftined for the purpofe, was by miftake brought to and drunk by 
themfelves. The nope died of it ; but Cxfar, by the vigour of his 
youth, and the force of antidotes, after many druggies, recovered. 
He, only recovered to outlive his fortune and grandeur, to fee him- 
felf depreffed, and his enemies exalted ; for he was foon after di- 
verted of all his acquifitions, and fent a prifoner to Spain, in order 
to free Italy from an incendiary, and the Italian princes from thofe 
dangers, which his turbulent and reftlefs fpirit made them fear, even 
though he was unarmed. He efcaped from thence, and got fafe to 
Navarre to king John his brother-in-law, where he met with a very 
friendly reception. From hence he clefigned to go into France ; 
and there, with the a Hilt a nee of Lewis, to try if he could once more 
re-eftablilh his fortune. But Lewis refufed to receive him, not only 
becaufe he and Spain had concluded a truce, but becaufe they were 
alfo at enmity with the king of Navarre. Nay, the French king, in 
order to gratify Spain, had confifcated Caslar's duchy of Vaienti- 
nois, and taken away the yearly penfion which he had from France. 
So that Ctefar, in a poor and abandoned condition, without revenue 
or territory, was forced to be dependent upon hi. e . brother-in-law, who 
was then at war with his fubjels. Ca?far ferved as a volunteer in 
that war; and, while the armies were engaged in battle, and fight- 
ing under the walls of Vienna, was killed by the ftroke of a gianette. 

VOL. II. B b This 


This happened upon the I2th of March 1507. Csefar Borgia took 
thefe words for his 'device, " Aut Carfar aut nihil ;" Caefar or 

BORLACE (Dr. EDMUND), fon of For JohnBcrlace, mafter of 
the ordnance, and one of the lords juftices of Ireland, was born in 
the 1 7th century, and educated at the univeiTity of Dublin. Then he 
travelled to Leyden, where he commenced dodor of phyfic in 1650. 
He was afterw'ards admitted to the fame degree at Oxford. At la ft 
he fettled at Chefter, where he practifed phyiic with great reputation 
and fuccefs ; and where he died in 1682 Among feveral books 
which he wrote and publilhed, are, i. Latham Spaw in Lanca- 
fliire : with fome remarkable cafes and cures effected by it. Lou- 
don, 1670. 8vo Dedicated to Charles earl of Derby. 2. The 
Reduction of Ireland to the crown of England : with the governors 
iince the conqueft by king Henry II. ann. 1172, and fome paffages 
in their government. A brief account ot the rebellion, ann. dom. 
1641. Alfo the original of the univerlity of Dublin, and the col- 
lege of phyficians. Lond. 1675, in a large octavo. 3. The 
Hiftory ot the'execrable Irifh Rebellion. Brief Reflections on the 
earl of CafUehaven's memoirs of his engagement and carriage in the 
war of Ireland, 

BORLASE (WILLIAM), a very ingenious and learned writer, 
was of an ancient family in Cornwall, and born at Pendeen, in the 
parifh of St. Juft, Feb. 2, 1695-6. He was put early to fchool at 
Penzance, and in 1709 removed to Plymouth. March 1712-13, 
he was entered at Exeter college, Oxford ; and, June 1719, took a 
matter of arts degree. In 1720, he was ordained a prieit ; and, in 
1722, inftituted to the rectory of Ludgvan in Cornwall. 'In 1732, 
the lord chancellor King prefented him to the vicarage of St. Juft, 
his native parifh ; and this, with the rectory afore faid, were all the 
preferments he ever had. 

In the parifh of Ludgvan were rich copper works, which abound 
with mineral and metallic foffils ; and thtfe, being a man of an ac- 
tive and inquifitive turn, he collected from time to time, and thence 
was led to itudy at large the natural hiftory of his native county. 
He was ftruck at the (ame time with the numerous monuments of 
remote antiquity, that are to be met with in Cornwall ; and, en- 
larging therefore his plan, he determined to gain as accurate an 
acquaintance as poffible with the Druid learning, and with the re- 
ligion and cuftoms of the ancient Britons, before their converfion to 
Chriftianity. In 1750-, he was admitted a fellow of the Royal 
Society; and, in 1753, publifhed in folio at Oxford his " AntU 
quities of Cornwall." 

His next publication was, " Obfervations on the ancient and 
prtfent State of the Illands ci Scilly, and their Importance to the 


BO RRI (Jofepb Francis). 195 

Trade of Great Britain." O\f. 1756, quarto. In 1758 came out 
his " Natural Hiftory of Cornwall." After thefe publications, he 
fent a variety of to (Ills, and remains of antiquity, which he had de- 
fcribed in his works, to be repofited in the Aihmolean Mufeum; tor 
which, and other benefactions of the fame kind, he received the 
thanks or the univerfity, in a letter from the vice-chancellor, Nov. 
18, 1758 ; and, March 1766, the degree of dodtor of kws. He 
died Auguft 31, 1/72, in his 77111 year. 

Befides his literary connections with many ingenious and learned 
men, he had a particular correfpondence with Mr. Pope; and there 
is (till exifting a large collection of letters written by that poet to Dr. 
Borlafc. He'furnifhed Pope with many of the materials for forming 
his grotto at Twickenham, confiding of curious fofiils; and there 
may at prefent be'feen Dr. Borlufe's name in capitals, compofed of 
cryfhls, in the grotto. 

BORRI (JOSEPH FRANCIS), a famous chemift, quack, and he- 
retic, was a Milanefe, and born in the beginning of the feventeenth 
century. He finifhed his fhidies in the feminary at Rome, where the 
Jefuits admired him as a prodigy for his parts and memory. He 
applied himfelf to chcmiftrv, and made fome difcoveries ; but, 
plunging himfeif into the moft extravagant debaucheries, was 
obliged at laft to take refuge in a church. This was in 1654. A 
little while after, he fet up for a religious man; and, affecting an 
appearance of great zeal, lamented the corruption of manners which 
prevailed at Rome, faying, that the diftemper was come to the 
height, and that the time of recovery drew near ; a happy time, 
xvherein there would be but one fheepfold on the earth, whereof the 
pope was to be the only fhepherd. 

He communicated to his confidants the revelations which he 
boafted to have received; but, after the death of Innocent X. finding 
that the new pope, Alexander XII. renewed the tribunals, and 
caufed more care to be taken of every thing, he defpaired of fuc- 
ceeding here ; and therefore left Rome, and returned to Milan. He 
afted the devotee there, and by that means gained credit with feveral 
people, whom he caufed to perform certain exercifes, which carried 
a wonderful appearance of piety. He engaged the members ot his 
new congregation to take an oath of fecrecy to him ; and when he 
found them confirmed in the belief of his extraordinary miffion, he 
prefcribed to them certain vows, by the fuggeftion of his angel, as 
he pretended. One of thofe vows was that of poverty; for the per- 
formance of which he caufed all the money that every one had to be 
configned to himfelf. The defign of this crafty impoftor was, in 
cafe he could get a fufficicnt number of followers, to appear in the 
great fquare of Milan, there to reprefent the abufes of the eccle- 
iiaftical and fecnlar government, to en-coursge the people to liberty, 
and then, poffeiling himfelf of the city and country of Milan, to 

B b 2 purfue 


.1 ,.,.-. I ! II I I ' "" -- llll.ll.l II [i 

purfue his conquefts as well as he could. But his defign mifcarried, 
by the iinprifonment of fomeof his difciples ; and as loon as he faw 
thrt fiift itep of the inquiiltion, he fled with all imaginable hafte. 
They proceeded againft him for contumacy in 1659 and 1660 ; and 
he was condemned as an heretic, and burnt in effigy, with his 
writings in the field of Flora, at Rome, on the 3d of January, 1661 . 
He is reported to have faid, that " he never was fo cold in his life as 
on the day that he was burnt at Rome ;" a piece of wit, however, 
which has been afcribed to feveral others. He had dictated- a trea- 
tife on his fyflem to his followers ; but took it from them as 
foon as he perceived the motions of the inquifition, and hid all his 
papers in a nunnery. From thence they ieil into the hands of the 
inquifition, and were found to contain dodlrines very abfurd, and 
very impious. 

Borri (bid fome time in the city of Strafburgh, to which he had 
fled; and where he found fome affiftance and fupport, as well be- 
caufe he was perfecuted by the inquifition, as becaufe he was re- 
puted a great chemift. But this was not a theatre large enough for 
Borri; he went therefore to Amfterdam, where he made a great 
noife. Here he appeared in a Itately and fplendid equipage, and 
took upon him the title of Excellency: people flocked to him, as 
to the phyfician who could cure all difeafes; and propofals were 
concerted for marrying him to great fortunes, &c. But the tables 
turned, and his reputation began to fink ; either becaufe his mi- 
racles, as Mr. Bayle fays, no longer found any credit, or becaufe his 
faith could work no more miracles. In fliort, he broke; and fled 
in the night from Amfterdam, with a great many jewels, and fums 
of money, which he had pilfered. He went to Hamburgh, where 
Queen Chriftina was at that time. He put himfelf under her pro- 
tection, and perfuaded her to venture a great deal of money, in or- 
der to find out the philofopher's ftone; which, as the reader will 
-eafily imagine, came to nothing. Afterwards he went to Copen- 
hagen, and infpired his Danifh majefty to fearch for the fame 
fecret ; by which means he acquired that prince's favour fo far, as 
to become very odious to all the great perfons of the kingdom. 
Immediately after the death of the king, whom he had put upon 
great expences in vain, he left Denmark for fear of being impri- 
foned, and refoived to go into Turkey. Being come to the fron- 
tiers at a time when the confpiracy of Nadafti, Serini, and Frangi- 
pani, was difcovered, he was taken for one of the accomplices, and 
iecured; and his name was fent to his Imperial Majefty, to fee if 
he was one of the confpirators. The pope's nuncio had audience of 
the emperor at the fame lime that this information arrived; and as 
foon as he heard Borri mentioned, he demanded, in the pope's name, 
that the prifoncr mould be delivered to him. The emperor con- 
ferred to it, and ordered, that Borri fhonld be fent to Vienna ; and 
afterwards, having firft obtained from the pope a promife that he 



mould not be put to death, he f'ent him to Ro-me ; where he was 
tried, and condemned to perpetual confinement in the prifon of the 
inquifiticn. Pie made abjuration of his errors in the month of Oc- 
tober 1672. Some years after he obtained leave to come out, to at- 
tend the Duke d'Eilree, whom all the phyficians had given over; 
and the unexpected cure he wrought upon him occalioned it to be 
laid, that an arch-heretic had done a great miracle in Rome. It is 
faid alfo, that the Queen of Sweden fent for him fometimes in a 
coach ; but that after the death of that princefs he went no more 
abroad, and that none could fpeak with him without fpecial leave 
from the pope. The Utrecht Gazette, of the Qth of September, 
1695, informed the public that Borri was lately dead in the caftle of 
St. Angdo, being feventy-nine years ot age. 

Some pieces were printed at Geneva in 1681, which are afcribed 
to him: as, I. Letters concerning Chemiftry ; and, 2- Political Re- 
flections. The firft of thefe works is entitled, " La chiavi del ga- 
binetto del cavagliere Giofeppe Francefco Borri Milanefe;" the fe- 
cond " Illruzioni politicke, *lei cavagliere G. F. B. M. date al re di 
Danimarca." We learn from the Life of Borri, that when he was 
at Strafburgh he published a letter which went all over the world. 
Two other of his letters are faid to have been printed at Copenhagen, 
in 1699, and infcribed to Bartholinus ^ one of them, " De ortu 
cerebri, et ufu medico ;" the other, " De artificio oculorum humores 
reftituendi." The " Journal des Savans," of the 2d of September, 
1669, fpeaks fully of thefe two letters. Konig afcribes alfo ano- 
ther piece to him, entitled " Notitia gentis Burrhorum." 

BORRICHIUS, a very learned man, fon of a Lutheran minifter 
in Denmark, was born 1626. He was fent to the univerfity of Co- 
penhagen in 1644, where he remained fix years, during which time 
he applied himfelf chiefly to phyfic. He taught publicly in his col- 
lege, and acquired the character of a man indefatigable in labour, 
and of excellent morals. He gained the efteem of Cafpar Broch- 
man, bilhop of Zealand, and of the chancellor of the kingdom ; by 
the recommendation of whom he obtained the canonry of Lunden. 
He was offered the re&orfhip of the famous fchool of Heflow, but 
refufed it, having formed a defign of travelling and perfecting his 
iludies in phyfic. He began to praclife as a phyfician during a mod 
terrible plague in Denmark, which made great havock in the capital 
city. The contagion being ceafed, he prepared for travelling, as he 
intended ; but was obliged to defer it for fome time, Mr. Gerftorf, 
the firft minifter of ftate, having infifted on his redding in his houfe in 
the quality of tutor to his children. He continued in this capacity 
five, years, and then fet out Mp-.n his travels. Before his departure, 
he had the honour to be appointed profcdbr in poetry, chemiftry, and 
botaoy. He left Copenhagen in K'jvember 1660, and, after having 
viiited feveral eminent phyficians at Hamburg!], went to Holland, 

i where 


where he continued a coniicierable time. He went from thence to 
the Low Countries, to England, and to Paris, where he remained 
two years. He vifitcd alio ftveral other cities of France, and at 
Angers had a doctor's degree in phyfic conferred upon him. He 
afterwards paffed the Alps, and arrived at Rome in O.ctober 1665, 
where he remained till March 1666. He returned to his native 
country in October tne fame year. 1 he advantages which Bor- 
richins reaped in his travels were very confiderable, for he had made 
himfelf acquainted with all the learned men in the different cities 
through which he palled. At his return to Denmark he refumed his 
profelibrfhip, in the difcharge of which he acquired great reputation 
for his affiduity and universal learning; and the books which he 
publifhed are proofs thereof. He was made counfellor in the Ai- 
Jjreme council of juflice in 1686, and counfellor of the royal chan- 
c:rv in i68q. '1 his fame year he had a fevere attack of the ftone, 
2nd the pain every day mcreaiing, he was obliged to be cut for it. 
The operation, however, did not fucceed ; the (tone being fo big 
fhat it could not be extrated. He bore this affliction with great 
conftancy till his death, which happened iri October, 1690.. 

BORROMEO (CHARLES), a celebrated cardinal, was born in 
the year 1538, at the caftle of Arona, in the duchy of Milan. His 
father, who was not only a man of ilhiftrious birth, but of exem- 

i J 

piary piety, gave his ion an education fuitable to the great profpects 
of promotion which his family connections prefented ; and the youth 
cilplayed very early a ftrong attachment to his literary (tudies. He 
did not long wait tor promotion to the highelT: dignities of the church. 
His maternal uncle, Pope Pius IV. invited him to Rome, made him 
archbifhop of Milan, and introduced him to the facred college. 
Cardinal Borromeo was then only twen'y-two years of age; but he 
conducted the affairs of the church with an ability that would have 
done honour to the moft experienced ecclefiailic. 

The Romans, at that time, were remarkable for indolence and 
ignorance. To induce them to afpire to a more honourable cha- 
racter, he inftituted an academy con Sifting both of ecclefiaftics and 
laymen, whom his munificence and example incited to ftudy, and 
animated to virtue. The \oung cardinal, however, in the midft of 
a luxurious and ofientatious court, was carried away by the torrent. 
His palace, his furniture, and his equipage, were fplendid ; his table 
vas lumptiKHjs ; his houfe was the favourite refort of men of rank 
and letters. His uncle, delighted with this magnificence, enabled 
him to iupport it. He was inverted, foon after, with the dignities 
of grand penitentiary of Rome, archprieft of St. Mary Major, pro- 
tector of ieveral crowns, and of many religious and military orders, 
legate of Bologna, Romagna, and the marquifate of Ancona. 

About this period was held the celebrated council of Trent. .The 
reformation of the clergy was then an objed of much dilcuffion. 


BORROMEO (Charles). 199 

The cardinal was not content to fugged that reformation to others ^ 
he adopted it himfelf. He difmilTcd at once eighty of the principal 
officers of his houfehold; he laid afide his robes of filk; and he fub- 
mitted, once a week, to a day of voluntary failing on bread and water, 
But he had a fenfc of duties far more important than mere auflerity 
of life. Piety and virtue were to be inculcated by his inftru&ions, as 
they fo eminently were by his example. He eftablifhed feminaries, 
colleges, and communities: his houfe, moreover, was a feminary of. 
bifhops. He reformed his clergy and the monafteries ; founded 
eftablilhments for the poor and orphans ; for girls expofed to feduc- 
tion, as well as for thofe already ruined, who were defirous to re- 
turn to virtue. His zeal, however, while it was the admiration of 
all good men, was obnoxious to the hypocritical and wicked. The 
order of the Humiiati, whom he wilhed to reform, were particu- 
larly irritated, and excited ^gainft him a deteftable member of their 
fociety, named Farina, who fired a rnufquet at him while he was at 
evening prayer with his fervants. The ball grazed his fkin ; but the 
cardinal, with the magnanimity which the Chriftian religion incul- 
cates, forgave the a [Tallin himfelf, and folicited for his pardon. The 
pope was inflexible; the wretched monk was executed; and the 
order fupprefled. This execrable attempt, with the oppoihion he 
met with in other inftanccs, was tar from ieffeningthe ardour of the 
indefatigable cardinal, who vifited the deferted extremities of his 
diocefe, aboliihed the excelTes of the carnival, preached the gofpel to 
his people, and cqnitantjy (hone in the venerable and endearing cha- 
racters of paftor and of lather. In the dreadful ravages of a pefli- 
lence, he encouraged his priefts to adminifter confolation to the dif- 
eafed and dying; while he himfelf was affiduous in the fame dan- 
gerous offices. He f;>ld all his furniture, that he might adminifter, 
not fpiritual confolation only, but medicine and nutriment, to the 
unhappy fufferers. It he thought that the Deity was to be appeafed 
by proceffions, in which he himfelf a (lifted, with naked feet and a 
halter round his neck, let not the more enlightened proteftant fmile 
at the fuperftition : his piety and humanity were his own ; his fuper- 
ftition that of the age in which he lived. 

This great and good man died in the year 1584., in the 47th year 
of his age, with that fanclity thdt had adorned his life ; having done 
more good to mankind in that Ihort duration of it, than moft of thofe 
whofe years have approached to a_.eentiuy. His literary character is 
the leaft eftimable part of this excellent man ; yet his writings equally 
difplay the fervour of his piety, and the (iacerity of his zeal. They 
confift of five volumes in folio, on theological and moral fubjccis', 
printed at Milan, in 1747. In the library of St. Sepulchre, in that 
city, thirty-one volumes of his letters are flill pteferved in manu- 
fcript, as an ineitimable treafure ; and the clergy of France have 
caufed to be printed at their own expence the inilruftions which he 
drew up for the ufe of confefTers. 

If ever faint deferved canonization, it was Cardinal Charles Bar- 




rpmeo, whom our Englifh poet, of the fame religion, might have 
ifnmortalized with that excellent poet, who, like him, in the per- 
formance of his duty, and the caufe of humanity, in the year 1720, 
braved all the terrors of peftilence and the grave: 

* Why drew Marfeilles' good bifhop purer breath, 
" When Nature ficken'd, and each gale was death?" 

Eflay on Man, Ep. IV. 

And indeed Pope Paul V. did not neglect the memory of this orna- 
ment ot his church, who was canonized by that pontiff in theyear 1610. 

BOS (JoHN BAPTIST DU), a celebrated member of the French 
Academy, was born at Beauvais, in the year 1670; and defcended 
from wealthy and reputable parents, his father, Clauxie clu Bos, being 
a merchant, and a coniiderable magiftrate in that town. John Baptift 
was fent to Paris to finilh his (Indies, and was admitted a bachelor 
of the Sorbonne in 1691. In 169^ he was made one of the com- 
mittee for foreign affairs under Mr. Torcy, and was afterwards 
charged with fome important tranfa&ions in Germany, Italy, Eng- 
land, and Holland. At his return to Paris, he was handfomely pre- 
ferred, made an abbe, and had a conliderable pcnfion fettled on him. 
He was chofen perpetual Secretary of the French Academy ; and in 
this fituation died at Paris, upon the 23d of March, 1742. His prin- 
cipal works are, i. Critical Reflections upon Poetry and Painting. 
2. A critical Hiftory of the Eftablifh merit of the French Monarchy 
among the Gauls. 3. The Interefts of England ill underftood in 
the prefent War. 4. The Hiftory of the four Gordians, con- 
firmed and illultrated by Medals. 5. The Hiftory of the League of 
Cambray, formed in 1708 againft the Republic of Venice. 

BOSCAWEN (EDWARD), a celebrated admiral of the eighteenth 
century, was the fecond furviving fon of Hugh, late Lord Vifcount 
Falmouth ; and having entered early into the navy, was captain ot 
the Shoreham, of twenty guns, in 1740, and diftinguimed himfelf as 
a volunteer under Admiral Vernon, Nov. 21, at the taking and cie- 
ftroying the fortifications of Porto Bcllo. At the fiege of Cartha- 
gena, in March 1740-1, he had the command of a party of feamcn, 
who refolutely attacked and took a fafcine battery of fifteen twenty- 
four pounders, though expofed to the fire of another fort of five gun?, 
which they knew nothing of; and fpiked up all rhofe cannon by 
which General Wentworth complained the enemy had much galled 

Lord Aubrey Beaticlerk being killed, March 24, at the attack of 
Boca-chica, Captain Bofcawen fucceeded him in the command of 
the Prince Frederick, of feventy guns, and on the furrender of that 
cattle, was entrufted with the care of it's demolition. May 14, 
1742, he arrived at St. Helen's, with advice of Admiral Vernon's 


BO5CAWEN Edifffir.l). 201 

failing on a new expedition, which', however, proved abortive. In 
December following he married Frances, daughter of William Ghn- 
ville, Efq. of St. Clere, in Kent, and the fame year was e!efte4- 
member of parliament for Truro, in Cornwall, on the death of 
James Hammond, Elq. In 1744 he was made captain of the 
Dreadnought, of fix, ty guns 5 and on the 29th of April, foon after 
war had bden declared agamft France, he took the Medea, a French 
man of war of twenty-ilx guns, and two hundred and forty men, 
commanded by M. Hoquart, being the firir. king's (hip taken that 
\var. In January 174.4-5 he was one or the court-martial appointed 
to inquire into the conduct of C-iptain Moftyti; and during the re- 
bellion, an invauon being apprehended, he commanded 35 commo* 
dore on board the R.oyal Sovereign, at the Nore. 

In November 174.6, being then captain of the Namur, of fe- 
venty-four guns, he chafed into Admiral Anfon's fleet the Mercury, 
formerly a French fhip of war of 58 guns, but then ferving as art 
hofpital fhip to M- D'Anville's fquadron. On M*/ 3, 174.7, he 
ilgnalized liimfelf under the admirals Anfon and Warren, in an. 
engagement with a French fleet off Cape Finifterre, and was wounded. 
in the Ihoulder with a mufquet-ball. Here M. Hoquart, then 
commanding the Diamant, of 56 guns, again became his prifoner ; 
and all the French {hips of war s being ten in number, were taken. 
The fame year, being eledled for Sa'iafli and Truro, he made his 
election for Truro. July" *5i lie was appointed rear-admiral of the 
blue, and commander in c hkf of the land and fe$ forces employed 
on an expedition to the aft Indies, Nov. 4, he failed from St. 
Helen's with fix fhips of the line, five frigates, and 2000 foldier^; 
and though trie wind foon proved contrary, the adinl.-al was fo 
Anxious of clearing the Channel, that he rather chofe to turn to rhe 
ivindward, than put back. After refrefh ing his men fome weeks at 
the Cape of Good Hope, where he arrived March 29, 1748, he mads 
the iiland of Ivlaiii-iniis, belonging to the French, in lat. 20. S. ia 
June 23. Bur, on reconnoitering the landing-place, and finding it 
impracticable, without great lols, it was determined, by a council of 
\var, to proceed on the voyage, that net being the principal defign of 
the expedition. July 29 he arrived at Fort Si. David's, where th 
fiege of Pondicherry being immediately refolved o.n, the admiral 
took the command of the urmy, and .marched with them Auguft 8, 
and on the 2jth opened th_ trenches before the town; but tne. tnen 

trowing fickly, the munfoons being espedecl, the chief engineer 
il.iecl, and the enemy being Wronger in garrifon than the befiegers, 
the fiege. was raifed Qitober 6, nnd in two days the army reache4 
Fort St. David's, Mr. Bofcawen mewing himfelf in the retreat as 
much the general as the admiral. Soon alter he had news of the 
peace, and had Madras delivered up to him by the French. April 
1749, he loi'i in a violent ftorm his own Ihip, the Namur, and t'wy 
; bnt hghimfelf prcvuJsr.tialH' was on fliore. TH April* 

'll, Cc "feg 


I'u arrived at St. Helen's in the Exeter, having in his abfence been 
appointed rear-admiral of the white. In June 1751 he was ap- 
pointed one cf tiie l'>rcls commiffioners of the admiralty, and in 
July was choftn an elder brother of the Trinity Houfe. In May, 
I y5_j., he was chofen a third time for Truro. Feb. 4, 1/55. he was 
appointed vice-admiral of the blue; and on April 19 he failed from, 
Spithead with a flrong fleet, in order to intercept the French fqua- 
dron bound to North America. June 10, off Newfoundland, he 
fell in with the Alcide and Lys, of 64 guns each, which were both 
Kiken by the Dunkiik and Defiance, being the firft action this war. 
On this occafion, M. Hoquart became a third time his prifoner. 
November j^ he arrived at Spithead with his prize?, and 1500 pri- 
Toncrs. In 1756 he commanded the fqtiadron in the Bay, and in 
December was appointed vice-admiral of t!^e white. In f"57 he 
a^ain commanded in the Bay; and in 1758 was appointed admiral ot 
the blue, and commander in chief ot the expedition to Cape Breton. 
Feb. 15 he failed from tit. Helen's, and, in conjunction with Ge- 
neral Amherft, took the important fortrefs of Louifbourg, x. alter 
a vigorous fiege, July 27. November i, the admiral arrived at St. 
Helen's with four (hips, having fallen in, ofFSciliy, with fix French 
Ihips from Quebec, which efcaped him in the night ; but in the 
chace one of them, the Belliqueux, of 64 guns, having carried away 
her fore- top-mall, was iorced up Briftol Channel, where Ihe was 
taken by the Antelope. December 12, on his coming to the Houfe 
oi Commons, the thanks oi that auguft alFembly, the greateU ho- 
nour that can be done to any fubjet, were given him in his place 
by the fpeaker. 

In 1759, beinEj appointed .to command in the Mediterranean, he 
failed from St. Flelen's April 14. ' The Toulon fleet, under M. de 
I* Clue, having palled the Streights, with an intent to join that at 
Brett, the Admiral, then at Gibraltar, being informed of it by his 
frigates, immediately got under fail, and on Auguft 18 faw, purfued, 
and engaged the enemy. Flis fnip, the Namur, of 90 guns, having 
loft her main-mail, he inflantly fhifttd his nag to the Newark, and 
after a fharp engagement took three large Ihips, and burnt two, in 
Lagos Bay. September 15, he arrived at Spithead with his prizes, 
and 2000 prifuuers. 

On December 8, 1760, he was appointed general of the marines, 
with a falary of 3000!. per ann. and was alfo fworn of his majefty's 
moft honourable pfivy council. 

In 1760 he commanded in the Bay, till relieved by Sir Edward 
Hawke, Auguft 26; and January I o, 1761, died at his feat at Hatch- 
kud Park, near Guildford, of a bilious fever. 

BOSS17 (RENE LE). was born at Paris March the i6th, 1631. 

e began his f todies at Nanterre, where he difcovered an early tafte 

polit* -literature, and foon made iurprizing progrefs in all the 

$ yaluabls 

BO.SSUET (James). 203 

valuable parts of learning. In 164,9 n -' 1'* Nanterre, was admittc-d 
a canon regular in the abbey ot St. Genevieye, and, after a year's 
probation, took the habit in this abbey. Here he applied to philo- 
fophy and divinity, in \vhich lie made great proficiency, and took 
upon him prielts orders in 1657 ; but, either from inclination, or in 
obedience to his fuperiors, he re fumed the belles h-ttres, and taught 
polite literature in feveral religious houfes. Alter twelve years, 
being tired of the fatigue of fuch an entployment, he gave it up, 
with a refokition to lead a qiiiet and retired life. Here he published 
his " Parallel, or Comparifun betwixt the Principles of Ariftotlc's 
Natural Philosophy, and thole of Defca'rtes." His intention in this 
piece was not to Ihevv the oppofitian betwixt thepjtvvo philofophers, 
but rather to make them agree, and to prove that they do not tjiffer 
fo much as is generally thought; yet this produdlLm of his \vas but 
indifferently received, either becatife thefe two philofophers differ 
too widely to be reconciled, or becaufe BolTu ha.i not made himfeit 
fafficiently acquainted with their opinions. The next treatife he 
ptibhlhed was that on epic poetry, \\hlch gained him great repu- 
tation: Boileau (ays ir is one of the bell compofitions on this^fubjedt 
that ever appeared in the French language. BofTu having met \,iiu 
apiece written by St. Solin againi't tin's gentleman, he wrote a con- 
futation of it, for which favour Boileau was extremely grateful ; and 
it produced an intimate fiiendfliip betwixt them, which continued 
till our author's death, in March 1680. 

BOSSUET QAMES), bifiiop of Meaux, was born at Dijon, the 
5jth of September, 1627. liz received the, firft. rudiments of his 
-education there, and in 1642 was lent to Paris, to finifh his (Indies 
at the college of Navarre. In 1652 he received the degree of doc- 
tor of divinity, and foon after went to Metz, where he was made a 
canon. Whilft he refided here, he applied himfeli chierly to the 
fludy of the Holy Scripture, and the readhj^ of the fathers, efpe- 
cially Sr. Auguftin. In a little time he becajiie a celebrated preacher, 
and was invited to Paris, where tie had for his hearers many of the 
inoft learned men of his time, and fcve^ral per Ions of the full rank at 
court. In -1669 he was created bifhop of Condom, and the fame 
month was appointed preceptor to the dauphin ; upon which occa- 
ilon, and the applaufe he gained in the difcharge of it. Pope Inno- 
cent XL congratulated him in a very polite letter. When he had 
almoil finiihed the education of this prince, he addrefledio him his 
" Difcours fur 1'Hiftoire Univerfelie, "which was pubiifhef in iof-1. 
About a year after he was made preceptor he gave up his bifhoprc, 
becaufe he could not refide in his diocefe, on account of his cng^ e- 
ment at court. In 1680 the king appointed him firft almoner to the 
clauphinefs, and the year after gave. him the bifhopric of Meaux. 
Jn 1697 he was made counfellor of ftate, and the year following 
ril almoner to the duchcfs of Burgundy t Nor did the learned 

C c 2 world 


. ,j iii i - j 

-i,- *.. ij . - * *- =- f f*. -'--<' ^ "'. "tgr-> 1*An*J- J !***'- f'ft**TV**?>- 

world hcnour him Ic-fs than the court; for he had been admitted a 
member of the French Academy; and in 1695, at the defire of the 
Iv^val Co' leg" of Navarre, of which he was. a member, the king 
constituted hiitl their funerior. 

The writing^ of Bjffuet had gained him no lefs fame than his 
fcrmons. From the yeafr 1655 he had entered the lift againft the 
profeftants; the moil famous piece he wrote againft them was his 
" Refutation du Catechifme de Paul Ferri." I' 1 l &l l he wrote 
another, entitled " L'Expofition de la Doctrine de 1'Eglife Catho- 
lique fur les Matieres de Ccmroverfe." This had the approbation 
o* the bi(hops 6*f France^ as well as of the prelates and cardinals of 
Rome. Innocent XI,wrote him two letters on the fubjedt, and the 
work was tranflated into moft of the European languages: M. 
1'Abbe Montaign was the author of the Englilh tranfiation. He 
brought back fcveral to the Ronnifh church who had embraced the 
Protefhm religion ; and it was f,r the bent fit of fuch, that in 1682 
lie publifhed his " Traite de la Communion Tons les deux Efpeces," 
and his " Lettre paftorale anx Nouveaux CuholiqUe?." In 1686 he 
publifhed his " Hiitoire des Eglifes Proteflantes i" for which, as 
well as fevcral other of his writirg?, he was attacked by MefTrs. 
Jurieu, Bnrnet, Brifnage/and feveral other Proteihnt ininifters. He' 
always dittingiiilhed himfelf as a zealous advocate for the Catholic 
religion ; and fo great was his defire to bring about a re-union of the 
PiOteftarits with the church of Rome, that tor tliis purpofe he volun- 
larily oifcred to travel into foreigu countries. He formed feveral 
fcliemc.-. for i'lis piu'p.ji'ej which were approved of by the church of 
Rome, and mi-':.; ;-rha;js have had ibme fuccefs, had not the fuc- 
cet:dmg wars prevented his putting them -M execution. 

There are extant cf his feveral very celebrated funeral orations., 
particularly thole on the queen-mother of France in 1667, en the 
queen of England 1669, on the dauphin* fs 1670, on the queen of 
France 1683, on the prncefs palatine 1605, on chancellor Le Te!- 
li^r 1686, on the prince de Conde Lewis de Bourbon 1687. Nor, 
amidft all the great affairs in which he was employed, did he neg!ecl 
the duty of his diocefe. The" Statuts Synodaux," which he pub- 
liihed in 1691, and feveral ether of his pieces, fhew how attentive 
he was to maintain regularity or" discipline ; and this he did with fo 
much affability and diicretion, as rer.dered him univerfally loved and 
tefpet&ed. Afrer having fpent a life in the fervice of the church, he 
died at Paris, April 12, 1704. 

BOTT fTnoM/isj, an English clergyman of ingenuity and learn- 
ing, was ddcended from an ancient family in Sraftordthire, and born 
at Derby, where his father was a mercer, in t688. His grandfa* 
ther had been a major on the parliament fide in the civil wars : his 
father had diminifhed a considerable paternal ettate by gaming ; but 
his mother, being a notable woman, contrived to give a good edu- 



cation to fix children. Thomas, the youngeft, acquired his grain- 

matical learning at Derby, had his education among the DirTenters, 

and was appointed to preach to a Prefbyterian congregation at Spal- 

uing in Lincolnfhire. Not liking this mode of life, he removed to 

London at the end of Queen Anne's reign, with a view of preparing 

himfelf for phyfic ; but, changing his meafures again, he took orders 

in the church of England, foon after the acccffion of George I. and 

was prefented to the rectory of Winburg in Norfolk. About 1725 

he was prefented to the benefice of Reymerfton, in 1734. to the redlory 

of Spixworth, and in 1747 to the rectory of Edgefield, all in Norfolk. 

About 1750 his mental powers began to decline, and at Chriftm-as 

1752 heceafed to appear in the pulpit. He read henceforward only 

for amufetnent, and the lafl book perufed by him was " The Ba- 

chelor of Salamanca." He died at Norwich, September 23, 1754. 

His publications were, I. The Peace and Happinefs of this World 

the immediate Defign of Chriftianity, on Luke ix. 56. 2. A fecond 

Tradl in Defence of this. 3. The principal and peculiar Notion 

of a late Book, entitled, The Religion of Nature delineated, confi- 

dered and refuted. 4. A Vilitation Sermon, preached at Norwich. 

5. A ^oth of January Sermon, preached at Norwich. 6. Remarks 

upon Butler's 6th Chapter of the'Analogy of Religion, <5cc. 7. Anfwer 

to the full Volume of Warburton's Divine Legation of Mofes. 

BOUCHARDON (EDMUND], a French fculptor, was the fon of 
a fculptor and architect, and born at Chaumont in Baffigni, 1698. 
He was drawn by an irrefiftible paffion for thefe two arts, but con- 
fined himfelf at length to the former. After having palled fome 
time at Paris, under the younger Couflou, and carried the prize at 
the academy in 1722, he was lent to Rome at the king's expence. 
Upon his return from Italy, where'his talents had been greatly per- 
feded, he adorned Paris with his works: a lift of them may be feen 
in a life of him, published in I 762, I 2mo, by the Count de Caylus. 
In 1744 he obtained a place in the academy, and two years after a 
profellbrfhip. He died in 1762, a lofs to arts, and much lamented ; 
for he is defcribed as a man of a fine, exalted, difinterefted fpirit, 
and of moft amiable manners. Mufic was his object in the hours of 
recreation, and his talents in this way were very confiderable. 

3OUCHER (JOHN), one ofthofe preachers of the gofpel, who, 
to their fhame, have difgraced it, by applying it the purpofes of fac- 
tion, and to inflame men to war, inftead of perfuading them to peace,. 
He was a doctor of the Sorbonne, and curate of St. Bennet, at 
Paris ; and in the time of the league was a moft feditious and furious 
agent among the rebel-. Their firft alFembly was held in his apart- 
ment, in the college of Fortet, in the year 1585. It was he who, 
by ordering the alarm-bell to be rung in the church on the 2d of 
September, 1587, contributed more than any body elfe to a commo- 



. - i -_t__ > 

tion of the people, the confluences of which were fo ignominious to 
Henry III. The fuccefs of that day made him pnore'infolent ; and 
the nexr he preached violently againft the perfon of the king, and 
a^ainft his counlellors. He did more than preach, he wrote ; and 
published, among other things, a difcxjurfe on the juftice of depofing 
Henry III. ' 

Aft^r the death of that prince he was ftill more impudent, becaufe 
he could then fcreeft himielf under a pretence that the fucceiibr was 
actually sn:l notoriously a Huguenot. The pretence failed him, to 
his great grief no doubt, when Henry IV. profeflcd himfelf a Roman 
Catholic: neverthelefs, that he might not want an object for his fac- 
tious and mutinous, he perfifted in his opinion ; and published 
nine ferm-ons to prove, that the abjuration of the Bearnois, fo he in- 
fo l enly called Henry, from his being bom in Btarn, was but a feint, 
and that his ablblution was void. His fermons and libels were 
burnt, when the Parifians fubmitted to Henry; but he continued in 
the party of thi: Leaguers, and retired into the Netherlands with thft 
Spanilh gaf rifon, \\lvchad been at Paris during the League. They 
marched rut upon the 22d of March, 1594-. Boucher obtained a 
canunry at Tournay, and died dean of. the chapter of that city fifty 
rears after; * but very much altered in his humour," fays Mezeray, 
' being as zealous a Frenchman a;u<.;ng foreigners, as he had been a 
furious Spaniard in France/' 1 his was but natural and confident; 
for provided there \vas any thing to exercife a rtfllefs and turbulent 
fpint, xv hat f.gnined it to Boucher what it was? 

EOUHOURS { DOM i NICK), a celebrated French critic, was born 
at Paris, 1628 ; and has by fome been confidered as a proper perfon to 
fucceecl, who died about that time. He was entered into 
the tocitty ot Jefuits at fixteen, and appointed to read lectures upon 
polite literature in the college o-f Clermont, at Paris, where he had 
itt;d;cd ; but he was fo inceilantly attacked with the head-ach, that 
he could not purfue the deflined talk. He afterwards undertook the 
education of two fons of the duke of Longueville, which he dif- 
chaigcd v.-it'i. great applaufe. The duke had fucli a regard for him, 
that he would needs die in his arms ; and the " Account of the pious 
and Chriftian Death" ot this great perfonage, was the firil work 
which )3ouhours gave the public. He was lent to Dunkirk to the 
popj(h refugees-from England ; and, in the'nmift of his mifTionary 
occupations, found time to compofe and publifli books. Among 
thefc were " Entretiens d'Arifte et d'Eugene," or, " Dialogues be- 
tween Ariftus and Eugenius ;,"a work of a critical nature, and con- 
cerning the French language. His book was printed no lefs than 
five times at Paris, twice at Grenoble, at Lyons, at Bruffels, at Am- 
iterdam, at Leyden, &c. and embroiled him with a great number of 
ceiifors, \vith Menage in particular, who, however, lived in friend- 
Chip \vkh our author before, and after. There is a pailage in this 


BOULAI (Ctffar Egaffc du). 207 

^ ' L|,, i,,, , m , | IJMlm --. m --. ....... - -?-=-5r^3t 1 '-aUJllJU'llLJMi 

work, which gave great offence in Germany ; and that is, where he 
makes it a queition, whether " a fermon could be a bel efprit?" The 
fame of ic, however, arH the pleafnre he took in reading it, recom- 
mended Bouhours fo effjclually to tlie celebrated miniiter Colbert, 
that he trufted him with the euucdtion of his fon, the marquis of 
Segnelai. He wrote afterwards feveral other works in French; the 
chief of which are, i. Remarks and Doubts upon the French Lan- 
guage. 1. Dialogues upon the Art ot thinking well in Works of 
Genius. 3. The^Life of St. Ignatius. 4. The Life or St. Francis 
Xavier, Apoflle of the Indies and Japan. This lad work was 
tranflated into Englifh by Mr. Dryden, and publiihed in London, ia 
1688, with a dedication prefixed to K ; ng James the Second's 
Qneen. To the above may be added, " Ingenious Thoughts oi the 
Ancients and Moderns ; Ingenious Thoughts of the Fathers ot th* 
Church ; Tranflations of many Books of Devotions ; and, at laSt, of 
the New Tettament itfelf." 

He died at Paris, in the college of Clermont, upon the 1-jth of 
May, 1702 ; after a life fpent, fays Moreri, under fuch conftantand 
violent fits of the head-ache, that he had but few intervals of perfect 

BOULAI (C.^SAR EGASSE DU), regifter and hi Monographer of 
the univerlity of Paris, was born in the village of St. Ellier, in the 
Lower Maine; and afterwards became profeffor of rhetoric in the 
college of Navarre. He publifhed a treatife of rhetoric, entitled, 
" Speculum Eloquentias," which was valued. His " Thefaurus 
Antiquitatum Rnmanarum" came out in folio, at Paris, 1650. Se- 
veral law cafes of his compofing have been publifhed, relating to the 
differences which arofe concerning the election of the officers ot ths 
univerfity, and fuch like matter?. ^Thefe works fhew his zeal for 
letters, and the great knowledge he had of the ufages and cuttoms of 
that univerfity. But the work for which he ought chiefly to be re- 
membered is, " The Hiftory of the Univerfity of Paris," which he 
publifhed in lix volumes folio. The firft part of it appeared in 1665, 
but it feems was dilapprov^d : for we find " A Cenfure ot theThco- 
lojical Faculty at Paris," publiihed upon it in 1667, which was an- 
fwered by Du Boulai the fame year. The imprefiion of it wss 
(lopped for fomstime ; but thecommiffioners appointed to examine 
what \va-s already prinf-d, and the author's defign, reported, that 
nothing could reafonably hinder the impreflion from being conti- 
nued. Du Boulai died upon the i6th of October, 1678. 

* - L - ., 

BOULAINVILLIERS (H^TT^E), lord of St. Saife, and an 
eminent French writer, was defcended from a very ancient and no- 
ble family, and bcrn at St. Saife in 1658. His education was 
among the fathers of the oratory ; where he difcovered from his 
infancy thfife uncommon abilities for which he was afterwards dif-r 


tinguifhed. He applied hitnfelf principally to the moft ufeful of 
all Undies, the fludy of hiltory ; and his performances in this way 
are numerous and confiderable. He was the author of " A hiftory 
ot" the Arabians ;" " Fourteen letters upon the ancient parliaments 
of France ;" ' A hiftory of France to the reign of Charles VIII. ;" 
" The ftate of France, with hiftorical memoirs concerning the an- 
cient government of that monarchy to the time of Hugh Capet." 
He died at Paris in 1722, and after his death was publifhed his 
" Life of Mahomet," which has made him pafs for no very good 
believer. He is fuppofed to have meant ill to Revelation in this 
work, which is looked upon rather as an apology for Mahomet, 
than a life of him ; and from this motive he is thought to have de- 
fended that impoito;- farther, and to have placed him in a more ad- 
vantageous light, than any hiftorical teftimonies can juftify. It is 
very certain, that both Mahomet and his religion have been fbame- 
fully abufed and mifreprefented by the greater part of thofe who 
have written about them; and it is well known, that the learned 
Adrianus Relandus, who never was fufpected of ar?y diiaffedtion to 
Chriftianity, wrote his book tl DC religione Mohammedica," to 
vindicate them from fuch injurious mifreprefentations. Why might 
not the fame love of truth, and defire to render unto every man hjs~ 
due, move our author to undertake the fame talk ? It is 'to be 
obferved, that this life of Mahomet is not entirely finifhed by Bou- 
lainvilliers ; who, as we learn from an advertifement prefixed to the 
Amfterdam edition of 1730, Svo, died while he was employing 
hirnfelf upon the laft years of it. 

Frenchman, was born at Paris in 1722, and died* there in {759, 
aged only 37. He is faid to have come out of the college of 
Beauvais almoft as ignorant as he entered into it ; but, ftruggling 
hard again ft his unaptnefs to learn, heat length overcame it. At 
fevenreen, he began to ft tidy mathematics and architeclure ; and, 
in three or four years made fuch a progrefs, as to be ufeful to the 
Baron ofThiers, whom he accompanied to the army, in quality of 
engineer. Afterwards he had the fupervifion of the highways and 
bridges ; and he executed fevcral public works in Champagne, 
Burgundy, and Lorrain, The author from whom we extract this 
account of him writes, that in this province a terrible fpirit difco- 
vered itfelf in him, which he himfelf did not fufpecT: before; and 
this was, it feems, the fpirit of " thinking philofophically." In 
cutting through mountains, directing and changing the courfes of 
rivers, and in breaking up and turning over the ftrata of the earth, 
he faw a multitude of different fubftances, which (he thought) evin-, 
cedth,e great antiquity of it, and a long feries of revolutions which 
it muft hay.- u, Jcrgcne. From the revolutions in the .'globe, he 
d to t' Changes that muft have happened in the manners of 


BOULTER (Hu.ob). 209 

r^ r "__ ' ""_ ___ " / 

men, in iocietirs, in governments, in religion; an i lie termed many 
conjedures upon all thefe. To be farther fatishVt, tie wanted i j 
know what, in. the hiilory of age?, had b?en laid upon thefe par- 
ticulars ; ami, that he might be informed from the fountain-head, 
lie learned nrfr. Latin, and then Greek. Not yet content, he plunged 
into Hebrew, Syriac, Chaldaic, and Arabic; and acquired, lays our 
author, fo immenle an erudition, that, ifhe^had lived, he would 
have been one of the moft learned men in Europe. 

His works are, I. " Traite du.Defpotifme Oriental," in two vols. 
I2mo. ; a very bold work, but not fo bold and licentious a*-', 2. 
ft L'Antiquite devoilee," in three vols. I2mo. This was pofthu- 
mous. There is, 3. another work, entitled, ' Le Chriitianifme 
demafqijeV'' in 8vo. But it is not certain that he was the author of 
this. 4. He hirmfhed to the " Encyclopedic ' the articles " De- 
luge, Corvee, and Societe." 5. He left behind him in MS. a 
Dictionary, which may be regarded as a concordance in ancient and 

modern languages. 

BOULTER (HUGH), D. D. born in or near London, of repu- 
table and wealthy parents, was educated at Merchant Taylors fchool ; 
and, before the Revolution, was thence admitied a commoner oi 
Chrift Church in OxJord. Some time after he was chofen a demy 
of Magdalen College, at the Tame election with Addifon and Dr. 
Wilcox. From the merit and learning of the perfons elected, this 
was commonly called by Dr. Hough, prefident of the college, " the 
Golden Election." He afterwards became fellow of the fame col- 
lege, in which ftation he continued in. the tiniverfity till he was in- 
vited to London by Sir Charles Hedges, principal fecretary of (late, 
in 1700, who made him his chaplain, and recommended him to 
Tenifon, archbifhop of Canterbury ; but his firft preferments were 
owing to the Earl of Sunder land, by whofe interell and influence 
he was promoted to the parfonage of St. Olave in Southwark, and 
the archdeaconry of Surry. Here he continued very 
faithfully and diligently every part of his paftoral office, till he was 
recommended to attend George I. as his chaplain, when he went to 
Hanover in 1719. He had the honour to teach prince Frederick 
the Englifh language ; and by his conduft he fo won the king's 
favour, that he promoted him to the deanery of Chrill Church, and 
ihe bjfhopric of Briftol in the fame year. 

As he was vifiting his diocefe five years afterwards, he received a 
letter from the fecretary of flate, acquainting him, th^t his majefty 
had nominated him to the bifhopric of Armagh, and primacy of 
Ireland. This honour he would gladly have declined, and delired 
the fecretary to ufe his good offices with his majefty to excufe him 
from accepting it. Ireland happened to be at this juncture in a 
great flame, occafioned by Wood's ruinous project ; and the mi- 
niftry thought the bifhop would greatly contribute to quench it by 

VOL. II, Dd his 


his judgment, moderation, and addrefs. The king therefore laid 
hisabfolute commands upon him, to which he f'ibmitted but with, 
fome reluctance. A> foon as he had taken poffeffion of the prima- 
cy, he began to confider that country, in which his lot was caft tor 
life, as his own ; and to promote it's true intereft with the greateft 
zeal and afliduity. He often faid, " he would do all the good to Ire- 
land he could, tho' they did not fufFer him to do all he would." The 
fcarcity of filver coin in Ireland was excelfively greaf, occafioned 
bv reducing the value of gold co : n in England, and the baliance of 
trade, which lay agair.ft them. To remedy this inconvenience, the 
primate fupported a fcheme at the council table, to bring gold and 
filver nearer to a par in value, by lowering that of the former, which 
was carried into execution. The populace, encouraged by fome 
dealers in exchange, who were the only lofers by the alteration, 
grew clamorous, and laid the ruin of their country (as they called 
it) at the primate's door. But, confcious of his own integrity, he 
defpifcd the foolifh noife : experience evinced the utility of the pro- 
ject ; the people in a fhort time recovered their fenfes ; and he ibon 
rofeto the greateft height of popularity. 

In June 1742, he made a vifit to his native country, died in Lon- 
don tbe September following, and was buried in Weftminfter abbey. 
His deportment was grave, his afpecl venerable, his temper meek 
and humble, and hardly to be ruffled by the moil trying provoca- 
tions. He \yas an undiflernbled patron of liberty, both civil and 
religious ; his benevolence and charity were fuch as will be the ad- 
miratir n and blefling of the prefer.t times, and of poilerity. His 
learning was univerfal, yet he left no remains of it to the public, 
except fome occafional fermons, and charges to his clergy. 

In 1729, thereVasa great fcarcity ; the poor were reduced to a 
miferable condition, and the nation was threatened with famine and 
peftilence. The primate diftributed vatt quantities of grain through 
levcral parts of the kingdom ; directed ail the vagrant poor that 
crowded the ureets cf Dublin, to be received into the poor-houle, 
and there maintained them at his private expence, until the follow- 
ing harveft brought relief. In the latter end of 1740, and the be- 
ginning of 1741, Ireland was again afflicted with a great fcarcity ; 
and the prelate's charity was again extended, though with more re- 
gularity than before. The poor were ied in the work-houfe twice 
every day, according to tickets given out by pcrfons entrufted, the 
number of which amounted to 732,3,14 : arid it appeared that 2500 
fouls were ted there every morning and evening, moftly at tHe pri- 
mate's expence. 

When the fcheme for opening a navigation by a canal from 
Lough -Neagh to Newry was propofed in parliament in 1729, the 
primage patronized it with all his intereft ; and when the bill was 
paffed, and the work fet about, he was very inftrumental in carrying 
it wn with effzQ. One part of the defign was to bring coals from 


BOURCHIER (Archtijbop of Canterbury). ill 

thence to Dublin, and the coal mines were in the fee-lands ot Ar- 
magh, which were then leafed out to a tenant. The primate, 
fearing the lelfee might be exorbitant in his demands, purc* - af:d the 
leafe at a great expence, in order to accommodate the public. He 
alfo gave timber out of his woods to carry on the work ; and of- 
ten advanced his own money, without interelt, for the fame purpofe. 
He gave and fettled a competent flipend on an aflnlant curate at 
Drogheda, a large and populous town in his diocefe; where the 
cure was too burthenfome tor one clergyman, and the revenues of 
the church were not fufficient to maintain two. He maintained 
feveral fons of his poor clergy at the univerfity. He eredled and 
endowed hofpitals, both at Drogheda and Armagh, for the reception 
of clergymen's widows ; and fettled a fund for putting out their 
children apprentices. He built a ftately market-houfe at Armagh, 
at the expence of above 8ool. He fubfcribed 50!. per ann. to Dr 
Stevens's hofpital in Dublin, for the maintenance and cure of the 
poor ; and fnrnilhed one of the wards for the reception of patients at 
a confiderable expence. His charities, for augmenting (mall liv- 
ings, and buying of glebes, amounted to upwards of 30,000!. bc- 
ftdes what he devife.l by his will for the like purpofes in England. 
He was the main inftrurnent of obtaining a royal charter for the 
" incorporated fociety for promoting Englifh Proteftant fchools in 
Ireland," of which he was vice-prefident and treafurer. He paid all 
the fees for palling the charter, out of his own puiTe; fubfcribed 23!. 
per ann. and afterwards paid upwards of 400!. towards the building 
of a working fchool on the lands of Santry, near Dublin. Befides 
this, the fociety were often obliged to him for their necefTary fupport, 
who, to his annual and occafional benefactions, frequently added 
that of being their conftant relource in all emergencies. 

archbifliop of Canterburv in the fuccefiive reigns of Henry VI. iid- 
ward IV, Edward V. Richard III. and Henry Vii. was fun of 
William Bourchier Earl of Ewe in Normandy, and the Countefs of 
Stafford, and brother of H^nry Earl of Elfex H had his education 
at Oxford, and was chancellor of that unwerfity three year?, viz. 
from 143410 1437- ^' s nr ^- dignity m the church was tnat o' rL-an 
of St. Martin's in Loa ion ; from w'tiicn, on the ninth of March 

1434, he was advanced, by Pope E'.igenius IV. to the fee of Wor- 
celter : but his confecration was Htf.rre'l t< he twentieth or April 

1435, by reafon (as is fuppofed) of a defect in age. He had not 
fat a full year before he wa< elected by the monks of Kly bilhop of 
that fee, and confirmed therein by the pope ; but the king, refilling 
his confent, Bouchier did not dare to comply with the election, for 
fear of incurring the cenfure of the laws, which forba'J, tinder very 
fevere penalties, the receiving the pope's bull without the kin^is 
leave. NevertbeleCs, ieven or ci^ht y^ars alter, tiie fee of E'y .till 

D d 2 continuing 


continuing vacant, and the king contenting, he was tranflated thi- 
ther, the twentieth of December 1443. The author of the Hifloria 
Elienfis fpeaks very difadvantageoufly of him during his refidence on 
that fee, which was ten years twenty-three weeks and five days. At 
hft he mounted to the pinnacle of church preferment, being elected 
archbifhop of Canterbury, in the room of John Kemp, the 23d of 
April 1454 This election was the more remarkable, in that the 
monks were left entirely to their liberty of choice, without any inter- 
pofition either from the crown or the papal chair. On the contrary, 
Pope Nicolas Vth's concurrence being readily obtained, the arch- 
bifhop \vas inftalkd with great folemnity. In the month of De- 
cember following, he received the red hat .from Rome, being created 
cardinal- prieft of St. Cyriacus in Thermis. The next year, he was 
made Loui High Chancellor of England, but refigned that office in 
October the year following. Soon after his advancement to the fee 
of Canterbury, he began a vifitation in Kent, and made feveral re 
gulations for the government of his dioccfe. He likewife publifhed 
a conftitution for retraining the txceffive abufe ot papal provifions. 
This archbiihop deferved highly of the learned world, for being the 
principal instrument in introducing the noble art of printing into 
England. He was ftrangely irnpofed upon by the fpecious pretences 
of Richard Duke of Gloucefter, v/hen he undertook to perfuade 
the queen to deliver up the Duke of York, her Ion, into the pro- 
tector's hands. He prefulccl over the church thirty-two years, "in 
the rnoit troublefome times of the Englilh government. This great 
prelate performed the marriage ceremony between Henry VII. and 
the daughter of Edward IV. And he had the happinefs to be con- 
temporary with many prelates of the mod diilinguifhed birth in the 
Engliih hiftory. He was certainly a man of good learning ; though 
nothing written by him has come down to us, if we except a few 
fy nodical decrees. Dart tells us, he founded a chantry, which was 
after \ arils furrendered to King Henry VIII. Archbifhop Bour- 
chier died at his palace of Knovvle, on Thurfday the thirtieth of 
March 1486. 

EOURDALOUE (Louis), jultiv efteemed the beft preacher 
France ever produced, was born in Bonrges, in Auguft 1632, and 
entered ir.t.i ;he fociety of the Jefuits in Nov. 1648. After having 
taught r'iKUjrii:, philofophy, and divinity, the uncommon talents 
which he dlf-r.\'.-red for the pulpit determined the fociety to fet him 
iiyirt lor that Service. The high reputation he quickly acquired, 
as a preacht-r, in the country, induced his fuperiors to fend for him 
to Paris in }6--g. He preached during the courfe of that year in 
tht-ir churc:; o' St. Louis, where he Ihone with more luftre than 
ev-r. In Advent 1670, he berjan to appear at court, where his 
difcmirles were oftei; iiftened to afterwards with the higheft fatis- 
aition. Upon the revocation of the edict of Nantz, the king very 



prudently made choice of him to preach the Catholic doctrine to the 
new converts in Languedoc. The latter part of his life he conle- 
crated to the fervice of the hofpitals, the poor and the prifoners, 
and, by his pathetic difcourfes and engaging manner, -procured for 
them very bountiful alms. He died'' in May 1704. 

BOURDELOT (]OHN}, was a learned French critic, who has 
didinguiihed himielf in the republic of letters, by writing notes upon 
Lucian, Petronius, and Heiiudorus. He lived at the end of the 
fixteenth, arid in the beginning of the feventeenth century; was of 
a good family of Sens, and educated with great care. He ap- 
plied himfelf to the-ftudy of the belles lettres and of the learned lan- 
guages ; and he palled for a great connoiiieur in the oriental 
tongues, and in the knowledge of manufcripts. Thefe purfuits 
did not hinder him from being confummate in the law. He ex- 
ercifed the office of advocate to the parliament of Paris in 1627, 
when Mary of Medicis, hearing of his uncommon merit, made him 
mailer of the requefts. He died fuddenly at Paris in 1638. His 
notes and emendations upon Lucian were publifhed at Paris, with 
that author, in folio, 1615; Heliodorus, with his notes, in 1619, 
8vo. ; and his notes on Petronius were printed with that author at 
Amfterdam in 1663, I2rno. Fabricius calls his notes on Lucian 
fhort and learned, and fpeaks of Bourdelot, as then a young man. 
Befides thefe, he wrote, as Moreri tells us, an " Univerfal Hiftory," 
" Commentaries on Juvenal," " A Treatife on the Etymology of 
French Words," and many other works, which were never pub- 

There was alfo Abbe Bourdelot, his lifter's fon, who changed 
his name from Peter Michon to oblige his uncle; and whom he 
took under his protection, and educated as his own fon. He 
was a very celebrated phyfician at Paris, who gained great reputa- 
tion by a treatife upon the Viper, and feveral other works. He died 
there Feb. 9, 1685, aged 76. 

BOURDON (SEBASTIAN), an eminent French painter, was 
born at Montpellier in 1610, and had a genius fo fiery, that it would 
not let him reflect fufficiently, nor ftudy the erTentials of his art fo 
much, as was neceilary to render him perfect in i f . He was feven 
years in Rome, but obliged to leave it before he had finifhed his 
ftudies, on account of a quarrel. However, he acquired fo much 
reputation by his works, both in landfcape and hiftory, that, upon 
his return to France, he had the honour of being the hrft who was 
made rector of the royal academy of painting and fculpture at Paris. 
The fine arts being interrupted by the civil wars in France, he tra- 
velled to Sweden, where he ftayed two years. He very well 
efteemed, and nobly picfcnted, by that great patronefs ot arts and 
fckraces, queen Chriiliir.i, whofe portrait he made. He fueceeded 

, better 


~ J '- ' - .. - - ~' .A-..m. -.a 

better in h\< landfcapes, than in his hiftory-painting. His pieces 
are feldom finifhed ; and thofe that are fo, are not always the fineft. 
He once laid a wager with a friend, that he painted twelve heads 
after the life, and as big as the Irfc, in one day. He won if; and 
thcfe heads are laid to be not the won't things he ever did. He 
drew a vaft number of pih:res. Hi? moft confiderable pieces are, 
' The Gallery of M. de Bre'onvilliers." in the ifle of Notre-Dame ; 
and " Tne feven Works of Mercy," which he etched by bimfelf. 
But the moft efteemed of all his performances is, " The Martyr- 
dom of St. Peter," drawn for the church of Notre-Dame: it is 
kept as one of the choiceft rarities of that cathedral. Bnirdon was 
a Calvinift ; much valued and refpecl-d, however, in a popifh coun- 
try, becaufe his life and manners were good. He died in 1673, 
aged 54. 

BOURGET (DoM. JOHN), was born atthe village of Beaumains 
near Falaife, in the diocefe ot S^z, in 1724.. He was educated at 
the grammar-fchool at Caen, whence he was removed to that uni- 
verllty, and purfued his (hidies with great diligence and fuccefs till 
1745, when he became a Benedicline monk of the abbey of St. 
Martin de Seez. Some time after this, Dom. Bour^et was ap- 
pointed prior clauflral of the faid abbey, and continued fix years in 
that office, when he was nominated prior of Tiron en Perche: 
whence being tranfi.ited to the abbey of St. Stephen at Caen, in the 
capacity of fub-prior, he managed the temporalities of that religi- 
ous houfe during two years, as he did their fpiritualities for one 
year longer ; after which, according to the cuftom of the houfe, he 
refigned his office. His fuperiors, fenfible of his merit and learn- 
ing, removed him thence to the abbey of Bee, where he refided till 
1764. He was elected an honorary member of the fociety of Anti- 
quaries of London, Jan. ID, 1765; in which year he returned to 
the abbey of St. Stephen and Caen, where he continued to the time 
of his death. Thefe honourable offices, to which he was promoted 
on account of his great abilities, enabled him not only to purfue his 
favonrite ftndy ot the hiltorv and antiquities of fome of the princi- 
pal B'jnedi<bne abbies in Normandy, likewife rave him accefs 
to all their charters, deeds, regifter- books, &c. &c. Thefe he ex- 
amined -vvich grea f care, and It-fr behind him in Mi. large and ac- 
cSirate accounts of tlie abbi >s of Si. Peter de Jtimieges, St. Stephen, 
and the Holy Trinity at Caen (founded by William the Conqueror 
ar.-l his que-n Matilda), and a very particular hiftory of the abbey of 
PC. Thefe were all written in French. The " Hiftory of the 
p. -,yal Abbey of Bee" (which he prefented to Dr. Ducarel in 1764) 
is only an abftract of his larger w:>rk. The death of our worthy 
Benedictine (which happened on New-year's day 1776) was occa- 
fioned by his unfortunate neglect of a hurt he got in his* leg by fal- 

BOURIGNON ( Antoinette). i 1 5 

ling down two or thret fteps in going from the hall to the cloifter of 
the abbey of St. Stephen at Caen. 

EOURIGNON (ANTOINETTE) a famous enfhufiaftic of the 
female fex, was born Jan. 13, 1616, at Lifle in Flanders. She 
came into the world f very deformed, that a confutation was held 
in the family fome days about ftifiing her as a monftrous birth. But if 
fhe !unk altnoft beneath humanity in her exterior, her interior feems 
to have been raifcd as much above it. For, at four years of age, .he 
not only took notice that the people of Lifle did not live up to the 
principles of chrifiianity which they profeffed, but was thereby 
difturbed fo much, as to defire a removal into fome more chriftian 
country. Her progrefs was fuitable to this beginning. Her parents 
lived a little unhappily together, Mr. Bourignon iifing his fpoufe 
with too much feverity, efpecially in his paffion : upn which oc- 
cafions, Antoinette endeavoured to foften him by her infant em- 
braces, which had fome little efFet ; but the mother's unhappinefs 
gave the daughter an utter averfion to matrimony. This fulling 
upon a temper ftrongly tinctured with enthufiafm, ihe grew a per- 
Jf& devotee to virginity, and became fo immaculately chaite, that, 
it her own word may be taken, fhe never had, in all her life, not 
even by temptation or furprife, the leaf! thought unworthy of the 
purity of the virgin itate : nay, fhe polfefTed the gift of chaftity in 
fo abundcnt a manner, that it overflowed upon thofe that were with 
her; her pretence and her converfation filed an ardour of continence, 
which created an infenfibility to the pleafures of the fiefh. She fek 
a peculiar relifh in thus growing free from fenfe, and in that Hale 
of exaltation foon began to conceive herfelf elevated above nature. 

Her father, however, had no notion of thefe abstractions ; he 
confidered her as a meer woman, and, having found an agreeable 
match, promifed her in marriage to a Frenchman. Eaiter-day, 
1636, was fixed for the nupiiais; but, to avoid the execution, the 
young lady fled, under the difguife of an hermit, but was flopped at 
Blacon, a village of Hainauk, en fufpicion of her fex. It was an 
officer of horfe quartered in the village who fazed her ; who ob- 
ierved fernething extraordinary in her, and mentioning her to the 
archbifhop of Cambray, tint prelate came to examine her, and fern 
her home. But being pre.'feti again with propofajs of matrimony, 
fhe ran away once more; and, going to the archbifhop, obtained 
his licence to fet up a fmall fociety in the country, with fome other 
maidens of her talte and temper. Tn,at licence however was foon 
retracted, and Antoinette obliged to withdraw the country of 
Liege; whence fhe returned to Lifle, and palled many years there 
privately in devotion and great (implicit)'. When her patrimonial 
eflate fell to her, the refolved at fir ft to renounce it ; bjit, changing 
her mind, fhe took poireffion of it ; and as fhe was fatisned with a 



few conveniences, me made little expence } and bellowing no cha- 
rities, her fortune increafed apace. 

This being obferved by one John de Saulieu, the Ton of a peafant, 
he refolded to make his court to her ; and, getting admittance under 
thecharacler of a prophet, infinuated himlelf into the lady's favour 
by de\< nt :.cls and difcourfes of the moft refined fpirituality. At 
length he declared^ his pailion, modeftly enough at fiift, and was 
eaftl) checked ; but finding her intra&able, he grew rougher at laft, 
and fo infolfiit as to threaten to murder her if Ihe would not com- 
ply. Upon this (lie had recourfe to the provoft, who fent two men 
to guard her houfe; and in revenge Saul'cu gave cut, that fhe had 
prcmifed him marriage, ar,d even bedued \vith him. But, in con- 
clufion, they were reconciled ; he retracted his flanders, and addreffeci 
himfelf to a young devotee at Ghent, whom he found more tractable. 
However, this did not free her from other ainorons vexations. 

The paribn's nephew of St. Andrew's parifh near Lifle fell in 
love with her; and as her houfe flood in the neighbourhood, he fre- 
quently environed it, in order to force sn entrance. Our reclufe 
threatened to quit her prft, if fhe was not delivered from this trou- 
blefome fuitor. The uncle drove him from his houfe: upon which 
he grew defperate, he fometimes difcharged a mufqutt through the 
nun's chamber, giving out that fhe was his efpoufed wife. This 
made a no : .fe in the city ; the devotees were offended, and threatened 
to affront Bourignon, if they met her in the ftreets. At length fhe 
was relieved by the preachers, who publifhed from their pulpits, that 
the report of the marriage was a fcandalous fallehood. 

Some time afterwards fhe quitted her houfe, and put herfelf as 
governefs at the head of an hofpital, where fhe locked herfelf up in 
the cloyfter in 1658, having taken the order and habit of St. Aultin. 
But here again, by a very fmgular fate, (he fell into frefh trouble. 
Her hofpital was found to be infedted with forcery fo much, that 
even all the little girls in it had an engagement with the devil. This 
gave room to fufpeft the governefs ; who was accordingly taken up 
by the magiftrates of Lifle, and examined ; but nothing could be 
proved againft her. However, to avoid further profecutions, file 
thought fit to decamp, and fled to Ghent in 1662: where fhe no 
fooner was, than God, it feems, revealed great fecrets to her. 

Be that as it will, it is certain, that about this time fhe acquired 
a friend at Amfterdam, who proved always faithful to her as long as 
he lived, and left her a good eftate at his death : his name was 
Mr. de Lort : he was one of the fathers of the oratory, and their 
fuperior at A'lechlin, and was director alfo of an hofpital for poor 
children. This profelyte was her firft fpiritual birth, and is faid to 
have given her the fame kind of bodily pangs and throes as a natu- 
ral labour, which was the cafe alfo with her other fpiritual children ; 
and fhe perceived rflore or lefs of thefe pains, according as the 

I truths 

BOURIGNON -(Antoinette}. 217 

truths which fhe had declared operated more or lefs ftrongly on 
their minds. Whence another of her difciples, a certain arch- 
deacon, talking with Mr. de Lort before their mother on the good 
and new refolution which they had taken, the latter obferved, that 
her pains were much greater for him than for the former : the 
archdeacon, looking upon de Lort, who was fat and corpulent, 
wherc-as he was a little man himfelf, faid, fmiling, " It is no wonder 
that our mother has had a harder labour for you than for me, lince 
you are a vaft great child, whereas I am but a little one;" which 
made them all laugh : fo that we fee our Antoinette's clifciples were 
rot always lohy, but fo me times defcended from the ftibiimity ot 
thtir devotion to die innocent raillery of people of the world. 

Our prophetefs ftayed longer than fhe intended at Amfterdam, 
where (he publifhed her piece of " The Light of the World," and 
fome others ; and finding all forts crowd to viiit her, (he entertained 
hopes of feeing her doclrine generally embraced ; but in that (he 
was fadly deceived. For, notwithstanding her converfations with. 
God were, as it is faid, frequent there, fo that (he understood a 
great number of things by revelation, yet the compofed more books 
there than (he had followers. The truth is, her vifions and reve- 
lations too plainly betrayed the vifionary and enthufiaftic. 

We (hail give one inftance as a fampSe ot the reft : in one of her 
extafies, (he law Adam in the fame form under which he appeared 
before his fall, and the manner how he himielf alone was capable 
of procreating other men, fince he pofifeffed in himfelf the princi- 
ples of both (exes. Nay, fne pretended it was told her that he had 
carried this fingular procreative faculty fo far, as to produce the hu- 
man nature of Jefus Chrift. The firlt man, fays fhe, whom Adam 
brought forrh without any concurrent alliftance in his glorified (tare, 
was chofen by God to be the throne ot the d-ivinity ; the organ and 
inftrument by which God would communicate himfelf externally 
to men. This is Chrift the firft-born united to human nature, 
both God and man. Beiides thefe, and fuch like extravagances, 
flie had other forbidding qualities : her temper was morofe and 
peevim^ in which however fhe was not unlike other devotees : but, 
contrary to the generality of fuch perfons, (he Was extremely avari- 
cious and greedy of amaffing riches. This quality rendered her 
Utterly uncharitable as to the branch of almfgiving, and fo impla- 
cably unforgiving to fuch poor peafants as had robbed her of any 
trifle, that fhe would have them profecutcii with the utmoft rigour. 

Her (lay at Amfterdam was chiefly owing to the happinefs (he had 
in her dear de Lort : that profelyte had advanced almoil all his elbtr 
to fome relations, in order to drain the ifland of Koordftrandt in 
Holftein, by which means he had acquired fome part of the ifland, 
together with the tithes and government uf the whole. Ho fold an 
eftate to Madam Bourignon, who prepared to retire thither in 1668; 
but fhe rejected the propofal of Labadie and his difciples to fettle 

VOL. II. Ee themfelves 


themfelves there with her. It items they ha 1 offered de Lort a 
]ar"e fum of money to purchafe the whole ifland, and thereby ob- 
tained his confent to their fettlement in it: this was cutting the 
grafs under her feet ; an injury which fhe took effectual care to 
prevent. Accordingly de Lort dying on the i2;h of November 
1669, made her his heir: which inheritance however brought her 
into new troubles. A thoufand law-fuits were raifed to hinder her 
from enjoying it : nor were her doctrine and religious principles 
fpared on the occafion. However, (he left Holland in 1671 to go 
into Noordftrandt. 

But (topping in her way at feveral places of Holftein, where fhe 
difmiiTed fome difciples (who followed her, fhe found, tor the fake 
of the loaves,) (he plied her pen, which, like the tongues of fome; 
females, ran like a torrent ; ib that fhe found it convenient to pro- 
vide herfelf with a prefs, where fhe printed her books in French, 
Dutch, and German. Among others fhe anfsvered all her advei fa- 
nes, in a piece entitled, " The Tefiimony of Truth;" wherein fhe 
handled the ecclefiafiics in a fevere manner. This, as Mr. Bayle 
obferves, was not the way to be at peace, but fhe wanted the tirft 
fundamental of all religion both natural and revealed ; fhe wanted 
humility. Two Lutheran minifters raifed the alarm againft her by 
fome books, wherein they declared, that people had been beheaded 
and burnt for opinions lels fupportable than her's. The Labbadifts 
alfo wrote againft her, and her prefs was prohibited. In this 
diftrefs (he retired to Henfberg in 1673, in order to get out of the 
itorm ; but- fhe was difcovered, and treated fo ill by the people 
under the character of a forcerefs, that fhe was very happy in get- 
ting fecretly away. They perfecuted her from city to city ; fhe was 
at length forced to abandon Holftein, and went to Hamburgh in 
1676, as a place .of more fecurity ; but her arrival had no fooner 
taken air, than they endeavoured to feize her. She lay hid for fome 
days, and then went to Oeftfrife, where (he got protection from the 
baron of Latzbourg, and was made governefs of an hofpital. 

It is obfervable, that all other paffions have their holiday?, but 
avarice never fuffers it's votaries fo reft. When our devotee accepted 
the care of this charity, fhe declared that fhe confented to contribute 
her induftry both to the:building and to the distribution of the goods, 
and the infpetion of the poor, but without engaging any part of her 
eftate ; for, which fhe alledged two reafons, one, that her goods had 
already teen dedicated to -God for the ufe of thofe who fincerely 
fought to become true chriliians; the other>that men and all human 
things are very inconftant. This was an admirable reafon never to 
part with any thing, and refer all donations to her laft will and tefta- 
ment. In that fpirit, when fhe had distributed among thefe poor 
people certain revenues of the place annexed to this hofpital by the 
founder, being. afked if fhe would -not contribute fomething of her 
e\vn, flie returhedanfwcr in writing that becaufe thefc poor lived like 


BOWYER '( W r iUiam). i 1 9 

beads who had no fouls to fave, fhe had rather throw her goods, which 
were confecratect to God, into the fea, than leave the leaft mite 
there. It was on this account that fhe found perfecutors in Oeft- 
fnfe, notwithstanding the baron dc Latzbourg's proteflion ; fo that 
file took her way to Holland in 1680, but died at Franeker, in the 
province of Friie, on the 3oth of October the fame year, aged 64. 

BOURNE (VINCENT), M. A. an amiable writer, whofe claf- 
fical taite was only equalled by the goodnefs of his heart, was for- 
merly fellow of Trinity college, Cambridge, and uiher of Weft- 
minfter fchool. From confcientious motives, he was induced to 
refufe a very valuable eccleftaltical preferment offered him in the 
inoft liberal manner by a noble duke. In a letter to his wife, writ- 
ten not long before his death, which happened December 2, 1747* 
he fays, " There is one thing which I have often heard myfelf 
charged with ; and that is my Beglect of entering into holy orders, 
and a due preparation for that facred office. Though I think my- 
felf in ftrictnefs anfwerable to none but God and my own con- 
fcience ; yet, for the fatisfaction of the perfon that is deareit to me, 
1 own and declare, that the importance of fo great a charge, joined 
with a miftruft of my own fufficiency, made me fearful of under- 
taking it : if I have not in that capacity afiiiled in the falvation of 
fouls, I have not been the means "of loling any : if I have not 
brought reputation to the function by any merit of mine, I have 
the comfort of this reflection, I have given no fcandal to it by my 
meannefs and unworthinefs." His only publication was a volume 
of " Poems" in I2mo. 

BOWYER (WILLIAM), a very learned Englifh printer, \vas born 
in White Friars, London, Dec. 17, 1699, His father was a printer 
of eminence ; and his maternal grandfather Icabod Dawkes, was em- 
ployed in printing the Polyglott bible by Walton, from 1652 to 
1657. He was placed for grammatical education under Mr. Ambrofe 
Bonwicke, who was elected matter of Merchant Taylors fchool in 
1686, but had been turned our, in 1691, for refufing to take the 
oaths of allegiance. June 1/16, he was admitted of St. John's 
college, Cambridge: where he continued till June 1722. Here he 
formed an intimacy with Mr. Markland and Mr. Clarke of Chi- 
chefter, and maintained a correlpondence with them as long as he 
lived. Soon after leaving college, he entered into the printing 
bufmefs with his father ; and one of the fir It books which came 
out, under his correction, was the edition of " Sekien's works by 
Wilkins," in 3 vols. {olio. This was begun in 1722, andfinifhed 
in 1726 ; and his great attention to it appeared in his drawing up 
an epitome of the piece " D~- Synedriis" as he read the proof- 
(heets. In 1727, the learned world were indebted u him for an 
admirable {ketch of William Baxter's " Gioffary of the Roman 

E e 2 Antiquities/ 1 


Antiquities." The (ketch was called " A view of a book, entitled 
Reliquiae Baxierianze, in a letter to a friend :" and it recommended 
him highly to Dr. William Wotton and the antiquaries. This, 
and the little piece juft mentioned, with many other fugitive tradls, 
have been lately pubiifhed in a volume of his " Mifcellaneous Tra6ts, 
1784." 4 to. 

Oct. 1728, he married; but loft his wife in 1731 : he had two 
fons by her, one of whom died an infant, the other furvived him. 
In 1729, through the friendlhip of the Speaker Onflow, he was 
appointed printer of the Votes of the Houfe of Commons ; an 
office which he held, through three fuccellive fpeakers, for nearly 
fifty years. In 1/36, he was admitted into the Society of Anti- 
quaries ; \vhofe meetings he regularly attended, and to which he 
was a great benefa&or in the double capacity of a printer and a mem- 
ber : in the latter, by communicating to them matters of utility and 
curiofity. It is not within our plan, to mention all the li-ttle pub- 
lications of our learned printer, and ililllefs the preface?, notes, and 
other additions, which he made to the works of others : they who 
are further curious about him may have recourfe to his life 
at large, as publifhed by Mr. Nichols. We (hall notice how- 
ever the mod linking particulars of him, both as an author 
and as a printer. In 1742^ he printed the additional book of 
Pope's " Dunciad ;" and received, on this occafion, teftimonies 
of regard both from the Poet and his commentator Warburton. 
He had a long apparent friendlhip with the latter; but this, like 
many other long triendihips, ended at length with jealous furmifes, 
fplenetic bickerings, and with that coid erteem, which people, who 
are grown mutually difagreeable, content themfclves with exprefiing 
towards each other. 

In 1750, he pubiifhed Kufter's treatife " De vero ufu verborum 
mecliorum," with a prefatory diffejtation and notes j a new edition 
of which, with additions, appeared in 1773, I2mo. In 1751, 
" Monte{quieu's Reflections on the rife and fall of the Roman Em- 
pire," with a long preface and notes ; a new edition of which ap- 
peared in 1759. Likewjfe, in 1751, the fir ft translation of Rouf- 
feau's " Paradoxical oration upon the inequality of Mankind," which 
gained the prize at the academy of Dijnn : and which firft announ- 
ced that wild and fingubr genius to the public. In 1761, he was 
appointed printer to me Royal Society. In 1763, czfme out, what 
may be called his capital work, " Novum Teltamentum Graecum, 
zd fidem Grarcorum folum codicum MS. mine primum impref- 
fum, et no\a interpreiaiione fa;pii s illuftratum." 2 vol. I2mo. 
This fold with great rapidity, which foirie imputed to the notes 
be;rig in Englifh. They have been deemed, however, a very valu- 
able addition to the New Teftament, and were republifhed, in a fe- 
parate volume 8vo. in 1772. 

In 1766, he engaged in a partnerfhip with Mr. Nichols, who 


BOYD (Rolen). 221 

had been trained by him to the profeflion, and had affiiled him many 
years in the management ofbuiinefs. In 1766, he wrote a Latin 
preface to " Joannis Harduini, Jefuita2, ad cenforum fcriptorum 
veterum Prolegomena :" in which he gives an account of that work, 
and of the manner in which it has been preferved. The remarks 
of Mr. De Miffy, a very learned and accurate man, were publifhetf 
about the fame time, in a Latin letter, addrefled to Mr. Bowyer. 
In 1767, he was appointed to print the " Journals of the Houie of 
Lords," and the " Rolls of Parliament." In 1771, he loft a le- 
cond wife, aged 70, whom he had married in 1747. In I774 t 
was published "The Origin of Printing. In two e(Tays." In 
1777, ^ e c \fed his literary career with a new edition of 4< Bentley's 
Dillerrationson the Epiflles of Phalaris," 8vo. with additional notes 
and remarks of others. 

He died, Nov. j8, 1777, after having been afflicted, the laft ten 
years of his life, with the palfy and the ftone. He certainly flood 
unrivalled, tor more than half a century, as a learned printer, of 
which his own publications are an inconteftable proof; and to his 
literary and profeffional abilities he added an excellent moral cha- 
racter. He was a man of the fhideft probity, and alfo of the 
greateft liberality ; particularly in relieving the neceflitous, and af- 
fiiling every fpecies of diftrefs. 

BOYD (ROBERT), who flourilhed in the 1 5th century, was of 
a very ancient and noble family in Scotland. How, or where, he 
pafTed th-.- firft years of his life, is uncertain ; but towards the end 
of the reign of King James II. of Scotland, he began to make a 
confiderable figure in the world. He was a man of great penetra- 
tion and found judgment, knew mankind as well as any one of his 
time, was courteous and affable in his behaviour, by which means- 
he acquired the efteem and confidence of all ranks of people, a 
well as of his Prince, by whofe favour he was created a baron, and 
called to parliament, by the name and title of lord Boyd ot Kilmar- 
nock. The firft time we find his Lordfhip engaged in any public 
employment, was in the year 1459, wnen ne wa S> with feveral pre- 
lates, lords, and barons, fent to Newcaftle with the character of 
plenipotentiaries, to prolong the truce with England, juft then ex- 
pired, which they did for nine years. Upon the unhappy death of 
king James II. in 1460, the lord Boyd was made julticiary, and 
named one of the lords of the Regency, in whofe hands the admi 
niflration of affairs was lodged during the minority of the young 
king. He was afterwards conftituted fole regent, and had the fafety 
of the king, his brothers, filters, towns, cafUes, and all the jurif- 
diction over his fubjects, committed to him, till the king himfeif 
arrived at the age of twenty-one years. And the nobles then pre- 
fent folemnly promifed to be alliitant to the lord Boyd, and alfo to 
J::s brother, in all their public adions, and that they would be liable 



to punifhrrient, if they did not carefully, and with faitbfulnefs, per- 
f;>rm what they then promifed. To this flinulation, or promife, 
King r-.iio Vubfcri-bed. Great as his lor.lihip was, he had not, 
however, yet arrived to the fummit of his glory : the honours he 
l:-d already received only paved the way to fill! greater: tor having 
now the whole adininiitration in his hands, it was not long before 
be had anr opportunity of getting into one of the greatcft offices in 
the kingdom, which was that of lord great chamberlain ol Scot- 
land. The lord Boyd's commiffion for this great office was Jor life, 
and palled the great leal, upon the twenty-fifth of Auguft 1467- 

It is ncceildry to obferve, that though the lord Boyd, now lord 
c'.iunberiain, feemed to have the fole power 2nd management of 
every thiny himlelf, yet the parliament had inferred Come particular 
matters which wire of the highu't concern and importance to the 
ftate, fuchas the marriage of The king, his filter, and his brothers 
the duke of Albany and earl of Mar, to the joint determination of 
the lord Boyd and others named and auihonfcd by the parliament 
for that ptirpofe. This, however, did not hinder the lord chamber- 
lain from making a very bold ftep, (till farther to aggrandize his 
family. This was no le'fs than the procuring the lady Mary Stew- 
art, the late king's eldeil daughter, in marriage for his fon fir Tho- 
mas Boyd, and which by his intereft and addrefs with the king, he 
found means to accomplish, notwithstanding the care and precau- 
tion of the parliament. The lord Boyd's ion was a rnoft accom- 
plilhed gentleman, and this match and near alliance to the crown, 
added to'his own diftinguilhed merit, raifed him to a nearer place in 
the affection as well as confidence of his fovereign, by whom he was 
In on after created earl of Arran, .perhaps to render the match more 
equal in point of rank wiih his royal bride, with whom he alfo ob- 
tained many lands, and was himfelf corifidered as the fountain whence 
ail honours and preferments mud flow. The lord chamberlain, by 
this great screilion of honour to his family, now feemed to have arrived 
2i the high tit pinnacle of power and grandeur, and this, in appear- 
ance, raifed upon fo firm a bafis as not to be eafily fhaken. But fuch 
is the inftahility of human affairs, and fo deceitful are the fmiles 
of fortune, that what feemed to be a prop and eftabhfhment of the 
power and greatnefs of this family, proved the very means of it's 
overthrow, by flirring up it's molt bitter enemies 5o ftek and de- 
termine it's deilruction. About this time, a marriage having been 
concluded, by ambafladprs fent into Denmark for that ptirpole, be- 
tv.een th^ ycm; king of Scotland, and Margaret, a daughter of the 
king rit Denmark ; the young earl of Arran was pitched upon, as 
a noU!vin,3ii every wav qualified for fo honourable and magnificent 
an embairy, to go over to Denmark, to efpoufe the Danilh princefs 
in the kirrg'liis brother-in-law's name, and to conduct her to cot- 
Jand. The earl of Arran, judging all things fafe at home, wil- 
Ifngly accepted this hunoL!: ; and, in the beginning of the autumn 


BO YD (Robert). 

ot the year 1469, fet lad lor Denmark with a proper convoy, aud a 
noble train ot friends and followers. This was a fatal Uep to the 
downfall ct this illuftri'pus family, for the lord chamberlain, the earl's 
father, being now much abfent frcm the court in the necelfary mi- 
charge of his office, as wed as through age and infirmities, which 
was the cafe alfo of his brother fir Alexander Boyd ; the earl of 
Arran had no fooner fet out on his einbaffy, than thofe enemies 
which envy alone, that infrparable attendant on power and great-- 
nefs, had railed him, fet about contriving his ruin, and that <..< his 
family. The feeds of enmity, long iince fown between the Ken- 
nedies and the Boyds, though hitherto unproductive of any bad con- 
lequences, no\v began to (hoot out with great vigour. Every art 
that malice could fuggeft was tried to alienate the king's affection- 
from the Eoy*'s. Every public mifcarriage was laid at their tioor; 
and the Kennedies induftrioufly fpread abroad report?, to inflame 
the people likewife againil them. .They represented to the kii> 
that the lord Boyd had abided his power during his majefty's iru- 
nbritv ; that his matching his Ton, the earl of Arran, with the prin- 
ce fs Mary, wa? ftaining the royal blood of Scotland, was an iiuU^- 
nity to the crown, and the prelude to the execution of a piot ihey 
had contrived of ufurping even the fovereignty itfell ; for they re- 
prefented the lord chamberlain as an ambitious, afpiring mars, gu 
of the higheft offences, and capable of contriving and executing the 
worft of villainies. 

The king, hereupon, young, weak, credulous, and wavering, 
and naturally prone to jealoufy, began to be alarmed, gave way to 
the importunities of his new counfellors, and being befidcs flattered . 
by them with the profpecl of filling his coffers out of the isnhaprv 
victims confifcated eitates, the confequence of their conviction, he 
quickly became the tool of the loweft revenge, and was prevailed 
on to facrifice, not only the earl of Arran, but ail his family, to the 
malice and refentment of their. enemies, 'notwithftanding their own 
and their ancertors great fervices to the crown, and in fpiteof the 
ties of blood which united them fo clofciy. At the requeii of the 
adverfe faction, the king fummoned a parliament to meet at Edin- 
burgh the twentieth of N A'ember 1469, before which the lor! 
Boyd, the earl of Arran, though in Denmark, and Sir Alexarjd-.r 
Boyd of Duncow, were fnrnmoncd to appear, to give an acco; ' 
of their adminiftration, andanfwer fuch charges as fhould be exhi- 
bited again!! them. The lord Boyd was aftorsi filed at tins fnd 
blow, againft which he had made no provifion, and betook hiariv^f 
to arms; at lea ft appeared with fuch attendance of armad men, as 
obliged the government to draw fome forces together for it's ov. :i 
defence : but the match being fo unequal, the -eAcr party thon 
fit to difoand, and his !oral"hip finding it impoilible ta (lem the tor- 
rent, and having no confidence in the parliament, which he ks)'".v 
his enemies found ways arid means to modd for their ovvn.frik-' 



vous purpofes, and defpairing ,of fafety, took an opportunity to 
make his efcape into England ; but his brother, fir Alexander, be- 
ing then fick, and fruiting to his own integrity, was brought before 
the parliament, where he, the lord Bo\d, and his fon the earl of 
Arrati, were, at his majefty's inftance, indicted of high treafon, 
for having laid hands on the king, and carried him, againft an al of 
parliament, and contrary to the king's own will, from Linlithgow 
to Edinburgh, in the year 1466. Sir Alexander alledged in his de- 
fence, that they had not only obtained the king's pardon for that 
offence in a public convention, but it was even declared a good fer- 
vice by a fubfequent aft of parliament, and he dcfired that a copy 
of that pardon might be tranlcribed out of the parliament rolls ; but 
this was denied him, and no regard was had to it, becaufe it was 
obtained by the Boyds when in power, and mailers of the king's 
perfon : and it was alledged, that the record only exprelfcd that the 
king forgave him his perfonal refentment, which did not exempt 
them from the punifliment of the law. Upon the whole, the crime 
being proved againft them, they were found guilty by a jury of very 
noble lords and barons, and fentence of condemnation pronounced 
againft them as in cafes of high-treafon : Sir Alexander Boyd, being 
prefent, was condemned to lofe his head on the Cattle-Hill of Edin- 
burgh, which ft'ntence was executed accordingly. The lord Boyd 
had, without doubt, undergone the fame fate, if he had not made 
his efcape into England, as before related, where, however,- he did 
not long furvive his great reverfe of fortune, which he might well 
lay to heart in his old age. He died at Alnwick in the year 1470, 
The earl of Arran, though abfent, and that upon the king's and 
the public bufinefs, was declared a public enemy, without being 
granted a hearing, or allowed the privilege which every man has a 
right to, of defending himfelf j and all their eftates were con- 

BOYD (MARK ALEXANDER), an ingenious and accomplifhed 
Scotchman, was defcended from an ancient family of that name, 
and born in Galloway, 1562. His uncle, the aichbifliop of Glaf- 
gow, had the care of his education, and put him under two gram- 
marians at Glafgow ; but being of an high and intractable fpirit, he 
quarrelled and fought with his matters, burnt his books in a pafiion, 
and fwore that he renounced learning forever. He went, a youth, 
to court, in hopes of pufhing an intereft there; but not fucceeding, 
his friends perfuaded him to travel abroad, and, by way of abating 
the fervour and impetuofity of his fpirit, to engage in the wars of 
the United Provinces. He himfelf, however, preferred thofe 
of France; and went to Paris >vith a fmall Hock of money, 
which he quickly loft by gaming. This event feems to have brought 
him to reflection; and he now detei mined to apply himfelf to lite- 
rature. What he propofed to excel! in, was the knowledge of the 

law j 


law ; for which reafon he attended the ledures of Cujaciiis, the 
principal civilian of tne age. He recommended him ft If greatly to 
Cujacius, by adopting that civilian's tafte in Latin poetry; and to 
this circumftance was owing his application to Latin poetry, which 
he afterwards cultivated with fo much fuccefs. After many adven- 
tures abroad, he returned at length to Scotland, where he foon died of 
a flow fever, 1601, aged 38. 

He left fome MSS. behind him, xvhich have not been printed. 

His Epiftolce Heroidum," and his " Hymni," were inferted in the 

Delicise Poetarum Scotorum," printed at Amfterdam, in two vo-' 

lirmes, I2mo, in 1637; and a great charadter hath been given of 

them by feveral authors. 

BOYER (ABEL), a well-known gloffographer and hiftoriogra- 
pher, was born at Caftres in France, in 1664. Upon the revocation 
of the edicl: of Nantz, he went to Geneva, and from thence to Fra- 
neker, where he finilhed his ftudies. Afterwards he came over toEng- 
land, where he (pent his whole life, and died at Chellea, in Nov. 1729. 
The work he is chiefly known by is a very excellent French and 
Englilh, and Englilh and French dictionary ; drawn up originally, 
as we are told in the title-page, for the ufe of his highnefs the duke 
of Gloucefter. It was fir it printed at London in 1669, quarto; and 
the fourth, that is, the laft edition of it in England, for it was printed 
alfo abroad, is that of 1752. He wrote alfo " A French Grammar 
in Engliih," which ftill retains it's rank in our fchools; for it is re- 
markable, that he attained the knowledge of the Englifli language to 
as much perfection as if it had been the language of his native 
country. As an hilloriographer, he was the author of " The Poli- 
tical State of Great Britain," and of " The Hiltory of King Wil- 
liam and Queen Mary." 

There was alfo CLAUDE BOYER, a French poet, a member of 
the French Academy, and author of " Judith and Jepthe," facred 
tragedies, with feveral other pieces, who died in 1698, aged ninety. 

BOYLE (RICHARD), diftinguiihed by the title of the great earl 
of Corke, was delcended from a family whofe name before the Con- 
queft was Biuville. He was the youngc-ft (on of Mr. Roger Boyle, 
of Herefordfhire, by Joan, daughter of Robert Naylor, of Canter- 
bury, and born in ihe city of Canterbury, 1506. He was inftrwted 
in grammar learning by a clergyman of Kent ; and after having 
been a fcholar in Bennet college, Cambridge, where he was remark- 
able for early riling, indefatigable ftudy, and great temperance, be- 
came ftudent in the Middle Temple. He loll his father when he 
was but ten years old, and hjs mother at the expiration of other ten. 
years ; and being unable to fupport himfelf in the profecution of his 
ftudies, he entered into the fcrvice of Sir Richard Man./ood, chief 
baron of the Exchequer, as one of his clerks ; but perceiving that 
this employment would not raife a fortune, he refolvedto travel, and 

VOL. II. F t landed 


landed at Dublin, in June 1588, with fewer pounds in his pocket 
than he afterwards acquired thoufands a year. He was then about 
two-aml-t\vtnty, had a graceful perfon, and all the accomplifhments 
for a young m<m to fucceed in a country which was a fcene of io 
much action. Accordingly he made himftlf very ufeful te fome ot 
the principal perfons employed in the government, by penning for 
them memorials, cafes, andanfwers; and thereby acquired a perfect 
knowledge of the kingdom, and of the ftate of public affairs, of 
vrhich he well knew 1 how to avail himfelf. In 1595 he married, at 
JLimeric, Joan, the daughter and coheirefs of William Antley, of 
Pulborough, in Suflex, Efq. who had fallen in love with him. This 
lady died 150,9. in labour of her firft child (who was born a dead fon), 
leaving her hufband an eftate of 500!. a year in lands, which was the 
beginning of his fortunes. Some time alter, Sir Henry Wallop, of 
Nares, Sir Robert Gardiner, chief julrice of the's Bench, Sir 
Robert pillam, chief juftice of the Common Pleas, and Sir Richard 
Bii'gham, chief commiflioner of Connaught, filled with envy at cer- 
tain purchafcs he had made in the province, reprefented to Qneen 
Elizabeth that he was in the pay of the king of Spain (who had at 
that time fome thoughts of invading Ireland^, by whom he had been 
furnifhed with money to buy feveral large eflates ; and that he was 
flrongly fufpec~led to be a Roman Catholic in his heart, with many 
other malicious fuggeftions, equally groundlefs. Mr. Boyle, having 
private notice of tifi?, determined to come over to England to 
juflify himfelf: but, before he could take (hipping, the general 
rebellion in Munfter broke out; all his lands were wafted, fo that 
he had not one penny of certain revenue left. When the earl ot 
Eifc-x was nomihaied lord-deputy of Ireland, Mr. Boyle being re- 
commended to him by Mr. Anthony Bacon, was received by his 
ford {hip very gracioufly; and Sir Henry Wallop, trealurer of Ire- 
land, knowing that Mr. Boyle had in his cuitody feveral papers 
which could detect his roguilh manner of patting his accounts, re- 
folved utterly to deprefs him, and for that end renewed his former 
complaints againft him to the queen. By her majefty's fpecia! 
directions, Mr. Boyle was fuddenly taken up, and committed clofe 
prifoner to the Gatehoaie : all hjs papers were feized and fearched ; 
and although nothing appeared to his prejudice, yet his confinement 
lafted till two rm.mhs after his new patron, the earl of Effex, was 
gone to Ireland. At length, with much difficulty, he obtained the 
favour o; the queen to be prcfent at his examination ; and having 
iully anfwer.ed whatever was alledged againft him, he gave a fhort 
account of his own behaviour fince he firft fettled in Ireland, and 
concluded wish laying open to the queen and her council the con- 
duel of his chief enemy, Sir Henry Wallop. Upon which her ma- 
jelly gave immediate orders not only for Mr. Boyle's prefent enlarge- 
ment, but alfo for paying all the charges and fees his confinement 
bad brought upon him, and gave him her hand to kifs before the 
whole aflVsably. ^ few days after, the queen conftituted him clerk 


BOYLE (Richard]. 

of the council of Munlter, and recommended him to Sir George 
Carew, afterwards earl or Totnefs, then lord president of Munfter, 
who became his conllant friend; and very foon after he was made 
juftice of the peace and of the quorum throughout all the province. 
His preferment to be clerk of the council, he remarks, was the 
fecond rife that God gave to his fortune. He attended in that capa- 
city the lord prefident in all his employments, and was fent by his 
lordfhip to the queen, with the news of the vicT: >ry gained in De- 
cember 1601, near Kinfale, over the Iriih and their Spanifh auxili- 
aries, who were totally routed, 1200 being (lain in the field, and 800 
wounded. On his return to Ireland, he ailiited at rheftege of Beer- 
haven caftle, which was taken by ftorm, and the garrifon put to the 
/word. After the reduction of the weft^rn part ot the province, the 
lord prefident fent Mr. Boyle to England, to procure the queen's 
leave for his return ; and having advifed him to purchafe Sir Walter 
Raleigh's lands in Munfter, he gave him a lettt-r .to Sir Robcr f Cecil, 
fecretary of ftare, containing a very advantageous account of Mr. 
Boyle's abilities, and of the Cervices he had done his country ; ic con- 
fideration of which, he deli red the fecretary to introduce him 10 Sir 
Walter, and recommend him as a proper purchafer for his 1; ids '.n 
Ireland, if he was difpofed to part with them. He wrote -\ the 
fame time to Sir Walter himfelf, advifmg him to fell Mr. Bc.yie all 
his lands in Ireland, then untenanred, and of no value to him hav- 
ing, to hislordfhip's knowledge, never yielded him any benefit, but, 
on the contrary, flood him in 2ool. yearly for the fupport of his titles. 
At a meeting between Sir Robert Cecil, Sir Walter Raleigh, and 
Mr. Boyle, the purchafe was concluded by the mediation of the 
former. This Mr. Boyle calls the third addition and rife to his eftate. 

In 1602 Mr. Boyle, 'by advice of his friend Sir George Carew, 
made his addrelTes to Mrs. Catherine Fenton, daughter of Sir George 
Fenton, whom he married on the 25th of July, 1603, her father be- 
ing at that time principal fecretary of ftate. He received on his 
wedding day the honour of knighthood from his friend Sir George 
Carew, now promoted to be lord deputy of Ireland. March 12, 
1606, he was fworn a privy counfellor to King James for the pro- 
vince of Munfter ; Feb. 15, 1612, he was fworn a privy counfellor 
of ftate of the kingdom of Ireland; Sept. 29, 1616, he was created 
Lord Boyle, baron of Youghai! ; Od. 16, 1620, vifcount of Dun- 
garvon, an;! ear! of Coik. Lord Falkland, the lord deputy, having 
reprefented his fervices in a juft light TO King Charles I. his ma- 
jefty fent his excellency a letter, dated N w. 30, 1627, directing him 
to confer the honours of baron ani vifcount upon the earl's fecond 
furviving fon, Lewi?, though he w.i<; then on v eight years of age. 

On the departure of lord "deputy Falkland, Od. 26, 1629, the earl 
of Cork, in c'onjun&ion with lord Loftus was appointed one of the 
lords jultices of Ireland, and held that o^c- feveral ye*rs. Feb. 16 
following, the earl loft his count fs. Nov. 9, 1631, he waj coniti- 

F f 2 tuied 


tuted lord high treafurer of Ireland, and had intereil enough to get 
that high office made hereditary in his family. Nm-erthelefs, he 
fuffered many mortifications during 'he adminiftration oj Sir Tho- 
mas Wentworth, afterwards earl oi Stiaffoid, who, before he went to 
Ireland, had conceived a jealoufy of his authority and intereft in that 
kingdom, and determined to bring him dov\n ; imagining that, if he 
could humble the great earl of Cork, nobody in that country could 
give him much trouble. On the breaking nut of the rebellion in 
Ireland, in 1641, the earl of Cork, as foon as he returned from 
England (where he was at the time of the earl of Stratford's trial), 
immediately raifed two troops ot horfe, which he put "ider the 
command of his fons, the lord vifcount Kinelmeaky and th-j lord 
Broghill, maintaining them and 400 toot for fome in . i. ''"<-, M his- 
own charge. In the battle which the Englifh gained a* Lifcarrol, 
September 3, 1642, four of his fons were engaged, and the eldeft 
was (lain in the field. The earl himfelf died abmit a year after, on 
the 15th of September, in the 78th year of his age ; having Jpent 
the laft, as he did the firft year of his life, in the fupport of the 
crown of England againft Iriih rebels, and in theferviceof his country. 

BOYLE (ROGER), earl of Orrery, fifth fon of Richard earl of Cork, 
was born in April, 1621, and created baron of Broghill, in Ireland, 
when but feven years old.. He was educated at the college of Dub- 
lin, and about the year 1636 fent with his elder brother, Lord 
Kinelmeaky, to make the tour of France and Italy. After his re- 
turn, he married Lady Margaret Howard, lifter to the Earl of Suf- 
folk. During the rebellion in Ireland, he commanded a troop of 
horfe in the forces raifed by his father, and on many occafions gave 
proofs of his conduct and courage. After the cefTation of arms 
which was concluded in 164.3, he came over to England, and fo 
jeprefented to the king the Irifh Papifts, that his majefty was con- 
vinced they never meant to keep the cefTation, and therefore fent a 
commiilion to Lord Inchiquin, prefident of Munfter, to profecute 
the rebels. Lord Broghill employed his intereft in that county to 
a (lift him in this fervice ; and when the government of Ireland was 
committed to the parliament, he continued to obferve the fame con- 
duel till the king was put to death. That event fhocked him fo 
much, that he immediately quitted the fervice of the parliament, and 
looking upon Ireland and his eftate there as utterly loft, embarked 
for England, and returned to his feat at Marlfton in Somerfetfhire, 
where he lived privately till 1649. In this retirement, reflecting on 
the tiiftrefs of his country, and the perfonal injury he fuffered whilft 
his eftate was held by the Irifh rebels, he refolved, under pretence of 
going to the Spaw for his health, tocrofs the feas, and apply to King 
Charles II. for a commifiion to raife forces in Ireland, in order to 
reftore his majefty, and recover his own eftate. He defired the earl 
oi Warwick, who had an intereft in the prevailing party, to procure 

t a licence 

BOYLE (Roger). 229 

a licence f r him to go to the Spaw. He pretended to the earl, that 
his fole view was the recovery of his health; but to feme of his 
friends of the royal party, in whom he thought he could confide, he 
difcoyered his real .deli on; and having rai fed a confiderable Turn of 
money, came to London u> profectite his voyage. The committee 
oi Rate, who fpared no money to get proper intelligence, being foon 
informed of his whole defign, determined to proceed againit him 
with the utm oft feverity. Cromwell, at that time general of the 
parliament's forces, and a member of the committee, was no (tranger 
to Lord Brogh ill's merit; and confiderin^ that this young nobleman, 
might be ot great life to him in reducing Ireland, he earneitly in- 
treated tiie committee that he might have leave to talk with him, 
and endeavour to gain him before they proceeded to extremities. 
Having with great difficulty obtained this permilfion, he imme- 
diately difpatched z gentleman to Lord Broghill, to let him know- 
that he intended to wait upon him. Broghill was furprized at this 
rneffage, having never had the leaft acquaintance with Cromwell, 
and therefore dell red the gentleman to let the general know that he 
would wait upon his excellency. But while he was expeling the 
return of the me'ffenger, Cromwell entered the room ; and, after 
mutual civilities, told him, in few words, that the committee of 
itate were apprized of his defign of going over, and applying to 
Charles Stuart for a commiffion to raile forces in Ireland; and that 
they had determined to make an example of him, if he had not di- 
verted their, from that relolution. The Lord Broghill interrupted 
him, and allured him that the intelligence which the committee had 
received was falfe; that he was neither in a capacity, nor had any 
inclination, to raife disturbances in Ireland; and concluded with 
intreating his excellency to have a kinder opinion of him. Cromwell, 
inftead of making any reply, drew fome papers out of his pocket, 
which were the copies of ieveral letters fent by Lord Broghill to 
thole perfons in whom he moft confided, and put them into his 
hands. Broghili, finding it was to no purpofe to difTemble any 
longer, afked his excellency's pardon for what he had (aid, returned 
him his humble thanks for his protection againlt the committee, and 
intreated his advice how he ought to behave in fo delicate a con- 
jundlure. Cromwell told him, that though till this time he had 
been a ftranger to his perfon, he was not fo to his merit and cha- 
racter ; that he had heard how gallantly his lordlhip had behaved in 
the Irifh wars; and therefore, (ince he was named lord lieutenant of 
Ireland, and the reducing that kingdom was now become his pro- 
vince, that he had obtained leave of the committee to offer his 
lordfhip the command of a general officer, if he would ferve in that 
war; that he fhouid have no oaths or engagements impofed upon 
him, nor be obliged to draw his fword againft any but the Irifh 
rebels. Lord Broghill was infinitely furprized at fo generous and 
unexpected an offer ; he favv Imnfcli" at liberty, by alt the rules cf 



honour, to ferre again ft the Irifh, whofe rebellion and barbarities 
xvere equal !y deteRed by\the royal party and the parliament: he de- 
firtd, however, the general to g've him fome time to confider of what 
had been propofed to him. Cromwell brifkly told him, that he 
rraift come to fome refolution that very initant; that he himfelf 
was returning to the committee, who were flill fitting; and if his 
lordlhip rrj'ictcd their offer, they had determined to fend him to the 
Tower. Broghill, finding that his life and liberty were in the ut- 
moft danger, and charmed with the franknefs and generofity of 
Cromwell's behaviour, g^ve him his word and honour that he 
would faithfully ferve him againft the Irifh rebels; upon which 
Cromwell once more affared him, that the conditions which he had 
made wjjh him fhoukl b^ pn finally obferved ; and then ordered 
him to repair immediately to Briltol, to which place forces fhould 
be fent him, with a fufrkieni number of {hips to tranfport him into 

He foon raifed in that kingdom a troop, and a regiment of 1500 
men, with which he joined Cromwell on his arrival; and, adling in 
the cou:fr of the war conjointly with Cromwell and- Ireton, contri- 
buted nreatly to the reduction of the Irifh. Cromwell was fo ex- 
ceedingly {truck with his coiv'ucl and courage, that after he was 
declared protector, he ferit for Lord Broghill, made him one of his 
privy council, and allowed him a great (hare of -his confidence. In 
1656 the pr.itectnr, either fufpecting Monk's attachment to his 
perkm, or dcfimus of relieving; the people of Scotland, who com- 
plained of this man's feve.-ify, propofed to Lord Broghill to go to 
that kingdom wiih an abfoltire authority; to which his lordfliip 
confcrnted, upon condition that he fhould have a discretionary power 
to a 61 as he Ihould fee proper; that no credit i'hould be given to 
any complaints, till he had an opportunity of vindicating himfelf; 
and that he ihould be recalled in a year. Cromwell kept his word 
to him; for though the corr.pla'nts againll Broghill were more nu- 
merous than thoTe againtt Monk, upon giving, at his return to 
London, when the year was expired, an account of the reafons of his 
conduct, Cromwell conceived a higher efteem for him than ever. 

After the death of Cromwell, Broghill did his utmofl to ferve his 
fon; to whom his lord/hip, in conjunction with Lord Howard and 
fome others made an offer, that if he would not be wanting to him- 
felt, and give them a fufficient authority to al under him, they 
would either force his enemies to obey him, or cut them off. Ri- 
chard, ftartlH at this propofal, anfwered in a confirmation, that he 
thanked them for their iriendfhip, but that he neither had done, nor 
would do, any perfon any harm ; and that rather than that a drop of 
blood fhould be fpilt on his account, he would lay down that great- 
nefs which was a burden to him. He was fo fixed in his refolution, 
that whatever the lords could fay was not capable of making him 
liter it; and they found it to no purpofe to keep a man in power 


BOYLE f/f^r). 231 

who would do nothing tor himfelf. Lord Broghill, therefore, rind- 
ing the family of Cromwell thus laid adde, and not being obliged 
by any ties to fetve thofe who aliumed the government, whufe 
fcheiiies, too, he judged wild and ill-concerted, from this time 
fhewed himfelf molt active and zealous to reltore the king, and tor 
that purpofe repaired forthwith to his command in Munfter ; where, 
finding himfelf at the head of a confiderable force, he determin.d to 
get the army in Ireland to join with him in the defign, to gain, if 
pofiible, Sir Charles Coot-*, who had great power in the north, and 
then to fend to Monk, in Scotland. 

Upon the king's reitoration, Lord Broghill came to England ; but, 
inftead of being thanked for' his fervice in Ireland, he -was received 
with the utmoit coldnefs. Upon inquiry, he learnt, that Sir Charles 
Coote had ajlured the king, that he was the firft man who itirred tor 
him in Ireland; that Lord Broghill oppofed his tnajeiiy's return, 
and was not at lalt brought to confent to it without much difficulty. 
His lordihip, recollecting that he had ftill by htm Sir Charles's let- 
ter, in which were thefe words, " Remember, my lord, that }ou firlfc 
put me on this defign ; and I befecch yon, to Hake rne not in that 
you firft put me upon, which was, to declare for king and parlia- 
liament," delired his brother Shannon to put it into the Hands of the 
king ; who being fully convinced by it how ferviceable Broghill 
had been to him, looked upon him with as gracious an eye as he 
<xnild himfelf delire or exptcl. His lordihip loon after was made 
earl of Orrery, fvvorn of the 'king's privy-council, appointed one of 
the lords jultices, and lord president of Manlier. 

Soon after this affair, his lordfhip, with Sir Charles Coote, lately 
made earl of Montrath, and Sir Maurice Eultace, were conftituted 
lords juitices of Ireland, and comTnifOoned to call and hold a par- 
liament. Some time before the meeting ot the parliament, he drew 
with his own hand the taaious act of lettlemem, by which he fixed 
the property, and gave titles to eftates 10 a whole nation. When 
the duke of Ormond was declared lord lieutenant, the earl of Orrery 
went into Mu niter, of which province lie was preGdent. By virtue 
of this office, he heard and determined caules in a court called the 
relidency-court ; and acquired io great a recitation in this judicial 
capacity, that he was offered the feals both by the king and the duke 
of York, after the fall of Lord Clarendon; biH being very much 
afflicted with the gout, he declined a poit that required conltant at- 

During the firft Dntch war, wherein France acled as a confe- 
derate with Holland, he deieated the fcheme formed by the duke de 
Bcaufoit, admiral of Fiance, to get puffdlion ot the harbour ot Kin- 
iale ; and took advantage of the iright ot the people, and the alarm 
of the government, to get a fort ercHed under his own directions, 
which was named Fort Charles. He promoted a fcheme for in- 
quiring ijity and improving the king i revenue in Ireland ; but his 



majeity having applied great futns out of the revenue of that king- 
dom which did not cotne plainly into account, the inquiry was 
never begun. Ormond, liltening to fume malicious infinuations, 
began to entertain a jealoufy of Orrery, and prevailed with the king 
to direct him to iay down his reiidential court ; as a compenlatioti 
for which his majesty made him a prefent of Soool. Sir Thomas 
Clifford, who had been brought into the rniniftry in England, appre- 
henfive that he could not carry his ends in Ireland vvhilft Orrery 
continued president of Munfter, procured articles of impeachment of 
high treafon and mifdemeanors to be exhibited againft him in the 
Englifh Houfe of Commons : his lordfhip, being heard in his place, 
gave an anfwer fo clear, circumftantial, and ingenuous, that the 
affair was dropped. The king laboured in vain to reconcile him to 
the French alliance, and the reducing of the Dutch. At the defire 
of the king and the duke of York, he drew the plan of an act of 
limitation, by which the fucceilbr would have been difabled from 
encroaching on civil and religious liberty; but the propofmg thereof 
being pofpjned till afrer the exclufion bill was fet on foot, thefeafon 
for making ufe of it was parTed. The king, to hinder his returning 
to Ireland, and to keep him about his peilon, offered him the place 
of lord treafurer; hut the earl of Orrery plainly told his majefry that 
he was guided by unfteady cour.fellors, with whom he could not act. 
He died in October 1679, aged 58; leaving behind him the character 
of an able general, ftatefman, and writer. He wj c the author of, i. 
The Irilh Colours difplayed. 2. An Anfwer to a fcandalous Letter 
lately printed, and fubfcribed by Peter Walfh. 3. A Poem on his 
Majefty's happy Rettoration. 4. A Poem on the Death of the cele- 
brated Mr. Abraham Cowley. 5. The Hiftory of Henry V. a 
Tragedy. 6. Muftapha, the Son of Soliman the Magnificent, a 
Tragedy. 7. The Black Prince, a Tragedy. 8. Triphon, a Tra- 
gedy. 9. ParthenilTa, a Romance. 10. A Dream, n. A Trea- 
tileupon the Art of War. 12. Poems on the Fafts and Festivals of 
the Church. He alfo left behind him fome unprinted manu- 

BOYLE (ROBERT}, a molt diitinguilhed philofopher and che- 
mi(r, and ("what is better) an exceeding good man, was the feventh 
fon, and the fourteenth child, of Richard earl of Cork, and born at 
Lifmore in the province of Munlter in Ireland, the 2jth of Jan. 
1626-7. He was committed to the care of a country nurfe, with 
inductions to bring him up as hardy as if he had been her own 
fon ; for his father, he tells us, * had a prrfed averfion for the fond- 
nefs of thofe parents, which made them breed their childien fo nice 
and tenderly, that a hot fun or a good fhower of rain as much en- 
dangers them, as if they were made of butter, or of fugar. By 
this he gained a itrong and vigorous conttitution, which, however, 
he afterwards ioit, by it's being treated too tendej-ly. He acquaints 

BOYLE (Robert). .'233 

us with feveral misfortunes which happened to him in his youth. 
When he was about three years old, he loft his mother, who was a 
molt accomplifhed woman, and whom he regrets on that account, 
becaufe he did not know her. A fecond misfortune was, that he 
learned to flutter, by mocking fome children of his own age : of 
which, though no endeavours were fpared, he could never be per- 
fectly cured. A third, that, in a journey to Dublin, he had like to 
have been drowned; and certainly had been, if one of his father's 
gentlemen had not taken him out of a coach, which, in paffing a 
brook raifed by fome fudden (bowers, was overturned and carried 
away with the ftream. 

While he continued at home, he was taught to write a very fair 
hand, and to fpeak French and Latin, by one of the earl's chap- 
lains, and a Frenchman that he kept in the houfe. In 1635, his 
father fent him over to England, in order to be educated at Eaton 
fchool under Sir H. Wotton, who was the earl of Cork's old friend 
and acquaintance. Here he foon difcovered a force of underftand- 
ing, which promifed great things, and a difpofition to cultivate and 
improve it to the utmoft. While he remained at Eaton, there were 
feveral extraordinary accidents that befel him, of which he has given 
us an account ; and three of which were very near proving fatal to 
him. The firft was, the ibdden -fall of the chamber where he 
lodged, when himfelf was in bed ; when, befides the hazard he ran 
of being crufhed to pieces, he had certainly been choaked with 
the duft, during the time he lay under the rubbifh, if he had 
not had prefence of mind enough to have wrapped his head up ;ii 
the meet, which gave him an opportunity of breathing without 
hazard. A little after this he had been crulhed to pieces by a dart- 
ing horfe, that rofe up fuddenly, and threw himfelf backwards, if 
he had not happily difengaged his feet from the flirrups, and call 
himfelf from his back before he fell. A third accident proceeded 
from the carelefsnefs of an apothecary's fervant, who, miftaking 
the phials, brought him a flrong vomit, inilead of a cooling julep. 

He remained at Eaton between three and four years ; and then 
his father carried him to his own feat at Stalbridge in Dorfetfhire, 
where he remained, fome time under the care of one of his chap- 
lains, who was the parfon of the place. In the autumn of 1638, 
he attended his father to London, and remained with him at the 
Savoy, till his brother Mr. Francis Boyle, efpoufed Mrs. Elizabeth 
Killigrew ; and then, towards the end of October, within four thys 
after the marriage, the two brothers Francis and Robert, were fent 
abroad upon their travels, under the cure of Mr. Marcombes-. 
They embarked at Rye in Suffex, and from thence proceeded to 
Dieppe in Normandy ; then they travelled by land to Rouen, fo to 
Paris, and from thence to Lyons ; from which city they continued 
their journey to Geneva, Where his governor had a family : and 
there the two gentlemen purfued their fludies quietly, and without 

VOL. II. G g interruption. 


interruption. Mr. Boyle, during his ftay here, refumed his ac- 
quaintance with the mathematics, or at lead with the elements of 
that fcience, of which he had before gained Come knowledge. For 
he tdls us, in his own memoirs, that while he was at Eaton, and 
afflicted with an ague, before he was ten years old, by way of di- 
verting his melancholy, they made him read Amadis de Gaule, and 
other romantic books, which produced fuch reftleffhefs in him, that 
he was obliged to apply himfelf to the extraction of the fquare and 
cube roots, and to the more laborious operations of algebra, in order 
to fix and fettle the volatility of his fancy. 

While he remained at Geneva, he made feme excurfions to vifit 
the adjacent country of Savoy, and even proceed fo far as to Gre- 
noble in Dauphine. He took a view alfo of thofe wild mountains' >. 
where Brune, the firft author of the Carthufian monks, lived in 
folitude, and where the firlt and chief of the Carthufian abbeys 
is feated. Mr. Boyle relates, that " the devil, taking advantage of 
that deep raving melancholy, fo fad a place, his own humour," 
which was naturally grave and ferious, " and the flrange ftorie? and 
pictures he found there of Bruno, fuggefted fuch ftrange and hi- 
deous diffracting doubts oi fume of the fundamentals of chriflia- 
nity ; that though, he fays, his looks did little betray his thoughts, 
nothing but the forbidnels of felf-difpatch hindered his acting it." 
He laboured under this perplexity and melancholy many months : 
but at length getting out of it, he fet about enquiring into the 
grounds and foundation of the chriftian religion, " that fo," fays 
he, " though he believed more than he could comprehend* he might 
not believe more than he could prove ; a'nd owe the ftedfaltnefs of 
his faith to fo poor a cauie, as the ignorance of what might be ob- 
jcdcd againft it." He became confirmed in the belief of chrittia- 
nity, and in a conviction of it's truth ; yet not fo, he fays, but that 
" the fleeting clouds of doubt and difbelief did never alter ceafe now 
and then to darken the fereniry of 'his quiet : which made him of- 
ten fay, that injections of thus nature were fuch a difeafe to his faith, 
as the tooth-ach is to the body. 

September 1641, he quitted Geneva, after having fpent one and 
twenty months in that city; and, pa fling through Switzerland, and 
the country of the Grifons, entered Lombardy. Then, taking his 
route thro.i.jh Bergamo, Brefcia, and Verona, he arrived at Venice; 
where having made a fhort flay, he returned to the continent, and 
fpent the winter at Florence, Here he employed his fpare hours 
in reading the modern hiftory in Italian, and the works of the cele- 
brated ailronomcT Galileo, who died at a village near this city during 
Mr. Boyle's rtlidence in it. It wa$ at Florence that he acquired the 
Italian language, which he underftood perfectly, though he never 
fpoke it fo fluently as the French. Of this indeed he was fuch a 
mafter, that, as occafion required, he palled for a native of that coun- 
try in mcrs places than one during his travels. 


BOYLE (Robert). 

March 164.2, he began his journey from Florence to Rome, 
which took up but five days. He ftirveyed the numerous curiofities 
of that city. Hevifited the adjacent villages, which had any thing 
curious or antique belonging to them ; and had probably made 3 
longer ftay, had not the heats difageeed with his brother. Here- 
turned to Florence, from thence to Leghorn, and fo by Tea to Genoa. 
Then parting through the county of Nice, he croffed the fea at A*i- 
tibes, where he fell into danger for refuting to honour the crucifix : 
from whence he went to Marftilles by land. He was in that city 
in May 1642, when he received his father's letters, which informed 
him of the rebellion broke out in Ireland, and how difficultly he had 
procured the 250!. then remitted to them, in order to help them 
home. They never received this money ; and were obliged to go 
to Geneva with their governor Murcombes, who fuppliedthem with 
as much at leafi as carried them thither. They continued there ^ 
confiderable time, without either advices or fupplies from England : 
upon which'Mr. Marcombes was obliged to take up fome jewels on 
his own credit, which were afterwards difpoled of with as little lofs 
as might be ; and with the money thus raifed, they continued their 
journey for England, whither they arrived in 1644. On his arrival 
Mr. Boyle found his lather dead; and though the earl had made an 
ample provifion far him, as well by leaving him his manor of Stal- 
briclge in England, a? other confiderable eftates in Ireland, yet it was 
fome time befora he could receive any money. However, he pro- 
cured protections for his eitates in both kingdoms from the powers 
then in being ; from whom allo he obtained leave to go over to 
France for a (hort fpace, probably to fettle accounts with his gover- 
nor Mr. Marcombes : but he could not be long abroad, llnce we 
find him at Cambridge the December following. 

March 1646, he retired to his manor at Stalbridge, where he 
refided for the moft part till May 1650. He made excursions, 
fometimes to London, fometimes to Oxford ; and in February 
1647, he went over to Holland : but he made no confiderable Hay 
anywhere. During his retirement- at Stalbridge, he applied hirn- 
fclf with incredible induftry to ftudies of various kinds, to thofe of 
natural philofophy and chemiftry in particular. He omitted no 
opportunity of obtaining the acquaintance of perfons diilinguifhed 
for parts and learning, to whom he was in every refpedl a ready, 
ufeful, generous aftiftanr, and with whom he held a conftant corref- 
pondence. He wasalfo one of the firir. members of that fmall, but 
learned body of men, which, when all academical (Indies were 
interrupted by the civil wars, h-creted themfelves about 1645 '> ant ^ 
held private meetings, firfl in London, afterwards at Oxford, for 
the fake of canvalling fubjecls of natural knowledge, upon that 
plan of experiment which my lord Bacon had delineated. They 
ftyled themfelves then " The Philofophical College ;" and, after 
tte.reSoration, when they were incorporated and diitinguilhed open- 

G g 2 ' 


Iy, took the name of the " Royal Society." His retired courfe of 
life however could not hinder his reputation from rifing to fuch a 
height, as made him taken notice of by fome of the moft eminent 
members of the Republic of Letters ; io that, in 1651, we find Dr. 
JSIathaniel Highmore, a very eminent phyfician, dedicating to him a 
book, under the title of " The Hiftory of Generation." 

In 1652, he went over to Ireland, in order to vifit and fettle his 
eftates in that kingdom ; and returned from thence in Auguft 1653. 
He was foon after obliged to go over to Ireland again; where he 
had fpent his time very unpleafantly, if it had not been for his in- 
timate friend and acquaintance fir William Petty, in whofe conver- 
fation he was extremely happy. In the fummer of 1654., he re- 
turned to England, and put in execution a defign he had formed, 
fome time, of refiding at Oxford ; where he continued for the 
mod part till April 1668, and then he fettled at London in the 
houfe of his fifler Ranelagh in Pail Mall. At Oxford he chofe to 
live in the houfe of Mr. Crolfe, an apothecary, rather than in a 
college, for the fake of his health, and becaufe he had more room to 
make experiments. Oxford was indeed at that time the only place 
in England where Mr. Boyle could have lived with much fatisfac- 
tion ; for here he found himfelf furrounded with a number of 
learned friends, fuch as Wilkins, Wallis, Ward, Willis, Wren, 
&c. fuited exally to his tafte, and who had reforted thither for the 
fame reafonsthat he had done ; the philofophical fociety being now 
removed from London to Oxford. It was during his refidence 
here, that he invented that admirable engine, the air-pump; which 
was perfected for him by the very ingenious Mr. Robert Hooke, in 
1678, or 1679. 

Upon the reftoration of Charles II. he was treated with great 
civility and refpe6l by the king, as well as by the two great minif- 
ters, treafurer Southampton and chancellor Clarendon. He was 
folicited by the latter to enter into holy orders ; but Mr. Boyle d-.- 
clinedit. He now began to communicate to the world the fruits 
of thofe ftudies. The firft of thefe was printed at Oxford 1660, in 
cvo. under the title of, i. " New Experiments Phyfico-mecha- 
Jiical, touching the fpring of the air and 'it's efFeds. 2. Seraphic 
Love; or, fome motives and incentives to the love of God." 3, Cer- 
tain Phyfiologicai ElTays and other traces. 4. Sceptical Chemift ; 
a very curious and excellent work, with the addition of " Divers 
experiments and notes about the produciblenefs of chemical prin- 

In 1662, a grant of the forfeited unproprhtions in the kingdom 
cF Ireland was obtained from the king in Mr. Buyle's name, though 
without his knowledge ; which neverthelefs did not hinder him 
from interefting himfelf very warmly, for procuring the application 
cf thofe unpropriations to the promoting true religion and learning. 
lie interpoied likewifc in favour of the corporation fur propagating 


BOYLE (Robert). 237 

.-* -" : '-' ' __ m,^ | ,,,jj 'innm^i^ * 

the gofpel in New England ; and was very inftrumental in obtain- 
ing a decree in the court of chancery, for restoring to that corpora- 
tion an efiate, which had been injurioufly re-pofieffed by one Col. 
Bedinfield, apapift, who had fold it to them fora valuable con fide- 
ration. His activity in matters of this nature was fo much the 
more honourable, as his inclination led him generally to be private 
and retired. But whenever the caufe of virtue, learning, or reli- 
gion, required it, his intereft and endeavours were never wanting ; 
and, what is very remarkable, were feldom employed but with fuc- 
cefs. In 1663, the Royal Society being incorporated by king 
Charles II. Mr. Boyle was appointed one of the council ; and, as 
he might bejuftly reckoned among the founders of that learned body, 
fo he continued one of it's mail ufeful and induftrious members, 
during the whole courfe of his life. In June 1663, he publilhed, 
5. Confiderations touching the ufefulnefs of experimental natural 
philofophy, 4-to. reprinted the year following. 6. Experiments and 
confiderations upon colours ; to which was added a letter, contain- 
ing Obfervations on a diamond tliat Ihines in the dark, 1663, 8vo. 
reprinted in the fame (ize in 1670. It was alfo t ran flared into 
Latin. This treatife is full of curious and ufeful remarks on the 
hitherto unexplained doctrine of light and colours; in which he 
fhews great judgment, accuracy, and penetration, and may be faid 
to have led the way to that mighty genius, the great Sir Ifaac New. 
ton, who has fince fet that important point in the cleareftand mofr. 
convincing light. 7. Confiderations upon the ftyle of the holy 
Scriptures, 1663, 8vo. A Latin tranfiation of it was printed at 
Oxford, where moft of his writings were published, in 1665. It was 
an extraiSl from a larger work, entitled, " An Effay on Scripture;" 
which was afterwards publifhed by fir Peter Pett, a friend of Mr. 

In 1664, he was elecled into the company of the Royal mines; 
and was all this year taken up in the profecutiou of various good 
defigns, which probably was the reaibn why he did not fend abroad 
any treatifes either of religion or philofophy. The year following 
came forth, 8. Occafional reflections upon feveral fubje6ls ; where- 
to is prefixed, A Di'coiirfe about fuch kind of thoughts, 1665, 8vo. 
reprinted in 1669, 8vo. This piece is add re lied to Sophronia, under 
whofe name he concealed that of his beloved lifter, the vifcountefs 
of Ranelagh. The thoughts themfelves are on a vaft variety of 
fubjeds, written many years before ; fome indeed upon trivial oc- 
cafions, but all with great accuracy of language, much wit, more 
learning, ai:d in a wonderful ftrain of moral and pious refledtinn. 
Yet this expofed him to the only fevere cenfure that ever was paffed 
upon him, and that too from no lefs a man than the celebrated Dean 
Swift; who, to ridicule thefe difcourfes, wrote " A pious medita- 
tion upon a broomftick, in the ftyle of the honourable Mr. Boyle." 
But, as his noble relation the. prefent lord Orrery, has faid, " to 



\vhat a height mull the fpirit of farcafm arife in an author, who could 
prevail upon himfelf to ridicule fo good a man as Mr. 'Boyle ~ f . The 
fword of wit, like the fey the of time, cuts down friend and foe, and 
attacks every object, that accidentally lies in it's way. But, fbarp 
and irrcnfiibleas the edge of it may be, Mr. Boyle will always remain 
invulnerable." A certain writer, by way of making repriials upon 
Swift for his treatment of Mr. Boyle, which he affirms to be as cruel 
arui unjufl as it is trivial and indecent, has obferved, that, from this 
very treatife, which he has thus turned into ridicule, he borrowed 
the f-.rft hint of his Gulliver's Travels. He grounds his conjecture 
upon the following pafTage, to be found in the " Occafional Re- 
flections." " You put me in mind of a fancy of your friend Mr. 
Beyle, who was faying, that he had thoughts of making a fhort 
romantic ftory, where the fcene fhonld be laid in fome ifland of the 
fouthern ocean, governed by fome fuch rational laws and cuftoms as 
thofe of the Utopia or the New Atalantis. And in this country he 
would introduce an obferving native, that, upon his return home 
from his travels made in Europe, fhould give an account of our 
countries and manners under feigned names ; and frequently inti- 
mate in his relations, or in his anfvvers to queftions that fhould be 
made him, the reafons-of his wondering, to find our cuftom^ fo ex- 
travagant, and differing from thofe of his own country. For your 
friend imagined that, by fuch a way of expofing many of our prac- 
tices, we fhould.ourfelves be brought unawares to condemn, or per- 
haps to laugh at them ; and fhould at leaft ceafe to wonder, to find 
other nations think them as extravagant, as we think the manners 
of the Dutch and Spaniards, as they are reprefented in our travellers 

The fame year he publifhed an important work, entitled, 9. 
" New Experiments and Obfervations upon Cold; or, an experi- 
mental hiftory of cold begun : with feveral pieces thereto annexed, 
1665," 8vo. reprinted in 1683, 4-to. 

His excellent character, in all refpects, had procured him fo much 
efteem and affeclion with the king, as well as with every body elfe, 
t'lat hisrmjefty.unfolicited and unafked, nominated himtothe provoft. 
ibip of Eton College, in Auguft 1665. This was thought the fitted 
employment for him in the kingdom ; yet, after mature deliberation, 
though contrary to the advice of all his friends he abfolutely de- 
clined it. He had feveral reafons for declining it : he thought the 
duties ot that employment might interfere with his (Indies ; he was 
unwilling to quit that courfe of lite, which, by experience, he found 
fo lu'table to his temper and orrair.itu.tion ; and, above all, he was 
unwilling to enter into holy orders, which he was perfuadcd was ne- 
ceffary to qualify himfelf for it. 

In 1666 Mr. B;>yle publifhed, 10. " Hydrofbtical Paradoxes made 
nut by new experiments, for the moft part phyfical and eafy," irj 
.. wliiCh he fent abroad at the requeft of the Royal Society, thofe 


BOYLE (Robert). 

experiments having been made at their defire about two years be- 
fore. II. " The Origin of Forms and Qualities, according to the 
Corpufcular Plulofophy, illtiftrated by confederations and experi- 
ment. 6 ," 1666, 410, and reprinted tiie year following in 8vo. This 
treatife did great honour to Mr. Boyle, whether we confider the 
quicknefs of his wit, the depth of" his judgment, or his indefatigable 
pains in fearching after trutk. 

jut this time, namely 1668, Mr. Boyle refulved ta fettle him- 
felr in London for Life; and removed for that purpofe to the houfe 
ol his filter, the lady Ranelagh, in. Pall Mall. In 1669 he publifhed 
12. " A continuation of new experiments touching the fpririg 
and weight of the air; to which is added A Difcotirib of the atmof- 
pheres of confident bodies ;" an 1 the fame year he revifed and made 
many additions to feverai of his former tract?, fome of which, as 
we have before obferved, were r.ovv tranflated into Latin, in crdc'r 
to gratify the curious abroad. 13. " Tracls about the cofmira! 
qualities of things; cofmical fufpicions ; ihe temperature of the 
fubterranean regions; the bottom or the fea: to which is prefixed 
an introduction to the hifrory of particular qualities, 1670," Svo, 

In the midft of all thefb ftudies and labours for the public, he 
was attacked by a fevere paralytic difiemper ; of which, though not 
without great difficulty, he got the, better, by firict'y adhering to 
a proper regimen. In 1671, lie pablilbed, 14. " Confiderations 
on the ufefulnefs of experimental and natural philofophy." The 
fecond part, 410. And, 15. " A Collection r>f tracls upon fever;:! 
ufeful and important points of practical phiiofophy," 4to : both 
which works were received as new and valuable gifts to the learned 
world. 16. " An Elfay about the origin and virtue of gem?, 1672," 
8vo. 17. " A collection of tracts upon the relation k> tv cen flame 
and air ; and feverai other ufeful and curicus fubjecis ;" bef:desl"i:r- 
nifhing, in this and in the former year, a great number of fhort dif- 
Itrtations upon a vaft variety of topics, addrelfecl to the p^:,y?.\ c.xriety, 
and inferted in their " Tranfactions," 18. " EtTav? on the ftran^fc 
fubrlety, great efficacy, and deteiminatc nature ot efiiuvia ; to which 
were added variety of experiments on other fnbiecls, 1673, 8vo. 
19. " A Colled'tion of fta6ts upon the faltnefs or fca, the moiiti:re 
ot the air, the natural and preternatural ftate of bodies, to which is 
prefixed a dialogue concerning cold, 167-4," 8vo. 20. " The ex- 
cellency of theology comparer! with natural philofophy, 1673," 
8vo. 21. "A CoTledlion of trals, containing fufpicions ab*;i;t 
hidden qualities of the air; with an appendix touching cek-itiu'; 
n.^ t -)ets ; anirnadverfions upon Mr. Hobbes's problem about a va* 
cuum ; a difcourfe of the caufe of attraction and fuel ion, 167;," 
8vo. 22. " Some Confiderations about the reconcileabienefs of 
:cafon and religion. By T. E. a layman. To which i? annexed a 
difcourfe about the poltibillty of the refurrsclion by Mr. Boyk, 
1675," 8vo. The reader mufl be informed, that both thefe pie.-'-* 



- -^ . i 

r- ,. . ... ' 

were of his writing; only he thought fit to mark the former with 
the final letters of his name. Among other papers that he com- 
municated this year to the Royal Society, there were two connected 
Into one difcourfe, that deferve particular notice. The former was 
intituled, " An experimental difcourfe of quickfilver growing hot 
with go'ul ; : ' the otner related to the fame fubject, and both of them 
contained difcoveries of the utmoft importance. 

In 1676, Mr. Boyle pubiifhed, 23. " Experiments and notes 
about the mechanical origin cr production of particular qualities, 
in feveral difcourfes on a great variety of fubjects, and, among the 
reft, of eledlricity." He had been for many years a director of the 
Ealt India company, and very ufeful in this capacity to that great 
body, more efpecially in procuring their charter; and the only re- 
turn he expected for his labour was, the engaging the company to 
come to fome refolution in favour of the propagation of the gofpel, 
by means of their ftourifhing factories in that part of the world. As 
a proof of his own inclination to contribute, as far as in him lay, for 
that purpofe, he cauied five hundred copies of the Gofpels and Acts 
of the Apoftles, in the Malayan tongue, to be printed at Oxford in 
1677, 410, to be fent abroad at his own expence. This appears 
trom the dedication, prefixed by his friend Dr. Thomas Hyde, to 
that tranflation which w r as publifhed under his direction. It was 
thefame fpirit and principle which made him fend, about three years 
before, feveral copies of <l Grotius de Veritate Chriftianaj Reli- 
gionis," tranilated into Arabic by Dr. Edward Pocock, into the Le- 
vant, as a means of propagating Chrift'ianity there. There was 
printed in 1677, at Geneva, a " Mifcelianeous Collection of Mr. 
Boyle's Works," in Latin, without his confent, or even knowledge, 
6f which there is a large account given in the Philofophical Tranf- 
actions. In 1678 he communicated to Mr. Hooke a 1'hort memo- 
rial of fome obfervatinns made upon " An artificial fubftance that 
fhines without any preceding iliuftration ;" which that gentleman 
thought fit to publiih in his " Lecticnes Cutlerianse." He pub- 
lifhed the fame year, 24. " Kiftorical Account of a degradation of 
gold made by an anti-ciixir ;" arrange chemical narrative, 4to, re- 
printed in the fame fize 1739. This made a very great r.oife both 
at home and abroad, and is looked upon as one of the moft remark- 
able pieces that ever fell from his pen. 

In 1680, Mr. Boyle publifhed, 25. " The Aerial Noctiluca ; or 
fome new phenomena, and a procefs of a factitious fe!f-fhining|fub- 
ftance,"8vo. It was upon the goth of November this year, that 
the Royal Society, as a proof of the juft fenfe of his great worth, 
and of the conftant and particular fervices which through acourfe of 
many years he had done them, made choice of him for their prefi- 
iulent ; but he being extremely, and, as he fays, peculiarly tender 
in point of oaths, declined the honour done him, by a letter addreffed 
to " his much refpected friend Mr. Robert Hooke, profefTor of 

4 mathein;.' " 

BOYLE (Robert). 241 

ftiathematics at Gre(ham college." About this tim?, Dr. Rurnet 
being employed in compiling his admirable " Hifloiy of the Re- 
formation," Mr. Boyle contributed very largely to the expence ot 
publishing it ; as is acknowledged by the doctor in his preface to 
ihe fecona volume. 26. '* Difcourfe of things aboye reafon \ inquir- 
ing, whether a philofophejr llu-uld udmit there are any i"uchri68i,' ? 
|8yo. 27. " New Experiments and i-bll-rvations made upon the Icy 
Noctiluca : to which is added a Chemical paradox, grounded upon 
new experiment?, making it probable, that chemical principles 
are tranfmutable, fo that out of one of them others rhay be 
produced, 1682," Syo, 28. < A Continuation of new experi- 
ments phvlico-mechanical, touching the fpring and weight ot the 
air, and th'eir effects, 1682" Svo. It was probably about the begin- 
ning of the year 1681, that he was eng-iged in promoting the 
preaching and propagating of the gofpel among the Indians ; fince 
the letter, which he wrote upon that lubjedt, was in aniwer to one 
from Mr. John Elliot, .of. New England, dared Nov. 4, 1680. This 
letter of Mr. I'ijyle is preferred by his hiilorian ; and it Ihew?, that 
he had a va(l difiiks to perfecution, oii account of opinions in reli- 
gion. He publiihed, in 1683, nothing but a ihort letter to Dr. 
Beal, in relation to the making of freih water out of fait. In 1684, 
he printed two very confiderable works; 29. " Memoirs for the 
natural hiftory of human blood, efpecially the fpirit of that liquor,' f 
8vo. 30, < Experiments and Confideratic^ns about the pcrofity of 
bodies," 8vo. 

In 1685, he obliged the world with, 7,1. '< Short Memoirs for the 
patnral experimental hiftory of mineral waters, with directions as to 
the leveral methods of trying them, including abundance of ne\y 
nd ufeful remarks, as well as feveral curious experiments." 32. 
4 An Effay on the great efFeds of even, languid, and unheeded mo- 
tion ; whereunto is annexed an experimental difcourfe of fome hi- 
therto little rewanird caufes of the falubrity and inildubrity 
of the air, and "it's effects.'' :ie of hi? treaties, it is faid f 

were ever receiv.ed with greater or more general applaufe than this, 
33. '* Of the Reconcileablenefs of fpecific medicines to the corpof- 
cu'ar philoibphy ; to which is annexed, A Difcourfe about the advan- 
tages of the ufe of fimple medicine?," Svo. Beiides thefe p.hilo- 
fonh.ical tracls, he gave the world likewife, the D.ine year, an excel- 
lent theological one, 34. " Qf the high veneration man's intelleft 
owes to God, peculiarly for his wiMiom and power," Svo. This 
was "part of a much larger work, which he iigniried to the world in 
an advertiiement, to prevent any exception from being taken at the 
abrupt manner of it's beginning. 

At the beginning.. of the fucceeding year, came abjoad hi?, 3,. 
*' Free inquiry into the vulgarly received notion of nature/' a piece 
which was then, and will always be, greatly admired by tMe who 
have a true zeal and relifh tor pure religion and found phijofophy. 

VOL. IL Hh It 


It was tranllatcJ into Latin, and reprintecHn 12 mo. the year after. 
In June 1686, his friend Dr. Gilbert Burner, afterwards bifhop of 
Salisbury, tranfmitted to him from the Hague the manufcript ac- 
count of his travels, which he had drawn up in the form of letters, 
addreflcd to Mr. Boyle ; who, in his anfwer to the doclor, dated the 
I4(h of that month, expretles his fatisfadiion in " finding, that all 
men do not travel, as moil do, to obferve buildings, and gardens, and 
mod?s, and other amufements of a fuperfkbl and almoit infigni- 
cant curiofity ; for your judicious remarks and reflections, " fays he, 
" may not a little improve both a (late fm an, a critic, and a divine, n% 
well as they will the writer pafs {or all three." In 1687 Mr. 
Boyle publilhed, 36. ' The Martyrdom of Theodora and Dy- 
ciimia," 8vo. a work he had drawn up in his youth. 37. " A Di'f- 
qnifition about the final of natural things; \vherein it is in- 
quired whether, and, if at all, with what caution a naturalift fhould 
admit them. With an appendix about vitiated light," 1688, Svo. 

Soon after, Mr. Boyle publifned, 38. " Medicina Hydroftatica; 
or, Hydroftatics applied to the materia medica,"fhewing how, by the 
weight that divers bodies ufed in phyfic have in water, one may dif- 
cover whether they be genuine or ac?ulterate. To which is fub- 
joinei', a previous hydroitatical way of ejlimating ores," 1690, Svo, 
He informs us, in the poftfcript of this treatife, that he had prepared 
materials for a fecond volume, which he intended to publifh; but it 
never appeared. 39. " The Chrifiian Virtuofo ; fhewing that, by 
being addicted to experimental -philofyphy, a man is rather affifted 
than indifpofed to be a good Chriltian." The laft work, which he. 
pib'ifhed himfelf, was in the fpring of 1691 ; and is entitled, 40, 
" E;:perimenta et Obfervationes Phyiicse: v;herein are briefly treated 
of feveral fubjedls relating to natural philofophy in an experimental 
way. To which is added, a fmall collection of ftrange reports," 
Svo. About the entrance of the furrsmer, he began to feel fuch an 
alteration in his health, as induced him to think of fettling bis af. 
fairs; and accordingly, on the i8th of July, he figned and fealed his 
lad will, to which he afterward; added feveral codicils. In October 
his diftempers increafed ; which might perhaps be owing to his 
tender concern tor the tedious illnefs of his dear fitter, the lady Ra- 
nelagh, with whom he had lived many years in the greateft haTmony 
and friendfhip, and whole indifpofition brought her to the grave on 
the ?.id of December following. Pie old not furvive her above a 
tveek; for, on the ^oth of December, he departed this life in the 
65th year of his age, He left behind him many other works in oa- 

)i'LE (CHARLES), earl of Orrery, fecond fon of Roger, fecond 
enrl of Orrery, by Lady Mary Sackville, daughter to Richard earl cf 
Darfet and Middlefex, was born Aug. 1676; and at fifteen entered 3 
r.obieman of Chrift-church, Oxford,, under the care of Dr. Francis 


BOYLE (Charles). 

Atterbury, afterwards bifhop of Rochefter, and Dr. Freintl. D-" 
Aldrich, the head of that fociety, obfcrving his uncommon appli- 
cation, drew np for his ufe that compendium of logic which is now 
read at Chrift-church, wherein he ftyles him " the great ornament of 
cur college." Having quitted the univerfity, he was, in 1700, chofen 
member lor the town of Huntington. A petition being prefented to 
the Houfe of Commons, complaining of the illegality of his elec- 
tion, he fpoke in fupport ofit with great warmth; and this probably 
gave rife to his duel with Mr. Wortley, the other candidate, in 
which, though Mr. Boyle had the advantage, the wounds he received 
threw him into a dangerous fit of ficknefs, that lafted for many 
months. On the death of his elder brother, he became earl of 
Orrery : foon after he had a regiment given him, and was elected 3 
knight of the Thiftle. In 1706 he married Lady Elizabeth Cecil, 
daughter to the earl of Exeter. In 1709 he was promoted to the 
rank of major general, and fworn of her majefty's privy council. 
He was envoy extraordinary from the queen to the itates of Flan- 
ders' and Brabant, with an appointment of ten pounds a day, at a 
very critical juncture, namely, during the treaty of Utrecht. There, 
(bme in authority at Bruffels, knowing they were foon to become the 
emperor's fubjecls, and that his imperial majefty was not on good 
terms with the queen, (hewed lefs refpecl to her minifter than they 
had formerly done : upon which Orrery, who confidered their beha- 
viour as an indignity to the crown of Great Britain, managed with 
fo much refolution and dexterity, that, when they thought his 
power was declining, or rather that he had no power at all, he got 
every one of them turned out of his poft. Her inajerty, in the tenth 
year of her reign, raifed him to the dignity of a Britilh peer, by the 
title of Lord Boyle, baron of Marfton, in Somerfetfhire. On the ac- 
ceffion of King George I. he was made a lord of the bedchamber, 
and lord lieutenant and.cuflos rctylorum of the county of Somerfer. 
His frequent voting againft the mini tiers gave rife to a report that 
he was to be removed from all his pofts, upon which he abfented him- 
&lf fro IT? the court .; but his friends alluring him that they hud ground 
to Relieve the king had a perfonal efteem for him, he wrote a letter 
to his majefty, fignifying, that though he looked upon his fervice as 
a high honour, yet, when he firfl entered into it, he did not conceive 
it was expected from him that he fliould vote againft his confcience 
and his judgment; that he mutt confefs it was his misfortune to 
differ widely in opinion from fome of his rnajefty's minifters; that if 
thofe gentlemen had reprefented this to his rnnjeity as a crime not to 
be forgiven, and his majeity himfelf thoughrfo, he was ready to 
refign thofe ports he enjoyed, from which he found he was already 
removed by a common report, which was rather encouraged than 
contradicted by the minifters. The kirg going foon after to Ha- ' 
aover, Lord Orrery's regiment was tuiun Uooi h.m t which his 


2 lordOiip 


lordlliip looking upon as a mark of uiipieafure, religned his poll of 
lord of the bedchamber. 

On the 2^'th of September, 17 2, he was committed clofe pri- 
foner to the Tower, by warrant of a committee of the lords of the 
privy council, upon fufoicion of high treafoh, and of being concerned 
in Layer's plot. His confinement brought on fuch a dangerous fit 
of ficknefs, that, as Dr. Mead remonUrated to the council, unltfs 
he was immediately fet at liberty; he would not ahfwer for his life 
twenty-four hours ; upon which, after fix months impriibnment, he 
was admitted to bail. .Upon the. drifted inquiry, ho fufficient 
ground for a profecution being found, lie was, after palling through 
the ufnal forms, abfolutely dilciiarged. After this, he conibntiv at- 
tended in his place in the Hotife of Peers, as he had done before} 
and though he never fpbke in that affembty, h'is pen was frequently 
employed to draw up the protefts entered in it's journals. He died; 
after a" Chert imiifpofition, on the 2lft of Augiift, 1/31. 

BOYLE (Jon::'!, earl of Cork and Oirery, was the only Ton or 
Charles, the fubj :tt of the preceding article, and born the id of Ja- 
nuary, 1706-7. He WPS placed under the management of Fenton, 
tlie poet,, fromlhe age of {"even to thirteen ark! then, after piling 
through Weflrninfter fchoel, he was admitted nobleman of Chrift- 
church, Oxford. In 1728 he married Lady Harriet Hamilton, a 
daughter of C ' arl of Orkney ; and though this match had the 

entire approbation of his father, yet it unfortunately happened that 
adiffentiCi! ..rofe between t'ne two ear's, \\hicil put Lord Boyle and 
his lady int>> a very delicate and difficult fittiation. Lord Boyle was 
tenderly attached to his lady ; and his behaviour not pleafing his fa- 
ther, who was toe much irritated by the family quarrel, the earl, 
under this imprdfior, UKU'L- a will, in v\ hich he bequeathed his li- 
brary to Chriit-church in Oxford. It is true, that a reconciliatiorl 
took place, and that the father was upon the point of cancelling this 
bequeftj but was prevented by the fuddennefs of his deceafe. Lord 
Orrery fpeaks of this affair \viih great feiifibi'ity and emotion, above 
twenty years after, to his Ton. 

He took his feat in the Houfe of Peers, Jan. i 731-32 ; but though 
jhe.diftinguiilied himfelf by fome fpeeclK-s, he did not greatly culti- 
vate the bufinefs of parliament. The delicacy of his health, his 
paflion for private life, and the occafions he fometimes had of re- 
fiding in Ireland, feem to have precliic'ed him from any regular 
attendance in the Englifh Houfe of Peers. In 1732 he went to Ire- 
land, and was at Cork, when his countefs died there the 22(1 of 
Auguft.that year. The character of this lady is drawn by himfelf, 
in his " Obferva'.ions on Pliny;" and her excellent qualities and 
virtues are highly difplayed by Theobald, in his dedication of Shak- 
Jpeare's works to the earl, which, it fccrus, was originally intended 

BOYLE (John). 245 

for her. While in Ireland, he commenced a friendfliip with Swiftj 
ipon lending him a copy of verfes on his birth-day, which produced 
alfo that of Pope. Oct. 1733 he returned to England, and having 
now no attachment to London, retired to Mariton in Somerfetfhire ; 
a feat of his anceitors which had been much neglected, and which 
was now little more than the fhell of a houfe. Here he amufed 
hitnielf in building and repairing, in laying out gardens and planta- 
tions, in erecting a library^ c. 

About 1738 he took -a houfe in Duke-flreet, Weftminfler, that 
his (ons might be educated under his own eye, and have alfo the 
benefit of attend!* /; Weftminfter-fchool-. June the fame year he 
married a fecond wife, Mrs. Margaret Hamilton, an Iriih gentle- 
woman 5 and, with gratitude to Heaven, acknowledges that in her 
the lofs of his former countefs was repaired. In 1739 he publifhed 
a new edition, in two vols. 8vo. of his great-grandfather's dramatic 
works, now very fcarce ; and in 1742 his " State Letters," to which 
were prefixed Morrice's memoirs of that {tatefrmn. In 1743 he was 
created doctor of law at Oxford ; he was likewife a fellow of the 
Royal Society. In 1746, Lord Boyle being fettled at Oxford, and 
Mr. Boyle at Weftminfter fc'hool, he removed to Caledon, in the 
county of Tyrone, Ireland, the feat of Mr. Hamilton, the father of 
his countefs, where he refided, with little intermiilion, till 1750 ; 
happy in that domeltic tranquillity, that ftudious retirement and 
inactivity, from which he was nev^r drawn but with reluctance. 

In 1751 he publifhed:, in two volumes, quarto, a tranfhtion of 
" Pliny's Letters with Obfervations on each Letter 5 and an Effay on 
Pliny's Life, addreffed to Charles Lord Boyle:" which work met 
with fo good a reception, that three editions of it, in 8vo. have 
(ince been printed. The fame year, he addrelfed to his fecond fon, 
Mr. Hamilton, " A Series of Letters, containing Remarks on the 
Life and Writings of Swift," 8vo. which was alfo fo well received 
that it went through five editions in little more than a year. Dec. 
1753 he fucceeded to the tiJe of Elrl of Cork. September 1754, 
with his lady and daughter* he began a tour to Italy: his chief ob- 
ject was Florence, in which city and it's neighbourhood he refided 
nearly a year. He collected, while here, materials for the Hiftory 
of Tufcany, which he intended to write in a fcries of letters, twelve 
of which only he lived to finifh ; and of thefe an ample epitome 
may be feen in fome of the periodical publications of 1782. 
In November 1755, he arrived at Marfton, after paffijig through 
Germany and Holland. In 1758 he loll his fecond lady, and 
the year after his eldeft fon ; and was, agreeable fo the fenfibi- 
Jity and tendernefs of his nature, molt deeply affected upon thefe 
occafions. He furvived the lofs of his fon about three years ; for an 
hereditary gout, which no temperance or management could iub- 
due, put a period to his earthly exigence, November 16, 1762, in 
his 56th year, 



After his death, in 1774, were published his " Letters from 
Italy," by the Rev. John Duncombe, M. A. who prefixed a life 
of him, frm which thefe memoirs are chiefly drawn. Befides what 
has been mentioned, Lord Cork was the author of many little 
productions. He contributed to thofe periodical papers called 
The World," and " The Connoiffeur :" to the former, No. 47, 
68, 161 ; to the latter, the moft part of -No. 14 and 17, the letter 
figned Goliah Englifh in No. 19 ; great part of No. 33 and 40; and 
tlie letters figned Reginald Fitzworm, Michael Krawbridge, Mofes 
Orthodox, and Thomas Vainall, in No. 102, }O~j, 113, and 129. 
Hepubliflied alfo, in 1759, " Memoirs of the J j.fe of Robert Gary, 
Earl of Monmotitlv' 8vo. from a MS. commur j^ed to him. Lord 
Cork was an amiable good man, and ccmpetu.dy endowed, but not 
of ftrong original powers. 

BOYLE (kicHARD), earl of Burlicgton and Cork, fon of Ri- 
chard earl of Cork, was born at the college of Youghall, Oct. 20, 
1612. We have no diftinct account of the place or manner of his 
education ; but there is not the lead queftion of his having all the care 
taken of him in this refpect due to his quality, fince the earl his fa- 
ther was very ftrict and ferious in that particular. It is alfo very 
probable he diftinguifhed himfelf remarkably in the profecution of 
his (tudies, as the Lord Falkland, when deputy of Ireland, conferred 
on him, at his father's houfe at Youghall, the honour of knight- 
hood, Auguft 13, 1624, when not quite twelve years old. When he 
drew towards twenty, the earl thought proper to finifh his edu- 
cation by fending him abroad, which he did under a very difcreet 
and prudent governor, with an allowance of one thoufand pounds a 
year, June 4, 1632. He palled through Flanders, France, and 
Italy, and after two years flay and upwards, returned home a grace- 
ful and accomplifhed young nobleman, which induced the Lord 
Wentworth, afterwards earl of Strafford, to promote earneftly a 
match between him and the Lady Elizabeth, daughter and fole 
heirefs to Henry Lord Clifford, afterwards earl oi Cumberland ; 
which, though it met with fome difficulties and impediments, was at 
laft concluded, and the marriage with great pomp folemnized, in the 
chapel of Skipten-cafUe, in Craven, July 5, 1635, which was a very 
great addition to the fplendor of the family, and to it's interefis, ' 
By this marriage he came to be very well known and received at 
Court, where his conduct gained him the efteern of the minifters, 
and the love of all who were about it. He was particularly loyal 
and dutiful to the king (Charles I.) ; for he took, according to the 
letter, the injunctions g'n r en him on this head by his parents and 
preceptors; and having, in the fulnefs of his heart, given his ma- 
jefty warm adurances of this kind, he made it the bufinefs and 
iiudy of his life to come up to them. He raifed, in the firft troubles 
of the aorth, a gallant troop of horfe, at the head of which he pro- 



pofed, under the earl of Northumberland, to ferve againft the Scots, 
in the army raifed to chaftife their firfl rebellion. He gained much 
honour by this ftep, and many friends, even amongft thofe who were 
not much affedted towards his father. On the breaking out of the 
bloody and inhuman rebellion in Ireland, he was immediately in 
arms and in action. He did not only command troeps, but raifed 
them, and for a long time paid them ; yet he treated them always 
as if they had a nearer relation to him than what was created by fervice, 
and often put them in mind that they were not fuldiers of fortune, but 
men in arms for the protection of their country. He was in feveral 
fieges and rencounters, more efpecially in the action at Lifcar- 
rol ; but he never (truck in with thofe who thought the bed way to 
promote the Proteftant caufe was to carry on the war fo as to render 
the Papills defperate. It was on the contrary principle that he con- 
curred with, and even advifed, the marquis of Ormond, in the af- 
fair of the ceffation ; and that being agreed to, in 1643, he-fet him- 
felf to procuring the king that afliftance, from the hopes of which 
he had confented to this meafure, He was fo zealous in this affair, 
that, ?.t his own requeft, his regiment was made part of the Irifh 
brigade fent to his majefty's relief, and his lordfhip, now earl of 
Cork, commanded it in perfon. He was received at Oxford by the 
king with all poffible marks of favour and attention, and every body 
poke of his behaviour in the terms that it deferved. In confideration, 
therefore, of thefe timely and effectual Cervices, as well as of thofe ren- 
dered by his deceafed father-in-law, he was raifed to the dignityof Ba- 
ron Clifford, of Lanefftorough ; and in 1663 to die dignity of earl of 
'Burlington, or Bridlington, in the county of York. A melancholy 
accident that happened not long after in his family, afforded a nev/ 
opportunity for the king to manifeft his affection for this noble peer, 
whole fecond fon, Richard, then a volunteer aboard the fleet com- 
jnanded by his royal highnefs the duke of York, was killed by a 
cannon (hot, June 3, 1665, in the battle of Solebay : for, upon the 
I3th of March, 1666, his majefty constituted him lord lieutenant 
of the Weft Riding of Yorkflme, of the city of York, and county 
of the fame. This he enjoyed during all that reign, and from the 
year 1679, vyith the addition of being alfo cuftos rotulorum. Under 
King James II. he held the fame employments as long as he 
thought proper to hold them ; but when he found that unfortunate 
prince expected him to make fuch ufes of thofe ofKce? as manifeftly 
tended to overthrow the conltitution, he very magnanimoudy refigned 
them, upon which the lieutenancy was given to Lord Thomas 
Howard, a very zealous and bufy p.^pift. 

His lordfhip, upon the coming over of the prince of Orange, 
went heartily into the ..meafures he thought conducive to fettling 
the government, and redreffing grievances, but neither fought or 
Accepted employment. However, July 16, 1689, in the firft year 



of their reign, their majefties King William and Queen Mary called 
his only fon, Charles Lord Clifford of Lanelborough, by writ, up 
to the Houfe of Peers ; an honour which he did not long live to 
enjoy, dying October 12, 1694.. Our noble peer, whofe parts qua- 
lified him for the mofi active, naturally inclined to peaceful and lefs. 
pompous offices, in which he gained the refpect and efteem of the 
gentry his neighbours, as his affability and beneficence charmed the" 
common fort, fo that his influence was general, as appeared from 
the univerfal concern exprelled by all ranks of people in Yorkfhire 
on his deceale, January 15, 1697-8, in the eighty-fixth year of 
his age. 

BOYSE, BOYS, or BOIS (JOHN), one ofthetranflators of the 
bible, in the reign of James I. was fon ot William Bois, rector of 
Weft-Stowe, near St. Edmundfbury, in Suffolk, and born at Net- 
tle ft ead in that county, 1560. He was taught the firft rudiments, 
of learning by his father ; and his capacity was fuch, that at the 
age of five years he read the bible in Hebrew. He went afterwards 
to Hadley-fchool, and at fourteen was admitted of St. John's col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he diftinguiihed himfelf by his Ikill in the 
Greek. Happening to have the fmall-pox when he was elected 
fellow, to preferve his feniority, he can fed himfelf to be carried, 
wrapped up in blankets, to be admitted. He applied hrmfelf for 
fome time to the ftudy of medicine, but fancying himfelf affected 
with every difeafe he read of, he quitted that icience. June 21, 
1583, he was ordained deacon, and next day, by virtue of a difpen- 
fation, prieft. He was ten years" chief Greek lecturer in his college, 
and read every day. He voluntarily read a Greek lecture for fome 
years, at four in the morning, in his own chamber, which was 
frequented by many of the fellows. On the death of his father, he 
fucceeded him in the rectory of Weft-Stovye ; but his motFier going 
to live with her brother, he refigned that preferment, though he 
might have kept it with his fellowfhip. At the age of thirty-fix, 
he married the daughter of Mr. Holt, rector of Boxworth, in Cam- 
bridgefhire, whom he fucceeded in that living, 1596. On quitting 
the univerlity, the college gave him ore hundred pounds. His 
young wife, who was bequeated to him with the living, which was, 
an advowfon, proving a bad ceconomifr, and himfelf being wholly 
immerfed in his ftudies, he foon became fo much in debt, that he 
was forced to fell his choice collection of books to a prodigious dif- 
advantage. The lofs of his library afflicted him fo much, that he 
thought of quitting his native country. He. was however foon re- 
conciled to his wife, and he even continued to leave all domeftic af- 
fairs to her management. -He entered into an agreement with 
twelve of the neighbouring clergy, to meet every Friday atone of 
their houfcs by turns, to give an account of their ftudies. He ufu- 
ally kept fome young fcholarin his houfe to initru&t his own chil- 

BOYSE (Jofepb). 249 

dren, and the poorer fort or the town, as well as feveral gentlemen's 
children, who were boarded with him. When a new tranflation of 
the bible was, by James I. directed to be made, Mr. Bois was ele6t- 
ed one of the Cambridge tranflators. He performed not only his 
cuvn, but alfo the part ailtgned to another, with great reputation, 
tho' with little profit ; for he had no allowance but his commons. He 
was alfo one of the fix who met at Stationers hall to revife the whole : 
which tafk they weru through in nine months, having each from 
the company of Stationers during that time thirty (hillings a week. 
He afterwards affilted lir Henry Saville, in publilhing the works of 
St. Chryfoitom, and received a prefcnt of one copy of the book, tor 
many years labour fpent about it : which however was owing to 
the death of fir Henry Saville, who intended to have made him fel- 
low of Eaton. In 1615, Dr. Lancelot Andrews, bifhop of Ely, 
beftowed on him, unafked, a prebend in his church. He died 1643, 
in the 84th year of his age ; leaving a great many manufcripts be- 
hind him, particularly a commentary on almoft all the books of the 
new te (lament. 

BOYSE (JOSEPH), an Englilh diffenting minifter, was born at 
Leeds in Yorkshire, Jan. 14, 1659-60 ; and trained at a private aca- 
demy near Kendal in Wefhnoreland. He then went to London; 
and there, among other advantages in the profecution ot his ftudies, 
attended the preaching of many able divines, both conformifts and 
nonconformifts : of thofe of the eftablifhed church, Tillotfon, Ca- 
lamy, Scott, and Stillingfleet : of the diffenters,Charnock, Baxter, 
and Howe. In 1680, he began to preach publicly. He was at 
Amfterdam in 1682, where he preached occasionally at the Brownift 
church. In 1683, after his retur,n, he had an invitation to be a 
paftor at Dublin, which he did not relifii ; but was at length indu- 
ced to accept it, becaufe that feafon was not favourable to the non- 
conformifts in England. Some years after, he had for his coadjutor 
the Rev. Mr. Thomas Emlyn, fo well known for his writings and 
his fufferings. This connexion and a mutual friendfhip fubfiftcd 
between them for more than ten years ; but the friendfhip was inter- 
rupted, and the connexion diff ;lved, in confequence of Emlyn's fen- 
timents upon the doclrine of the Trinity. Boyfe's zeal for ortho- 
doxy led him to take fome fteps, which were juftly cenfurable ; for, 
while Emyln was under profecution, and his trial at hand, Boyfe 
publifhed a book againft him, which certainly inflamed the profecti- 
tion, though,; in the preface he declares that " he had no hand 

in it." 

The time of Mr. Boyfe's <^eath is not mentioned; but his funeral 
fermon was preached at Dublin, Dec. 8, 1728. He was confidered 
as a learned, pious, able, and ufeful divine; and his works, confift- 
ing of fermons and polemic divinity, were publifhed, 1728, in two 
volumes folio. 



BOYSE (SAMUEL), fon of the preceding, was a very ingenious 
perfon j and, being as remarkable for imprudence as for ingenuity, 
may furnifh a very edifying article to numbers. He was born in 
1708, and received the rudiments of his education at a private fchool 
in Dublin. At eighteen he was fent to the uriiverfity of Glafgow ; 
and, before he had entered his 2oth year, married a tradesman's 
daughter of that city. He was naturally extravagant, and foon ex- 
pofed to the inconveniences of indigence ; and his wife being alfo 
diffoliite and vicious, contributed not a little to accelerate his ruin. 
His father fupported him for fome time ; but, this fupport at length 
ceafing, he repaired to Edinburgh, where his poetical genius pro- 
cured him many friends, and fome patrons. In 1731, he published 
a volume of poems, addreiled to the countefs of Eglinton ; who was 
a patronefs to men of wit, and much diftinguifhed Boyfe, while he 
refided in that country. He wrote alfo an Elegy upon the death of 
lady StormoRt, entitled " The Tears of the Mufes ;" with Which 
lord Stormont was fo much pleafed, that he ordered Boyfe a hand- 
fome p re fent. 

Thefe publications, and the honourable notice taken of them, 
were the means of recommending him to very high perfons, why 
were defirous of fcrvinghim : but Boyfe was not a man to be ferved. 
He was a man of a low-lived, dirty., groveling humour: he was, 
fays Gibber, of all men the fartheft removed from a gentleman : he 
had no graces of perfon, and fewer ftill of converfation ; and though 
his understanding was very extenfive, yet but few could difcover 
that he had any genius above the common rank. He wrote poems ; 
but thefe, though excellent in their kind, were loft to the world, 
by being introduced with, no advantage. His acquaintance were of 
fuch a call, as could be of no fervice to him ; and, though volup- 
tuous and luxurious, he had no tafte for any thing elegant, and yet 
was tothe lait degree expenfwe. The contempt and poverty he was 
fallen into at Edinburgh, put him upon going to London ; which 
defign being communicated to the duchefs of Gordon, who ftill re- 
tained a high opinion of iiis poetical talents, (he gave him a recoat- 
mend.uory letter to Mr. Pope, and obtained another for him to fir' 
Peter King, then chancellor of England. Lord Stormont alfo re-, 
commended him to his brother, the late earl Mansfield ; but he made 
no ufe of thefe recommendauun?, afcd contented himfelf with fubfift- 
ing by contributions. About 1 740, he was fo reduced, that he had not 
cloaths to appear abroad in : he had not, fays Gibber, a fliirt, a coat, 
Or any kind of appart-1 : the fheets in which he lay were carried to 
the pawn-broker's ; he was obliged to be confined to bed, with no 
other covering than a blanket ; and he had little fupport^ but what 
he got by writing letters to his friends in the moft abje6t flyle. 
His mode of ftudying and writing was curious : he fat 'up in bed, 
the blanket wrapped about him, through which he had cut a 


BOXHORN ( Mark Zuerius). 25 1 

hole large enough to admit his arm ; and, placing the paper upon 
his knee, fcribbled in the be(i manner he could. 

In 1742, we find him in a fpunging-houfe; hut how long he 
was in confinement, does not appear -, however he at length obtain- 
ed his liberty : but his imprudence and his wants dill continued, 
and he had often recourie to the meancft arts to procure benefac- 
tions. At fome times he would raife fubfcriptions tor poems, which 
did not ex ift ; and, at others, ordered his wife to inform people that 
he was juft expiring, to move the compaffinn of his friends, who 
were frequently furprifed to meet the man in the ftreet to-day, who 
was yeftmluy faid to be at the point of death. In 1743, he pub- 
liflied an Ode on the battle of Dettingen, entitled, " Albion's Tri- 
umph :" but did not put his name to it. In 1745, he was with 
Mr. Henry at Reading, where he was paid at a very low rate for com- 
piling a work, entitled, " An Historical Review of the Tranfaftions 
of Europe, from the commencement of the war with Spain in 1739, 
to the infurredlion in Scotland in 1745 ; with the proceedings in 
parliament, and the moil remarkable domeftic occurrences, during 
that period. To which is added, An impartial hiftory of the late 
rebellion/ 1 &c. This work was publifhed, 1747, in two vols, Svo. 
a;vi is faid not to be dclHtute of merit. While at Reading, his 
wife died; upon which he tied apiece of black ribbon round the 
neck of a little lap-dog, which he always carried about with him in 
h.- arms, as imagining it give him the air of a man of tafte. He 
aiio, when in his cup, which was as often as he had money, in- 
dulged a dream of his wife's being dill alive ; and woul 1 talk fpite- 
iully of thofe by whom he fufpe&ed her to be entertained : fo that, 
it leems, he was not without a good degree of affectation in his cha- 

ACter Boyfe's return from Reading, his behaviour and appearance 
were more decent, and hopes were entertained of his reformation ; 
Kit his health now vifibly declined, and he died, after a lingering 
ii-inefs, May 1749, in obfcure lodgings near Shoe-lane, where he 
was buried at the ex pence of the parilh. He is a melancholy in- 
flance of the wretchednefs, contempt, and di (grace, to which the 
raolt ingenious perfons may reduce themfelves by an abufe of thofe 
powers with which nature hath endowed them. His genius was 
not confined to poetry : lie had alf<> a tafte for painting, muiic, and 
heraldry. It is faid, that his poems, if collected , would make iix 
moderate volumes : two have beea puhUfhed. But the mod ce- 
lebrated of his performances was his poem, called " Deity ;" the 
third edition of which, was publisher! in 1752. 

BOXHORN (MARK ZUERIUS), a very learned perfon, but not 
exaft and accurate in his writings was born at Bergen ->6p-Z/oom 
in 1612. He became profelfor at Levdcn, tirii of eloquence, after- 
wards of politics and hilt.>ry. He died in 1663, after having nub- 

I i 2 lifheJ 


lifted feveral works : I. Hittoria Sacra et Profana, aChritto nato 
ufquead 1650, 4to. 2. Origines Gallics. 3. Accounts of Holland 
and Zealand, publifhed in Latin at different times in two quartos. 
4. Notes upon Tacitus, Pliny, Juftin, Suetonius, and other ancient 
Latin writers. 

BRACTON (HENRY DE), a celebrated Englifh lawyer in the 
1 3th century, was, according to Mr. Prince, born in Devonfhire : 
and fludied at Oxford, where he took the degree of do>5lor of laws. 
Applying himfelf afterwards to the tttidy of the laws of England, he 
rofeto great eminence at the bar ; and, in 1244, was, by king Hen- 
ry III. made one of his judges itinerant. At prefent, he is chiefly 
known by his learned work "Delegibuset confuetudinibus Anglias;" 
the firir. printed edition of it was in 1569, folio. In 1640, it was 
was printed in 4to ; and great pains was taken to collate various 
IVJSS. One of the moll authentic manufcripts of this work was 
burnt in the fire which confumed a part of the Cotton library, 
Oft. 23, 1731. 

BRADFORD (JOHN) a faithful profeHorof, and valiant fufferer 
for, the reformed religion, under the cruel perfecutions of popery, 
in the reign of queen Mary, was born in the former part of king 
Henry the VHIth's reign, of genteel parents, in the town of Man- 
chefter in Lancafhire, where he received good education, not only in 
the Latin tongue, but arrived to great perfection in writing and 
accompts ; fo that he had few equals in thofe parts, for his quali- 
fications of that kind. Thefe excellencies of the pen to which he 
had attained, recommended him to the fervice of Sir John Harring- 
ton, a noble knight, in great efteem with that king, and his fon 
Edward VI., under whom he was divers times treafurer, and pay- 
mafter of the Englifh forces, and builder of the military works or 
fortifications at Boulogne in France. He paffed feveral years in 
this employment, lived in great credit, made afplendid appearance, 
and was in a fair way both to wealth and honour. After retiring 
from this employment in the army, we find him refiding for a while 
in the Inner-Temple ; where, as it is faid, he ftudied the common 
laws of this realm, and for fome time folicited fuits there, for fir 
John Harrington. But whatever he ftudied, or heard in the Temple, 
it appears by his letters from thence, to his pious friend Mr. Traves, 
that he heard more fermons than law-ledures there ; and that he 
\vas already grown a divine, before he had taken the orders of one ; 
he removed to Cambridge about the month of Auguft 1548, and 
there changed his lludy as well as his profeflion. He foon took his 
degree of matter of arts at Catherine-Hall ; and Dr. Nicholas Rid- 
ley, who was then matter of Pembroke-Hall, invited him, together 
vvith his gqdly companion matter Thomas Morton, to become Fel- 
lows ot that Hall. He now vigoroufly proceeded in the heavenly 
ppogreffion : and, by the effectual courfes he took to arrive at that 


BRADFORD (John). 253 

fpiritual perfection he afpired tn, he became f eminent, that Bi- 
Ihop Ridley, who, in the beginning of the year 1550, was tranfhted 
to the fee "of London, lent for him from the univerfity, to take 
upon him deacon's orders ; which having received, together with a 
licence, he foon became fucha famous preacher of piety, and fuch 
an exemplary pattern of what he preached, that the laid bifhop ob- 
tained of the privy-council a grant, that he might be admitted one 
of his chaplains. From this time, to the end of king Edward's 
reign, he did fo conftantly, fo ardently, and prevailingly, engraft 
the true principles of religion, not in the ears only, but in the hearts 
and minds of the people ; fo reformed the vicious, reclaimed the 
perverted, and fixed the wavering, that no preacher of his time was 
more followed, or more famed than Mr. Bradford. 

Though by the death of king Edward, the religion was now- 
changed to popery under queen Mary, yet Bradford changed not ; 
but kept diligently preaching on the reformed doctrine, till he was 
unjutlly, there being as yet no law againft it, deprived both of his 
office, his liberty, and at la ft his life, by her cruel council,' more 
efpecially the ecclefiaftics in it. On the i6th of Auguft 1553, he 
was fummoned by the council and bifhops to the Tower of London, 
where the queen then was, and charged with fedition and herefy. 
All his purgations availed him not ; but they committed him clofe 
prilbner where he was. While he thus lay in the Tower, and other 
places of confinement, he wrote feveral pious difcourfes and exhor- 
tations, which were fufpecled to have reclaimed fome who had re- 
volted tope>pery, and known to have confirmed many who were un- 
fettled in the proteftant faith ; bnt all by Itealth; for he was denied 
the ufe of pen and ink. But nothing more irritated his adverfaries, 
than the many epiftles he fecretly wrote, and conveyed to the ci- 
tizens of London, the univerfity and town of Cambridge, the towns 
of Walden and Manchester ; and alfo to many noble and learned 
friends, as well as his pious relations ; which letters and difcourfes 
are molt of them extant in Fox's Book of Martyrs. In thefe- letters 
fhine forth fuch a fpirit of inflexible conftancy in his principles, 
fuch a primitive and apoftolic zeal for the propagation of truth, 
fuch a Sincere abhorrence of the grofs, mercenary, and prefump- 
tuous delufions of the church of Rome, that it is as little wonder 
they have been fo carefully tranfmitted to us, by the friends and 
favourers of the reformation, as that the enemies to it fh ou Id cut 
off", as foon as they could, the increafe of them. They having, 
therefore, ordered Bradford to be removed to the king's-bench in 
Southvvark ; he was foon afterwards, on the 22d of January 1554, 
led to his examination before Stephen, bilhop of Wmchefter, then 
lord chancellor; Edmund, bilhop of London, and others of them 
in cominiflion tor that p-.irpolV. After it was over, he was fent 
back to the faid prifon, uv.d.-r itricler rdtraint than before, efpecially 
iu the excrcife qt his pen : but the f'.veetneis of his comportment to- 


his keepers fo mollified and won upon them, that it defeated 
the feveriry of his enemies command* in that particular ; and his 
arguments, thus difcharged o-n of prifm, were like gunpowder 
that makes a lender report, and has but the iltouger effect the clofer 
it is confined ; thereby doing tlv/ir caufe rrnre hurt, than all the 
'error of their tyrannical treatment did it good. A week after, that 
is, on the 29th of the fame month, h~ was bought before them in 
the church of St. ?vlary Overics to his iecond examination. In this 
examination, we fee he .was (till intractable to all their feducements 
and menaces to all efforts of drawing him into that apofhcy they 
haci fet him the pattern of: but (lili, not in utter defpair of gracing 
their example, and justifying their own compliance by his, they 
ordered him up to their inquifition at the fame place again the next 
lav, to be exatnined for the laft time. After his condemnation, we 
find him on the 31! of February, a prifoner in the Poultry-Counter, 
in the city of London, and that he lay there almoft five months, 
bated and worried great part of the time, by fome or other of the 
hi '.hops and their chaplains or prie{!>, and others whom they fet 
upon him, in hopes, all under the vizor of iriendfhip and compaf- 
fiun, to worm out (boie confeffions or other, of fuch erroneous tenets 
as might give foine colour to the world for their barbarity towards 
him. But he was invincible to them all ; flvady as a rock, repelling 
the ftormy waves that invade if, and e:\pofing their infolidity, by 
turning them into froth. His fagacity in dilcerning their fnares, 
and his readinefs in refilling their arguments from the fcriptures, 
the fathers, and themfelves, vvere inch, upon thofe politic and rational 
topics, ot the pope's authority here, and the real or carnal prefence 
in the facrament, for the denial ot which he was condemned ; that 
his mod clamorous ant.igonifts were ftruck with filence, and depart- 
ed with admiration. 

We are informed, trnit, both while he lay in the King's-bench, 
and now in the Counter, he preached twice a day, unlefs ficknefs 
hindered him ; where allo the facrament was often miniftered ; and, 
through his keeper's indulgence, there was Inch refort of pious peo- 
ple to him, that his chamber was u r ually almoft filled with them. 
He made but one fhort meal a-day, and allowed himfelf but four 
hours rell at night. His gentle nature was ever relenting at the 
thoughts of his infirmities, and fears of being betrayed into incon- 
fKuicy : his behaviour was fo humane, fo affecling to all about him, 
t'vu it won even many papifts to \vifh for the prefervation of his life. 
PI'.- very mien anil afpe6l begat veneration ; being tall and fpare, or 
f'.;newhat macerated in his body; of a faint fanguine complexion, 
M-rh an auburn beard ; and his'eyes, through the intenfenefs of his 
ceieftial contemplations, were often fo folernnly fettled, that the 
f.irs wouir! fileutly gatlier in them, till lie could not reftrain them 
f^-tn overflowing their banks, and creating a fympathy in the eyes 
' his bt!!o!d,-rs. The portions of his tiaie he did not fpend in 



prayer or preaching, he allotted to the vifuation of his fellow-pri- 

foners ; exhorting the tick to patience, and diOribnring his money 

to the poor; fome of them, thofe who had been the mod vio'.ent 

oppofers of his ; nor did he leave the felons themi elves 

without the beft relict they were capable of receiving, under the 

diftrefTes they had brought upon themielves ; fuch a* excited them to 

the molt hearty and fincere repentance. The laft night he by in 

the Counter, which was June the 2qth, he \vas much troubled H hi* 

Deep with dreams of the iron chain being brought to the prifon-gate 

which was to bind him to the (foke ; alfo of being removed the next 

<lay to Newgate, and burnt in Sxnithfidd the morning after ; all 

which exactly came to pafs. He quitted his unquiet bed about three 

o'clock in the morning, and, by his old exercife of reading and 

prayer, fonn recovered that compofure oi mind which continued tn 

the lad. When the kreper's wife, aLmoft bejide herfelf, brought 

him intelligence the next day, that the chain was buying, and tbat 

he muft die on the morrow, he pulled off his cap, and, lilting up 

his eyes to Heaven, faid, <l I thank G>>d for it, 1 have looked for it a 

longtime; therefore it comes not fudden'y, but as a thing waited 

for every day and hour ; the Lord make me worthy of it.' When 

he (Lifted htmfelf into the fhirt he was to die in, he made fuch ap- 

plications of it to the wedding-garment, as ra-.fed the admiration of 

all who were about him. When he went out of the prilon, he 

diftributed his money to every fervant and ofEcer of the houfe, ami 

all the pnfoners took their leave of him with weeping eyes: io, 

abnut midnight, he was carried to Newgate, attended by a val't mul- 

titude of people, who, becaufe they had heard he was to fuffer by 

break of day, that the fewer fpe&ators might be witneflfcs oi his 

death, they either Itayed in SmithfieH all night, or returned in great- 

er numbers thither by; four-o'clock thenex' morning, which was the 

fir ft of July, 1555 ;' but Bradf r.l was not brought thither till nine 

o'clock, and then came under a ftrongcr gunrd of halberdeers thna 

was ever known on the like occafion. As he came our ot Newgatv, 

he gave his velvet cap and his handkerchief, to an old friend, with 

whom he had a litt!e private talk. But his brother-in-law, Roger 

Bcfwick, for only taking '^ of him, had his head broke, till the 

blood ran down his fhoulders, by the Sheriff Woodrofe. Vv'hea 

he came to Smithfield, and in his company a York (hi re youth, who 

was an apprentice in London, named John Lyefe, and to be burnt 

at the fame (lake with him, for maintaining the like faith in the 

facrament, and denying that priefts had any authority to exal auri- 

cular conteflion, Bradford went boldly up to the (take, laid him 

down flat on his tace on one fide of it ; and the faid young mar, 

John Lyefe, in like manner, went and laid himfelf on the other ; 

where they had not prayed to themfelves above the fpace of a mi- 

nute, before the faid (he riff bid Bradford arife, and make an end ; 

for the prefs of the people was very great. When they were on thdf 



feet, Bradford took a faggot and kiffed it, and did the like to the flake. 
When he pulled off his cloaths, he defired they might be given to 
his fervant ; which was granted. Then, at the (take, holding up 
Jiis hands and his face to Heaven, he faid aloud, " O England, 
England, repent ihee of thy fins ! Beware of idolatry, beware of an- 
tichrHts, left they deceive you." Here the fherifF ordered his hands 
to be tied ; and one of the fire-rakers told him, if he had no better 
learning than that, he had beft hold his peace. Then Bradford 
forgiving, and afking forgivenefs of, all the world, turned his head 
about, comforted the (tripling at the fame (take with him, and em- 
bracing the flaming reeds that were near him, was heard among his 
laft words to fay, " Strait is the way, and narrow is the gate," &c. 
Thus he left the drofs of his body among the afhes upon the earth, 
while his foul afcenued to Heaven. 

BRADLEY (jAMis), D. D. Savilian profeffor of aftronomy in 
Oxford, fellow of the Royal Society at London, and member of the 
academies of fciences and belles lettres of Paris, Berlin^Peterfburgh, 
and Bologna, was born at Shireborri in GSoucefterfhire, in 1692, 
and educated at Northleach in the fame county. Thence he was 
admitted a commoner of Baliol college in Oxford, March 15, 1710: 
where he took the degree of bachelor, 061. 14, 17 [4, and of mafter 
of arts, Jan. 2t, 1716. He was ordained deacon and prieft in 1719, 
and instituted the fame year to the vicarage of Bridftow in Hereford- 
fhire. He never had any other preferment in the church, except the 
fmall reclory or finecure of Landevvy Welfry, in the county of 
Pembroke, and dioccfe of St. David : and his inftitution to this 
bears date the fir ft of March, 1719. It is p re fumed that the bifhop 
of Hereford, to whom he was chaplain, was his patron to the vi- 
carage ; and Mr. Molyneux, who was then fecretary to the prince 
of Wales, procured him the finecure. 

It appears that thus early in life he had many friends ; and it is 
probable that by fome of them he might have rifen to eminence 
in the church, had net his natural inclination led him to purfue 
other (Indies, in which he afterwards fhone fo confpicuoufly. He 
received his firft rudiments of the mathematics from his uncle Dr. 
James Pound, who refided at his living of Wanitead in EfTex, 
where^our aftronoirer was fome time curate : this gentleman was 
his mother's brother, a man of fingular capacity and genius, and 
eminent as a divine, a phyfician, and a mathematician. In the two 
former capacities he went to the Eaft-Indies, in the company's fer- 
vice; and was one of thofewhohad the good fortune toefcape from 
the maflacre of the fadory, on the ifland of Pulo Condore, in Cochin 
China, An account of this fhocking fcene remains amongft Dr. 
Bradley 's papers, written by Dr. Pound, together with a " Journal 
kept by him on board the Rofe (loop," until, after many difficulties 
and diftrefles, they arrived at Batavia the i8th of April, 1705. 

i The 

BRADLEY (James } . - 5 7 

The public fuffiired much in this cataltrophe, by the iofs of Dr. 
Pound's papers, and other valuable curu'litics collected by him, 
which all periled in the conflagration ; as he had ro time to fave 
any ihing but his own life. With this relation, to whom he was 
dear, even more than by the ties of blood, he fpent al! his vacations 
from O'.hcr duties : it was vvhilft \vith him at Wanftead, that he 
fir it began- the cbfci Tuitions with the fe6tcr, which led to thofs irr>- 
portant difcovenes, and enabled 'aim to fettle the laws of the alter- 
ntior.s of the fi^fl ftars from the mogreflive motion of lisht. ar.d 

i G wJ ' 

the nutation of the earth's axis. 

On the death of John Keil, M. D. he ^as chofen Saviiian pro- 
feffor of aftidriomy in Oxford ; his appointment bears date Gel. 31, 
1 721. On this promotion, fo agreeable to his tafte, he refigned the 
living or Bri'ifiow, and alfo the flnecureof Lanciewy Wei fry, and 
henceforward devoted his time and ftudies to his beloved fcience ; 
nor was he (boner known, than diftinguifhed by the friendfhip oi 
lord Macclesfield| fir liaac Newton, his colk^ue in the Savilian pro- 
feflbruhin, Dr. Halley, and other great rr.a:he!rratician?, aftrono- 
mers, and patrons of fcience. In 1730, lie fucceeded Mr. White- 
iide,- as lecture reader of aftronomy and experiuienta! phtlofophy in 
Oxford : \vhich was a ccnfiderabie emolument to himfelf, and which 
he held t'ril within a year or two of his death ; when the ill flate of 
his health made it necc'T~r; to refi&n it. At the deceafe of Dr* 
Haliey, he was appointed agronomical obfervator, at the royal ob- 
fervatory at Greeruvich : the appointment is dated Feb. 3, 174.1-2. 
1'roin letters found amongft his papers, it appears that Dr. Hailey 
was greatly ciefirous that our aftrcnomer fhould fucceedhim; and 
in one letter,- when he found himfelf declining,- he defires his leave 
to make ir.tereft for him : b'ut he owed this r.esv acquifition chiefly 
to the friendfhip of lord Macclesneid, the late prefident of the Royal 
Society. Upon this promotion he was honoured with the degree 
of doclor of divinity, by diploma from Oxford. 

In 1747, he publiihed his letter to tbe earl of Macclesneid, con- 
cerning an apparent motion obferved in fome of the fixed ftars ; on 
account of which he obtained the annual gold prize-medal from 
the Royal Society. It was in confequence of this letter* that in 
1748 George the Second, by his fign manual, directed to the com* 
millioners and principal officers of his navy, ordered the payment 
of loool. to James Bradley, D. D. his sftronomer, and keeper of 
the royal obfervatory," in order to repair the old instruments in the 
faid obftrvatory, and to provide new ones. This enabled him to 
ftirnifh it with the nobleft and moft acccurate apparatus in the 
known world, fuited to the dignity of tjbe nation and the royal do* 
nor ; in the executive part of this ufeful work, ihofe eminent ar- 
tifts Mr. George Graham and Mr. Bird deferve honourable men- 
tion : who contributed much towards the perfection of thofe jnftru- 
Juents, which enabled Dr. Bradley to leave behind him the greuteft 

VOL. II. K k number 


number of the moft accurate obfervations that were perhaps ever 
made by any one man. Nor was this the laft instance whereby 
his late majeftj' diftingijifhed his royal aftronomer ; for, upon his re- 
filling to accept the living of Greenwich from a confcientious 
fcruple, his rn.ijelty granted him an annuity or yearly penlion of 
250!. during pleafure. 

About 1748 he became entitled to Bifliop Crew's benefaction of 
30!. per annum, to the le&ure reader in experimental philofophy in 
Oxford. He was elecled member of the Royal Society in 1752; 
of the Academy of Sciences at Paris, in 1748 ; of that at Peterfburgh, 
in 1754- ; of the Academy of Sciences at Bologna, in 1757; and alfo 
Q.{ the Royal Pruflian Academy of Sciences and Be Iks Lettres, but the 
time when does not appear amongfl his papers. 

By too clofe application to his obfervations and fludies, ss is pro- 
bable, our royal altronomer was afflidled for near two years before 
his death wjth a grievous oppreflion on his fpirits r whkh quite put 
an end to his labours: his chief diiirefs arofe from an apprehention 
that he (hould furvive his rational faculties; but this fo much dreaded 
evil never came upon him. In June 1762 he was taken with a 
fuppreflion of urine, occafioned (as it afterwards appeared) by an in.~ 
flarmnation in his kidneys, which brought him to his end the I3th 
of July following. He died at Chalford in Gloucefterffiire, in the 
year of his age. 

BRADY (Dr. NICHOLAS 1 ,), an Englifh divine of good pa^rff sryJ 
learning, was the fon of Nicholas Brady, an officer in the kii.'g s 
army in the civil wars of 1641 ; being lineally delcended from Hugh 
Brady, tV.e firlt Proteftant bifhop of Meath. He was born at Ban- 
don, in the county of Cork, October the 28th, 1659, and continued 
in Ireland till he was twelve years of age. Then he was fant over 
to England to Wtihninftcr-fchool, and from thence elected ftudent 
to Ghrift-churcTr, in Oxford. After continuing there about four 
years, he went to Dublin, where his father refided; at which uni- 
verfity he immediately commenced bachelor of arts. When he was 
of due (landing, his diploma for the degree of dottor of divinity wa^, 
r^n account ot his uncommon iiierit, prefented to him by that uni- 
vrrlity, while he was in England ; and brought over by Dr. Pratt, 
then l'-nior travelling fellow, afterwards provoft of that college. 
] Ii> full Tclefiafticai preitrment was to a prebend, in the cathedral of 
. Vt . B.irr\'<, at (Turk ; to which he was collated by Bifhop Wetten- 
hal, wht^ir d<)me|{ic chaplain he'was. He was a zealous promoter 
of the Revolution, and in ccnfequence of his zeal fufFered lor it. In 
if>(jO) when the troubles broke out in Ireland, by his intereft with 
King J.nnes's general, he thrice prevented the burning of the town 
ot L'-iuion, atv.r tiuce fcveral orders given by that prince to deftroy 
Flc iamc yenr, having been deputed by the people of Bandon, 
.*>.- -..uiK vvti ?j i" u^iaud, to petition the parliament ior a redrefs of 


BRAHE (Tycbo). 259 

*~~~ --ii imimmLiimu^mi^*^m**t*^*m*mT-mi rr~~ri r'r ~~ - -^ --7^ ,,, ym'Tt 

iome grievances they had fuffl'ivd while King James was in Ireland ; 
and afterwards quitting his preferments in Ireland, he lettlcd in 
London, where, being celebrated for his abilities in the pulpit, he 
was elected minifter of St. Catherine Cree church, and leclurcr of 
St. Michael's, Wood-ftreet. He afterwards became minifter of 
Richmond in Surrey, and Stratford-upon-Avon iu Warwicklhire, 
and at length re6tor of Clapham in Surrey ; which laft, together 
with Richmond, he held till his dealh. He was alfo chaplain to 
the duke of Ormond's troop of horfe-gnards, as he was to their ma- 
jeftfcs King William and Queen Mary. He died May 20, i^b, 
aged fixty-fix. 

He tranflated the TEneid of Virgil," which was publifhed by 
fubfenption. He published three volumes of " Sermons" in 8vo. 
and after his death three more were publimed by Ins fan. Among 
his fermons, there is one preached on St. Cascili:t's day, in vindication 
of church mufic, firft printed in 1697, 410. But what he is likely 
to be the longeft remembered for, as indeed he is now bell known 
by, is " A new Verfion of the Pfalms of David," in conjunction 
with Mr. Tate. All this verfion was licenfed at Kenftngton, where 
King William ufually refided, in 1696 ; and is now fung in mo(t 
churches of England and Ireland, iniiead of the old one by Stern- 
hold and Hopkins, made in the reign of Edward VI. 

BRAHE (TYCHG) a celebrated altronomer, defcended of an 
illuftrious family, originally of Sweden, but fettled in Denmark, 
was born in Knudftorp, 1,546. He was by the direction of George 
Brahe, his father's brother, taught Latin when feven years old. He 
itudied five years under private tutors, and acquired a tafte for 
poetry. His uncle fent him, in 1559, to ftudy rhetoric and philo- 
fophy at Copeiahagen : his father had died a little before. The 
great eclipfe ot the fun, on the 2ift of Auguft, 1560, happening at 
the precife time the altronomers had foretold, he began to look upon 
aftronomy as Ibmething divine; and, purchafing the tables ot Sta- 
dius, gained fome notion of the theory of the planets. In 1562 he 
was fent to Leipfic to ftudy law, but aitronomy wholly engrolled his 
thoughts : in purchafing books of that fcience he employed his 
pocket-money. Having procured a fmall celcftial globe, he was 
wont to wait till his tutor was gone to bed, in order to examine the 
conftellations, and learn their names : when the fky was clear, he 
fpent whole nights in viewing the ftars. In 1565 the death of his 
uncle occafioned his return home; but his relations thinking the 
Itudy of aftronomy beneath his rank, he went In 1566 to Wittem- 
berg, which the plague forced him to leave in 1567, to go to Kof-< 
tock. In December that year, a difference ariiing between Brahe 
and a Danilh nobleman, they fought, and the former had part of his 
nofe cut off; which deft- 61 he lo artfully fupplied with one made of 
gold and filver, that it wa3 not perceivable. It was about this time 

K k 2 T!II 


that he to apply himfeif to chemiftry, propofing nothing lefc 
than to obtain the philofopher's ftone. In 1569 he removed to 
Augfburg, where he was vifited by Peter Rarnu*. In 1571 he re- 
turned to Denmark, and was favoured by his mother's brother, 
Steno Belle, a lover of learning, with a convenient place at his caftie 
of Herritzvad, near Knudftorp, for making his cbfervations, ana 
building 2. laboratory. His marrying a country girl beneath his 
rank, occasioned fuch a violent quarrel between him and his rela- 
tions, that the king wr.s. obliged to interpofe to reconcile thern. In 
1574, by his ma jefty's , command, lie read lectures upon the theory 
fcf comets at Copenhagen ; and the year fclloy.'ing vifited Heffe 
CaiTtl, Franckfort, and Bafil, and fome other parts of Switzerland, 
From thence he went to Italy, ftaicl fome time in Venice, and re- 
iurned by way of Germany to Copenhagen- before winter, to fettle 
his affairs, purpofing to remove with his fam'.ly to Bafil the follow- 
ing fpring; but he dropped this defign, upon the King of Den- 
mark's bellowing on him f;>r life the ifland of Kuen in the Sou;n J , 
and a promife that an obfervatory and laboratory fhould be built 
for him, with a fupp'y -lib of money for carrying on his defigns. 
The firft ftone of the obfervatory was laid Auguit 8, 157^- Though 
that, with the feveral buildings belonging to it, and the neceffary 
machines, coft the king an immenfe fum, Brahe laid out of his own 
money above an hundred thouiand crowns during the twenty years- 
he continued there, fparing no expence to cultivate the fcience of 
aftronomy. He commonly maintained in his houfe ten or twelve 

' young men, who alfifted him in his obfervations, and whom he in- 
jftroted in aftronomy and the mathematics. The king likewife af- 
figned him a penfion of two thoufand crowns out of ihe treafury., ^ 
iee in Norway, and the canonry of Rofhild, worth a thoufand crowns 
a year. James VI. of Scotland coming into Denmark to marry 
Anne, daughter of Frederick II. yifited Brahe at Urap.iburgh, the 
name given to the obfervatory, made him feveral noble prefents, 
and wrote 3. copy of Latin verfes in his honour. The particular 
diftin&ion paid to Erahe excited the jealoufy of fome of the nobles. 
The phyficians alfo were uneafy, beca.ufe their patients deferted 
them to apply to him for the foyereign medicines which he diftri- 
buted gratis. Valke.ndorf, treafurer cf the houfthold, was incenfed 
againft him on account of a difpute occafioned by a dog of Brahe's 

, having bit him. All thefe things confpired to his ruin. It was repre- 
fented to the king, that, the treafury being exhaufted, many pen- 


fions, prticul:rly Brahe's, ought to be retrenched ; that the fte- 
which p.e had long enjoyed ought to he given to fome pevfon more 
capable to ferve the ftate ; and that, though Brahe was obliged to 
make the neceffary reparation? to the chanel 'belonging to his ca- 
jionry at RoHiild, he had fuffered it to fall to ruin. Thefe infi- 
nuations had their effcfc ; and in 1569 he was deprived of his pen- 
fafi, his /ee ; and his canonry, Being thus rendered incapable of 

.fupporting the expenses of his laboratory, he Went to Copenhagen, 
and continued his agronomical obfcrvations and chemical experi- 
ments in thut city, till Valkendorf brought him an order irom the 
king to deftft. This put hi-m upon thoughts oi getting himfelf 
introduced to the emperor, who was tond of and che- 
mical expe-iments. He waited upon hi in at Prague, was inoft gra- 
ciouflv received, had a magnificent houfe given him till one more 
proper for agronomical obfervati'os could be procured, and a pen- 
fion of three thoufand crowns affigne-d him, with a promiie of a fee 
for himfelf and his descendants. This good fortune he enjoyed but 
a (hort time ; for going to dine with a nobieman, he forgot to make 
wnter before he fat down to table, according to his ufual cuflom. 
During the entertainment he drank more than common, and round 
himfelf uneafv, yet imprudently continued fume time longer at 
table; and upon his return home was feized with a to^l fuppref- 
fjon of urine, of which he died the 2<\\ of Oclober, 1601. His 
great fkill in aftrology is univerfaliy acknowledged. He was very 
credulous with refpoSt to judicial aftrology and preiages. It he met 
an old woman when he went out of doors, or a hare upon the road 
on a journey, he ufed to turn back immediately, being perfuaded that 
;t was a bad omen, When he lived at Uraniburg, he had at his houfe 
a madman, whom he placed at his feet at table, and fed himfelf. As 
he imagined that every thing fpoken by mad perfons prefaged fome- 
thing, he carefully ohferved all that this man faid ; and becaufe it 
ibmetimes proved true, he imagined it might always be depended upon. 

BRAMHALL (Jonx), an eminent divine, was defcended from 
an ancient family, and born at Pontefraft, in Yorkfhire, about 1593. 
He received his fchool education at the place of his birth ; and was 
removed from thence to Sidney college, Cambridge, in 1608. Af- 
,ter taking the degrees of bachelor and malter of arts, he omitted the 
univerfity, and, entering into orders, had a living given him in the 
city of York. About the Tame time he married a clergyman's 
widow, with whom he received a good fortune ; and, what was 
equally, if not more acceptable, a valuable library, left by her 
former hufband. In 1623 he had two public difputations at North 
Allertqn, with a fecular prieft gnd a Jefuit. The match between 
Prince Charles and the Infanta of Spain was then depending; and 
the Papifts expected great advantages and countenance to their reli- 
gion from it. Thefe two, therefore, by way of preparing the way 
for them, fent a public challenge to all the Proteilant clergy in the 
county of York ; and when noire durfl accept it, our author, though 
then bu.t a (tripling in the fchool of controverfy, undertook the com- 
bat. Hisfuccefs in this difpute gained him fo much reputation, and 
fo recommended him in particular to Matthews, archbifhop of 
York, that he made him his chaplain, and took him into his confi- 
dence, He was afterwards made a orebendarv of York, and then 



of Rippon ; at which lafl place he went and refided after the arch" 
bifiiop's death, ivhich happened in 1628, and managed moil of the 
affairs of that church in the quality of fub-dean. He had grtat 
weight in the town of Rippon, and was alfo appointed one of his 
inajelly's high commillioners, in tlie adminiftration of which office 
he was by fome accounted fevere. 

In 1630 he took a do&or of divinity's degree at Cambridge; and 
foon after was invited to Ireland h," the Lord Y r ifcount Went worth, 
deputy of that kingdom, and Sir Chriftopher Wandesforcl, mafter of 
the rolls. He went over in 1633, having firft refigned all his church 
preferments in England; and a Jittle while after obtained the arch- 
deaconry of Meath, the belt in that kingdom. The firit public fer- 
vice he was employed in was a royal vifitation; when finding the 
revenues of the church miferably wafted, ^the bifhoprics, in parti- 
cular, wretchedly dilapidated by fee-farms and king leafes, and fmall 
rents, the difcipline fcandaloufly defpifed, and the minifters but 
meanly provided, he spplied, in proceJs of time, proper remedies to 
thefe feveral evils. In 1634 he was promoted to the bifhopric of 
Londonderry; and improved that fee very much, not only by ad- 
vancing the rents, but alfo by recovering lands detained from his 
predeceiTors. But the greatefl fervice he did the church of Ireland 
was, by getting, with the lord deputy's affiftance, feveral acls paffed 
in the parliament which met in that kingdom on the I4th of July, 
1634, for the aboliftiing fee-farms, recovering iinpropriatior.s, &c. 
by which, and other means, he regained to the church, in the fpace 
of four years, thirty or forty thoufand pounds a year. In the con- 
vocation that met at the fame time, he prevailed upon the church of 
Ireland to be united in the fame faith with the church of England, by 
embracing the thirty-nine articles of religion, agreed upon in the 
convocation holden at London in 1562. He would fain alfo have 
got the Englifh canons eftablifhed in Ireland, but could obtain no 
more, than that fuch of our canons as were proper for the Irifh 
fhould be removed thither, and others new framed and added to 
them. In the mean time he met, from feveral quarters, with a 
great deal of detraction and envy, and, according to the falhion of 
thofe times, was charged with Arminianifm and Popery; but he 
was not of a fpirit to be daunted with noife and ill words. 

In 1637 he took a journey into England, and was there furprifed 
with the news of an information exhibited againft him in the Star- 
chamber, for being prefent at Rjppon when one Mr. Palmes had 
made fome reflecting difcourfe upon his majefty, and neither re- 
proving nor informing againft him. The words deferved no very 
great puniflimenr, if they had been true, being no more than, that 
'he feared a Scottifh mift was come over their town, becaufe the 
king had altered his lodgings from Rippon, where he had defigned 
them, to Sir Richard Graham's houfe, not far from that place." 
Bat the bishop eafily cleared himftlf and the whole company. After 


BRAMHALL , fjobu). 263 

having received much honour from Charles I. and many civilitie 
from Archbifhop Laud, and other great perfons, he returned to Ire- 
land ; and with 6oool. for which he fold his eftate in England, pur- 
chafed another at Omagh, in the county of Tyrone, and began a 
plantation, which* the detractions of that kingdom hindered him from 
perfecting. In March 1640-41 articles of high treafon were exhi- 
bited againft him in Ireland, wherein he was charged with having 
conipired with others to fubvert the fundamental laws of that king- 
dom, to introduce an arbitrary and tyrannical government, 6cc. The 
bifhop was at -Londonderry when he received intelligence of this ac- 
cufation. All his friends wrcte to him to decline the trial, but, 
Blinking it difhonourable to fly, he went directly to Dublin, and was 
made a clofe prifoner by the parliament. In this dittrefs he wrote 
to the primate UuVr, then in England, for his advice and comfort; 
who mediated fo effectually in his behalf with the king, that his 
majefty fent a letter to Ireland to flop proceedings againft him. 
This letter was very (lowly obeyed; however, the bifhop was at 
length reftored to liberty, but without any public acquittal, the charge 
lying ftill dormant againft him, to be awakened when his enemies 
pleafed. Shortly after his return to Londonderry, Sir Phelim O'Neii 
contrived his ruin in the following manner. He directed a letter 
to him, wherein he defired, "that, according to their articles, fuck 
a gate of the city fhould be delivered to him;" expecting that the 
Scotch in the place would, upon the difcovery, become his exe- 
cutioners; but the perfon who was to manage the matter ran away 
with the letter. Though this defign took no place, the bilhop did 
not find any fafe-ty there : the city daily filling with difcontented per- 
fons out of Scotland, he began to be afraid left they fhould deliver 
him up. One night they turned a cannon againft his fioufe, to af- 
front him ; whereupon, being perfuaded by his friends to look on that 
as a warning, he took their advice, and privately embarked for Eng- 
land. Here he continued active in the king's fervice till his affairs 
were grown defperate; and then, embarking with feveral perfons of 
diftinction, he landed at Hamburgh on the 8th of July, 1644. 
Shortly after, at the treaty of Uxbridge, the parliaments of England 
and Scotland made this one of their preliminary demands, that Bi- 
fhop Bramhall, together with Archbifhop Laud, &c. fheuld be ex- 
cepted out of the general pardon. 

From Hamburgh he went to Bruffels, where he continued for the 
moft part till 1648, with Sir Henry de Vic, the king's prefident; 
conftantly preaching every Sunday, and frequently adminiltering the 
{acrament. In that year he returned to Ireland; from whence, 
after having undergone feveral difficulties, he narrowly efcaped in a 
little bark: all the while he was there, his life was in continual 
danger. At Limerick he was threatened witb death, if he did not 
faddenly depart the town. At Portumnagh, indeed, he afterwards 
enjoyed more freedom, and an allowance of the church fervice, un- 


der the protection of the marquis of Clanrickard: but at the revolt of 
Cork he rud a very narrow deliverance; which deliverance, however, 
troubled Cromwefi fo, that he declared he would have given a good 
film of money for that Irifh Canterbury, as he called him. H<s 
efcjp- from Ire-land is accounted wonderful: for the veiTel he was 
in was clofely hunted by two of (he parliament frigates; and when 
thry were come fo near that all hopes of being -laved were taken 
away, on a fmnlen the wind funk into a per fed calm, yet fomehow 
iuffrre,! rh : v- !!'! to get off, while the frigates were unable to pro- 
ceed at all. During "this fecond time of being abroad, he had many 
difputes about rehgion with the learned of all nations, fometimeS 
eccafjonaiiy, at other times by appointment and formal challenge; 
and wrote ilveral things in defence of the church of England. He 
likewife propofed to draw a parallel between the liftirgy of the 
church of England, and the public forms of the Protefhm churches 
abroad ; and with this view he deiigned to travel about. But he 
met with a very nnexpe&ed interruption in his firft day's journey 5 
for he no fooner came into the houfe where he intended to refrefh 
himfelf, but he was known, and called by his name, by the hoftefs. 
While the btfhop was wondering at his being difcovered, (he re- 
vealed the fecret by (hewing him his picture, and affured him 
there were feveral of them upon the road, that, being known by 
them, he might be feized; and that her hufband, among others, 
had power to that purpofe, which he would certainly make ufe of, 
if he found him. The bifhop (aw evidently he was a condemned 
man, being already hanged in effigy; and therefore, making ufe of 
this intelligence, prudently withdrew into fufer quarters. 

On the reftoration of the church and monarchy, he returned to 
England, and was from the firft defigneJ for higher promotion. 
Moft people imagined it vould be the archbifhopric of York ; but 
at lalt he was appointed archbi'fhop of Armagh, to which he was 
tranflated upon the i8th of January, 1660-61. The fame year he 
vifited his diocefe, where he found great diforder ; fome having com- 
mitted horrible outrages, and many imbibed very ftrong prejudices, 
both ngainlr. his pc-rfon, and the dodtrinc and dlfciplme of the 
church ; but, by argument, perfuafion, and long fuffering, he gained 
upon the.m even beyond his own expectation. He ufcd to fay, 
len rnuft have fume time to return to their wits, who had been 
io long out cf them:" therefore, by priK-enre and moderation, he 
greatly foftened the fpirit or oppofition, aiv! df equally obtained the 
} .nt he aimed at. As he was by his ffcation prelkknt of the convo- 
cation, which met upon the 8th of May, 1661, fo was he alfo for his 
nyrit caoftu fpeaker of the Houfe of Louis, in the parliament 
dh met at the fame time; and fo great a value had both Hoiifes lor 
mm, that they appointed committees to examine what was upon re- 
cord i:i thdr books cciiceruhg him anil '.he earl of Srrafford,' and 



ordered the fcandalous charge? againfl them to be torn out, which 
was accordingly done. In this parliament many advantages were 
procured, arid more defigned, for the church, in which he was very 
indufnious. About this rime he had a violent ficknefs, being a fe- 
coiid fit of the palfy, whLh was very near putting an end to his life; 
but he recovered. A little before his death he vifited his diocefe ; 
and having provided for the repair of his cathedral, and othef aftairs 
fuitable to'his pafloral office, he returned to Dublin' aboijt the middle 
of May i66:>. The latter end of June, he 'was ieijed with a third 
fit of the p.ilfy ; of which he loon died, being then feventy years old. 
He was the author of leveral works ; as, I. An Anfvver to M. 
de Milletiere his impertinent Dedication of'his imaginary Triumph, 
entitled, The Vidlory of Truth, <yc. 2. A ju'ft Vindication of the 
Church of England from the unjuft Afperfion of criminal Schifm, 
3. Fair Warning to take Heed of the Scottifh Bilcipiins. 4. Tbz 
Serpent's Salve ; or a Remedy for the biting of an Afp : written in 
Vindication of Gh'arles'l. 5'. Vindication of himfelf and the Epif- 
copal Clergy from the Prefbyteriun Charge of popery. 6. A De- 
fence of True Liberty. 7. Gaftigations upon Mr. Hobbcs's Ani- 
madverfions upon the fame. 8. The Catching of Leviathan, or the 
great Whale; demonftrat ing o.ut of Mr. Hobbes's own Works, that 
no man, who is thoroughly an Hobbiil, can be a good Chriftian. 
lie alfo publifhed feveral other fro all pieces, and occaiional fermons. 

BRANDT (GERARD) a Proteftant divine and minifler of Am- 
ilerdam, who flourifhed in the feventeenth century!, Us was the 
author of ihc " Hiftory of the Reformation of the Low Countries," 
in four volumes, quarto. It is written in Flemilh ; and the Grand 
Pcnfionary F.igel faid once to Bifhop Burnet, that it was worth learn- 
ing Fiemilh merely to read Brandt's hiftory. An abridgement of it 
was afterwards publifhed in French, in' 3 vols. I2mo. Brandt alfo 
the <4 Life of Admiral Ruyter." Hedied, at Rotterdam, in 169^, 

BRAY (Sir REGINALD), who was'inftrumental in the advance- 
ment of Henry VII. to the throne, was the- fecond fon of Sir Richard 
Bray, one of the privy council to Henry VI. whj lies buried in the 
north aile of Worcefter cathedral. His family came into England 
with the Conqueror, and flourifhed in the counties of Northampton 
and Warwick ; but Edmond, the father of Sir Richard, is ftyled ot 
Eton, in the county of Bedford, which continued the feat of the fa- 
mily for Come defcent?. Whether Sir Reginald had taken part wirh 
Henry VI. or what public tranfaclions he" was concerned in, in the 
time of Edward IV. does not appear,; but it feems that he was con- 
cerned in fome, as he had a general pardon granted to him in the 
firft year of King Richard III. He was receiver- general to Sir 
Henry Stafford, who married Margaret countefs of Richmond, mo- 
ther to the earl of Richmond, afterwards King Henry VII. and 

VOL. II", L 1 continued 


continued in her fervice after the death of Sir Henry, and her re- 
marriage with Lord Thomas Stanley. 

When the duke of Buckingham had concerted with Mortimer 
bifhop of Ely, then his at Brecknock in Wales, the mar- 
riage of the tarl of Richmond with the prirrcefs Elizabeth, eldeft 
daughter of Edward IV. and his advancement to the throne; the 
bifhop recommended Sir Reginald tor the tranfaclion ot the affair 
with the coimtef?. telling the duke he had an old friend with her, a 
man fobcr, fecret, and weil-witted, called Reginald Bray, whofe pru- 
dent policy he lu.d known to have compailed matters of great im- 
portance ; and accordingly wro'* to him in Lancafhire, where he 
\vas with the -countefs, to come to Brecknock with all fpeed. He 
readily obeyed tie f;;tnmon? > and, receiving his charge, returned to 
the countefs, who, having obtained the queen dowager's confent to 
the marriage, made this Reginald the chief manager of the confpi- 
racy, and employed him to engage as many perfons of note as he 
could. In a lew days he brought in Sir Giles Daubeney, afterwards 
Lord Daubeney, Sir John Cheney, Richard Guilford, Efq. after- 
wards Sir Richard (who were all much employed by Hfnry, after he 
came to the crown), Thomas Rame, Efq. who was taken and exe- 
cuted by King Richard, and many others. 

After Henry came to the crown, he was greatly in his favour as 
long as he lived, and had great honours and wealth beftowed upon 
him. He was made a knight banneret, whether at the battle oi 
Bofworth or Blackheath, when the Ccrnifh rebels were defeated, is 
uncertain. He was alfo made a knight of the Bath at the king's 


coronation^; and in the firft year of his reign was joint chief juftice 
with Lord Fitzwalter, of all the forefts fouth of Trent, and alfo a 
privy counfellor, After this he was made high treafurer, and knight 
of the Garter. He was at the battle of Blackheath, when Lord 
Audley, having joined the Cornifh rebels, was taken prifoner ; and 
being beheaded, and his eilate forfeited, his manor of Shere Vachery 
and Cranky in Surrey, with a confiderable eftate } \vas given to Sir 
Reginald. He alfo ha-d the ifie oi" Wight ia farm from the king, 
at 300 marks per annum. 

His fkill in architecture appears from Henry the Seventh's chapel 
in Weitminfter abbey, and the chapel of St. George at \Vindfor ; as 
he had a principal concern and direction in the building of the for- 
mer, and the finilhing and bringing to perfection the latier, to which 
he was alfo a liberal benefactor. 

BRAY (THOMAS), an Engliih divine, born at Marion in Shrop- 
fliire, 1656, was placed at Hart-hall, Oxford ;, but the fcantinefs oi 
his fortune forced him to leave the univerfity, foon alter he had 
commenced bachelor of arts. Having entered into orders, he ob- 
tained a curacy near Bridgnorth in Shropfhire; from whence he fosn 
removed- to Warwickfhire, to officiate as chaplain to Sir Thomas 


BRAY (-nosnas). 267 

Price, by whom the donative of Lac Marfin was conferred upon 
him. Being introduced to the acquaintance of Simon Lord Dighy, 
his lordlhip recommended him to his brother, afterwards Lord Digby, 
who gave him the vicarage of Over-Whitacre, in the fame county, 
and generonflr endowed it with the great tythes. In 1690 the rec- 
tory of Sheldo'n being vacant by The incumbent's refufing to take the 
oaths at the Revolution, his lordfhip alfo prefented Mr. Bray to it. 
This living he held till about three months before his death, when he 
refigned iron account of his advanced age. December 12^1093, he 
took the degree of m after of arts :u Hart-hull, Oxford. i he repu- 
tation he acquired by the publication of his catechetical lectures, 
which he compofed at Sheldon, determined Dr. Compton, biihopof 
London, to make choice of him to be h.s commiffary in Maryland, 
for the eftablifirnent and better regulation of church affairs in that 
province. Mr. Bray taking into omfideration the (late of the country, 
and the mo ft effechiai methods to promote this defign, it readily oc- 
curred to him, that only the poorer clergy would leave their friends 
and native lands, to go and fettle there ; and as it was not to be fup- 
pofed that thefe men would ftipply themfcives with a number of 
books proper to qualify them for the ends of their miffion, he en:!ea- 
voured to provide for this -defect. He reprefented the ilate oi the 
cafe to the bifhops, defiring their aiTiilance and encouragement in 
procuring parochial -libraries for the ufe of the mii'Iionaries ; and his 
reprefentation met with encouragement and fuccefs. Many libraries 
were founded, not only in Maryland, but alfo in other provinces on 
the continent, iflands in America, and the factories in Africa; and 
their prefervation was infured by folemn ats of allembly. He 
formed a defign alfo of founding parochial libraries in England, and 
this fcheme alfo met wit-h encouragement ; infornuch that libraries 
were founded in feverai diocefes, arid provifion was made for their 
.fecurity and .prefervation, in an at of parliament palled in the 7th 
year of Queen Anne, entitled, " An at for the better prefervation 
of parochial libraries in that part of Great Britain called England." 
He farther formed a defign of railing libraries in fea-port towns, 
where the miionaries might be detained by contrary winds, obtaining 
feverai ,bene.fa<Elions for that purpofe, and taking with him a quantity 
.of" books to depofit in each port that liiculd happen in his way, and 
being detained in three feverai places in a fubfequent .voyage to Ma- 
ryland, he put this defign in execution in every cr& of them, viz. 
Gravefend, Deal, and Plymouth. He likeWtfe made, a beginning 
towards parochial catechetical libraries in the Ifle of Man. 

In 1696 Mr. Bray accumulated the degrees of bachelor and doc- 
tor of divinity at Magdalen-coiiege, Oxford ; and in December that 
year publifhed" Bibliotheca Parochialis," or, a fcheme of fuch theo- 
logical and other heads as feem requifite to be perilled, or occasionally 
confulted by the reverend clergy, together with a catalogue of books, 
which may be profitably read on each of thole points. At the fame 

L 1 2 tim& 


^^a^B^aagacfgtiapg;i^a=.JiMiMnn^Tafgi'Ttr;r-^Tj^g--aasiK<ivT-ii7Ta^aKr-a^y.-^iii'ii \\\ti**zfntdm*amis*i.-m niB.ji*^sm^m*' l iT\u *a\t m 

time he fent abroad anotiier trad, entitled, " Apoftolic charity; 
it's nature and excellency ;" being a difcourfe preached at St. Paul'b 
at the ordination of fome Protellant miffiojiaries to be Tent into the 
plantations : ty which he prefixed a general view (if the Englifh co- 
lonies in America, in order to ihew what proviiion was wanting 
for the propagation of Chriftianity in thofe parts. In 1697, he 
petitioned the houfe of commons, that a (hare ot the alienated lands 
(formerly given to fuperftitious ufes) which were propoled to be 
veiled in Greenwich hofpital, might be appropriated tor the propa- 
gation of religion in the plantations. This petition was well re- 
caved } and a fourth part of all that fhould be riifcovered (after one 
rno'ety to the difcovererj was allowed by the committee : but the 
bill was never reported. Not difcouraged by this difappoiiltttient, 
he xvent over to Holland, to make application to his majefty for a 
grant of fome arrears of taxes due to ihc crown ; but the recovery 
of thefe arrears was very difficult, and they proved of little value. 
He ne:-:t drew up the plan of a fociety pro fide propaganda, to be 
eftablilhed by charter ; and, in confluence thereof, letters patent 
for creeling a corporation by the name of ; " The lociety for the 
propagatien of the goipel in foreign parts," palled the great feal 

n 1701. 

In 170?, having waited a confiderable time for the reltii-n of a 
law from Maryland for thfe eftabliflinient of the cHtifcKi with fudi 
amendments as would render it unexceptionable at the court of 
England, he refolved to go over to that country, as well to halten 
the paiTing this act in their affembHes, as to promote other matters 
For the fervice of religion. Some of his friends, feeing that he re- 
ceived no advantage from his commiffary's place, nor had any al- 
lowar.ce^nade, or preferment given him at home, to fupport the 
expences he was at, advifed him to lay ailde his derign of going 
abroad, and take two good preferments that were offered him ut 
home, that of fujb-almoner, and the donative of Aldgate ; but he 
declined even- offer inconliftent with the intereft of the affair he 
was engaged in, and though forced to difpole of his own efFedls, 
and raifc money on credit lor his fupport in the undertaking, he fet 
fail from the Downs, Dec. 20, 1699 ; and, after, a tedious and dan- 
gerous pafiage, arrived at Maryland the I2th of March 1700. By 
his prudent conduit, he not only gained fingular refpcit from all, 
but fo much of the aflcmbly's confidence, that they ordered the at- 
torney-general to cor.fult with him in drawing up the bill, which 
palled nemine contradicente. After the breaking up of the aflembly 
and that of a genera! vifitation at Annapolis, to which all the clergy 
were cited, many apprehending the oppofition of the Quakers might 
get this new-et;acted law again annulled, intimated to Dr. Bray, 
that it would be of great confequence to the prcfervation and final 
fettlement of the church, if he were to go home with the law, and 
foiicit the royal silent. Hs caie over accordingly, and found that 


BRAY ( Thorn js), an Enlijb Divine* 

their apprehenfions were not groundless: he refuted the fuggeftions 
of the Quakers by a. printed memorial, and his m.; jelly decided with'- 
out heiiution in thechuich's favour. 

The doctor's fmall fortune being confumed in thefe undertaking?, 
lord Weymoiith generoufly prttented him with a bill of 300!. tor his 
private ufe; great part of \vhichi However, he 'devoted to his public 
ddicrns. Though he was veiled with the character oi'commilTarv, 
no part of the propofed revenue was annexed to it ; yet he never 
made any comp'.aiht or remonllrance againfl this tinjult difappoint- 
nient ; and \vhen two llims of fifty pounds each \vere prefentsd to 
him in Maryland, he generoufly threw them in towards defraying 
the charges of their libraries and law. lii 1701, he publifhed his 
circular letters to the clergy of Maryland ; a memorial reprefenting 
the prefent ftite of religion on the continent of North America, 
aud the a6ls of his vilitation, held at Annapolis. In 1706, he ac- 
cepted of the donative of St. Botolph without Aldgate, worth about 
150!. per annum. In ^712, he printed his " Martyrology, or Papal 
Ufurpa'tion," in folio. This work is a collection of fcarcc and va- 
luable t'reatifesj digeited into as regular a hiitory as the nature of the 
fubject would admit, in order to trace the origin and growth of the 
exorbitant claims of the papal fee. He propofed to compile a fe- 
cond volume, but for want of leifure laid the defign afide, and be- 
queathed, by will, his valuable collection of materials, both printed 
and rnanufcfipVi to Sion college. In Dr. Bray's beforementioned 
voyage to Holland, his diliutereiied 2nd public fpirit gained him the 
efteem of Mr. d'Allone of the Hague, a private fecretary to king 
William, who kept up an epiftolary correfpondence \viti\ him : the 
refult v/hereof was, that he gave irihis life-time a funi to be applied 
to the conversion of the negroes in the Britifh plantations; and at 
his death, in 1723, leit 900!, out of his Englilh eftate to Dr. Bray 
and his ailbciates, towards railing a capital flock for the fame pur- 
pofe. In 1726, the dofcor printed his " Direclorinm miiliona- 
rium," and ' Primordia bibliothecaria," and fome other tracls of 
the like kind, in one of which he declares a's his opinion, that the 
civilizing of the Indians rnuft precede any fnccefsful attempt for 
their conVerfioru He wrote likewife a fhort account of Mr. Raw- 
let, author of the Chriftian Monitor. 

In 1/27, an acquaintance, who made a cafuai vifit to White- 
chapel-prifon, reprefenting to the do6tor the miferable (late of the 
unhappy perfons there confined, he foon obtained fufricient bene- 
iactions' to provide a quantity of bread, meat, and broth, on Sun- 
days, and fometiiries on the intervening day?, for that place, and aifo 
tor Woocl-ftreet-compter. His benevolence did not (top here ; he 
employed the intended miflionaries in preaching to them. This 
inquiry into the (late of the gaols brought him acquainted with 
general Oglethorpe, and fome others of high rank and diltinctionj 
who were afrerYvards employed in tiis fame inquiry, in conkquencd 



of an order of the -houfe of commons. Thefe gentlemen he engaged 
as his all'ociates-in his defigns of founding libraties and converting 
negroes. Moil of the religious (ocietics and good deiigns in Lon- 
don are in a great meafure formed on the plans he projected, par- 
riciilarly'thechariiy-fchoo-ls, the fociety for reformation of manners, 
ar,:I that for the -'.eli^f of poor profelytes, .&c. He died Feb. 15^ 
1730, aged 73. 

BREEEUF (GEORGE DE\ a French poet, was born at Torigm 
in Loxvtr Normandy, 1618. Fie was diftinguifhed chiefly by a 
Tranflation ofLucan; which, notvnthftanding it's inflated ilyie, it's 
numerous antithefes, and it's various falfe bvii-liancies, continued to 
be long admired. It engaged attention and anp'aufe fo powerfully 
at firft, that cardinal Mazarine made great prom-; fes of adva-ncernent 
to the tranfiator ; but died, alas! without fulfilling thenv But the 
beft, and (as it .{hould feem) the .moft edifying of his works is, the 
firft book of Lvcan Travelled" This is an ingenious fatire upon 
the great, who are defcribed as never iofing a moment's fight of their 
greatnefs and titles ; and upon the meannefs and fervility of thofe 
v/ho, with a view of making their fortunes, fubmit to flatter them 
as gods. It is faid of Brebeuf, that he had a fever upon him for 
more than twenty years. He died in 1661, aged 43. 

BRENT (Sir NAT-H ANA EL), was born at Link Wool ford in 
Warwickfhire, 1573 ; he was educated at Merton-college in Ox- 
ford, and, after taking the degree of mafter of arts, entered upon 
the law line. In 1613, he travelled abroad, and at his return mar- 
ried the daughter and heirefs of Dr. Robert Abbot, bilhop of Salif- 
bury, and niece to Dr. Abbot, archbifhep oi Canterbury ; who fent 
him to Venice about the year 1618, to procure a copy of the hif- 
toryofthe council of Trent. He received from the joint authors, 
iather Paul, and father Fulgentio, the iheets as they were compo- 
fed, and fent them over weekly to the archbifhop. When it was 
tiniihed, he returned, and tranflated ir iV.rn Italian into Engliiih 
and Latin. In i62i v he was, by the archbifhop's interell, choien 
\vardtnot Merton-colleg ; his grace alfc rn&de him his vicar- 
general, commiiTary of the dioceie of 'Canterbury, in after of the 
faculties, and at length judge of the prerogative. In 1623, he ac- 
cumulated the degrees of bachelor and doctor of laws ; and in 1629, 
\vas knighted by king Charles I. at Woodftock. He afterwards 
fui^d with the Puritans, and took the covenant, for which reafoa 
was, by his majefiy's commnnd, deprived of his warden- 
Hiip of Merton-college ; but when Oxford furrenriered to the 
parliament in 1646, he was reftored, and appointed chief vilitor of 
that univerfity the two following years. The ordt-r made againit 
pluralities forced him to leave Merton-college in 1651, and at the 
lame tuae he reiufcd to take the .engagement. Retiring to his 


houfe in Little-Britain, London, he there ended his days, on the 
6th of November, 1652, at the ags of feventy-nine. 

BREREWOOD (EDWARD), a learned mathematician and an- 
tiquary, was the Ton of Robert Brerewood a tradefman, who was 
thrice mayor of Chefter ; and born in that city, 1565. He was edu- 
cated in grammar learning at the free fchool ii> Cnefter ; and after- 
wards admitted, in 1581, of Brazen-nofe-col!ege in Oxford. He 
ftudied hard therefor Several year?, taking h ; s degrees in arts ; and 
then, as it is faid, removed himfeif to St. Mary-hall. In 1596, he 
became the firft profeffor of allronorny in Grefham-collegs, Lon- 
don ; where he led the fame private and retired comTe of life, a be 
had before done in Oxford. He died there of a fever, Nov. 4, 
1613, much lamented ; for he was a very learned and very excel- 
lent perfon. He was a great iearcher into antiquity and curious 
knowledge ; but is femaik'abie for having never publiihed any thing 
during his life-time. After his death came out the following works: 
I. De Ponderibus, &c. 2. Enquiries touching the diverfity of lan- 
guages and religion, through 1 the chiff parts of the world. 3. E!e- 
menta Logics. 4. Trailatus qviidam logici de prsedicabilibus <5c 
praedicamentis. 5. Treatife of the Sabbath. 6. A fecond trcatife 
of the Sabbath. 7. Tm^.ttiis duo, quorum primus eft de meteoris, 
fecundus de ocuio. 8. Co.-nmentarii in Ethica Arillolelis. 9. The 
patriarchal government of the ancient church. 

BRE\'AL(JoHN DURANT DE), fon of Francis DurantdeBreval, 
D. D. prebendary of Weftmimter, was educated at VV r eftminfter 
School, and removed thence to Trinity College, Cambridge. H? 
v/as elecled fellow of it about the year 1702 ; bur, upon fomedif- 
agreement between him and Dr. Bentley the mailer, he quitted his 
fello'.vfhip, and went into the army, then in Flander?, as an enfig'.. 
The eafe with which he acquired the Flemi'h and German langua- 
ges, his great knowledge, his exquifite tafle, and genteel beha- 
viour, were foon noticed by the duke of Marlborough ; who not 
only promoted him to the rank of Captain, but alfo employed him 
in divers nepociations with feveral German princes. He began his 
travels about 172.0, publiihed the two firft volumes of them in 1/23 
and i/2<5, and the third and fourth in 1738. He was the author 
of feveral poems and fome plays. After what has been faid, it may 
be matter of furprife to fee Mr. Breval's name among the gentlemen 
of the " Dunciad;" but, foon after the unfuccefsful exhibition of 
the " Three hours after Marriage," which, though only GJV'S 
name was to it, v;as certainty the joint production of Gav, Pope, 
and Arbuthnot, Breval, under the affumed name of Jofeph Gay, pro- 
duced a farce, called " The Confederates :" and this expofed him 
to Pope's refentment. He died, Jan. 1 7^8*9. 



BRKUGKL (PETEW). There were three painters of this name, 
viz. Peter the father, and hi? two fons Peter and John : Erengel the 
father, commonly called o'd Brcugel, was born at a village of the 
fctne name near Breda, 1565. He was firlt the pupil of Peter Coclr, 
whole daughter he married, and afterwards fludied under jerorri 
Cock of Boiduc. It was his common cuftom to drefs like a coun- 
tryman, that he might have better accefs to the country people, and 
join with them in their frolics at their fealis and marriages. By 
thele means, he acquired a perfccl knowledge ot their manner? and 
geflures, of which he made excellent t:fe in his pictures. He tra- 
velled to France and Iia'v, where he employed himfelf upon every 
thing that came in his way. In all his works he took nature for his 
guide. He fhulied landscapes a long time on the mountains ot 
Tyrol. His chearful and humourous turn of mird difplayed itlelfin 
all his pictures, which generally confifted of marches of armies, 
fports and diverlions, country dances and marriages. At his return 
from Italy, he fettled at Antwerp, where he lell in love with one 
of his fervant-maids, but of a temper fo different from his, that what- 
ever inclination he had to '.marry her, his reaion atlalt got the better 
of it. In 1551, he married at Bnifielsthe daughter ot Peter Cock. 
In his laft illnefs he caufed his wife to gather together ^11 his itn- 
modcfc pictures and drawings, and burn them before his face. 

The works of old Breugel in the pofTefiion of the great duke of 
Tufcany are, Chrilt carrying his crofs, with a great number of 
figures ; and a country fealt. The emperor has the Tower of Ba- 
bd, the malfacre of the Innocent?, and the converfion of St. Paul, 
of his painting. The elector palatine has a landfcape with St, 
Philip baptizing queen Gandace's eunuch, and St. John preaching 
in the wildernefe, \\ith a great many figures. 

BREUGEL (JOHN), the fon of Peter, was bqrn at Breugel 
about 1575. Two Flemiih authors give different accounts of his 
education : one alfures us that he was educated by the widow of 
Peter Loeck, commonly called Peter Van Aallt, his uncle by the 
mother, with whom he learned to paint in miniature, and that 
afterwards he ftudied painting in oil with one Peter Goekint, whofe 
fine cabinet ferved him at once inilead of a fchool and a mafter. 
The other author, who often contradicts the former, aderts, that 
John Breugel learned the h'rft principles of his art under the tuition 
of his father ; but the difference obfervabje in their manner renders 
this very improbable. However it be, John Breugel applied him- 
felf to painting flowers and fruits with great care and wonderful 
fagacity; he afterwards had great fuccefs in drawing landfcapes, 
and views of the fea, let off with fmall figures. He did not, how- 
ever, neglect his turn for flowers and fruits, of which he made ex- 
celL-nt ufe in embellifhing his other works. He lived long at Co- 
logn, $nd acquired a reputation which will Uf 1 . to the latcft pofterity. 



He made a journey to Italy, where his reputation had got before 
him; and his fine landfcapes, adorned with fmall figures, fupqior 
to thofe of his father, gave very great fitisfadljon. He had th^ 
name of FLUSVEELER, from his affccling to wear velvet cloaths. 
If" we may judge by the great number of pi&ures he left, he mult 
have breit exceedingly ailue and laborious ; and his piepts, as they 
are all highly fini filed, mutt have taker, up much of his time, Pie 
did not fatisfy hi in fell vvith embellifhing his own works only, buf 
was very ufeful in this refpeft to his friends. Even Rubens made 
ufe of Breugel's hand in die landflvip part of feveral of his final). 
piture>, fuch as his Vertumntis and Pomona. His drawings are 
fo perfect, that no one, it is laid, h^s yet been able to copy thcin. 
lie died in 1642. 

BREVINT ("DANIEL), was born in Jerfey, 1616. Before the 
revocation of the edict of Nantz, and till Charles I. by archbifhop 
Laud's perfuafkm founded three feliowfliips in the colleges of Pem- 
broke, Exeter, and Jefus at Oxford, for Jerfey and Guernfcy alter- 
nately, the young gentlemen ot 'thofe i'land?, clefigned icr the mi- 
nidry, were fent to Rudy among the protelhnts in France, particu- 
larly at Saumur. Here Brevint lludied logic and philoiophy, 
October 12, 1638, he was incorporated mafter of arts at Oxford, 
as he flood at Saumur; and the fame year was chofen to be the fuft 
fellow at Jems-college, upon the foundation jufl mentioned. Being 
ejected from his iellowihip by the parljaaient-yilitors, far refilling 
to take the covenant, he withdrew to his native country ; and upon 
the reduction of that place by the parliament's forces, tied into 
France, and became paftor of a proteflant congregation in Norman r 
iiv. Soon after the vifcount de Turenne, afterwards marihal of 
France, appointed him to be one of his chaplair r c. 

At the reiteration of Charles II. Bre> ir>t returned to England, 
and was, by that prince, who had known him abroad, p re fen ted to 
rhe tenth prebend ip the church of Durham. Dr. Colin, birtiop 
of thai fee, whp had been his fcllow-fufferer, alfo collated him to a 
jiving in hisdiocefe. In Feb. 1661-2, he took the degree of doc- 
tor of divinity at Oxford; and in Dec. i68f, he was promoted to, 
the deanery of Lincoln. He died May 5, 1695. He wrote, r. 
Mifiale Romanarn ; or the depth and myltery of the mafs, 
laid open and explained. 2. The Chriftian facrament and facrifice,, 
bv way of djfcourfe, meditation, and prayer. 3. Saul and Samuel 
at Endor. lie alfo tranflated into French, '* The judgment of 
the univerfity of Oxford concerning the folemn league and cove- 

BR1ETIUS (PniLip), a learned Frenchman, was born at Ab- 
beville in 1601 ; became a Jcfuit in 1619 ; and died Lihraiia.n of 
their college at Paris, in 1668. His " Parallels 
'lL Mir. 


Vctcris ct Nov;c," p::bii!lied in three volumes, 410, 1648 and 1649, 
,., a vcrv exact and methodical work, and ornamented with plates 
well defignH. Thefe volumes, however, contain only Europe ; and 
it can never be enough regretted, fays Niceron, that he did not pub- 
i;,:i the "Parallels of Afia and Africa," which- were afturedly 
finifhed and ready, hut fome how or other loft. He publifhed, alfo, 
" Annalcs Mcndi," in feven volumes i2mo, from the beginning of 
the world to the year of Chrilt 1663 : and " Theatrum Geogra- 
phicum Europe Veteris," 1653, in folio. He was, farther, con- 
cerned in a " Chronological work," joined with father Labbe. 

BRIGGS ('HF.NRY-, an eminent mathematician, was born in the 
parilh of Hallifax in Yorkfhire, about 1556. From a grammar 
Ichool in the country he was lent to St. John's college, Cambridge, 
about 1577, where taking both the degrees in arts, he was chofen 
fellow of his college March 29, 1588. His chief ftudy was the ma- 
thematics, in which he excelled ; and in 1592, he was made ex- 
aminer and lecturer in that faculty, and fcon after, reader of the 
phylic-ledlure, founded by Dr. Linacer. When Grefham college 
in London was eftablifhcd, he was chofen the firft profeffor of 
geometry there in 1596. In 1609, he contracted an intimacy with 
Uflier, afterwards archbifhop of Armagh, which continued many 
years by letters, two of which, written by our author, are yet ex- 
tant. In one dated Aug. 1610, he tells his friend, he was engaged 
on thefubjet of eclipfes ; and in the other, dated March 1615, he 
acquaints him with his being employed about the noble invention of 
Logarithms, then lately difcovereci, and in the improvement of 
which he had afterwards a large mare. In 1619, he was made 
Savilian profeftbr of geometryat Oxford ; and refigned his profeflor- 
fhip of Grefham college in July 1620. Soon after his going to 
Oxford he was incorporated mailer of arts in that univerfity, where 
he continued till his death, which happened Jan. 1630. He was a 
man of great probity ; eafy and and acceilible to all ; free from ar- 
rogance, morofenefs, envy, ambition, and avarice ; a contemner of 
riche?, and contented with his own ftation ; preferring a ftudious 
retirement to all the fplendid circumflances of life. 

BRIGGS (WILLIAM), an eminent phyfician, was fon of Au- 
guftine Briggs, efq. who was clefcended of an ancient family in Nor- 
folk, and had been four times member of parliament for the city of 
Norwich, where this fon was born- At thirteen years of age he 
\vas fent to Benett college in Cambridge, and placed under the care 
of Dr. Thomas Tenifcn, afterwards archbifhop of Canterbury. 
He took both his degrees in arts, and was chofen fellow of his col- 
lege, Nov. 1668. His genius leading him to the ftudy of phyfic, 
he travelled into France, where he attended the lectures of the fa- 
mous anatomift I\Tonf. VieufTer.s at Montpeliiw ; agd, after his re- 

BRISSONIUS ,- -Barnaly } . 2 7 ;; 

*g;ft=s~~g LLJ T n...,. _ ..,...,--..-,. >^ JLij-^.. .^ssa- 

turn, published his "Ophthalmographia" in 1676. Tiie year fol- 
lowing he was created doctor of medicine at Cambridge, and foon 
after made fellow of the college of phyficians of London. In 1682 
he quitted his fellowfliip to his brother; and the fame year his 
" Theory of Vifion" was publimed by Hooke. In 1683, he fent 
to the Royal Society a continuation of that difcourfe, which was 
published in their " Tranfactions j" and the fame year was by 
Charles II. apppointed phyfician to St. Tliomas's hofpital. In 
1684, he communicated to the Royal Society " Two remarkable 
cafes relating to vifion," which were likewife printed in their Tranf- 
actions.;" and in 1685 publifhed a Latin verfion of his " Theory 
of vifion, !i at the dell re of Mr. afterwards Sir. Ifaac Newton, with a 
recommendatory epiilie from him prefixed to it. And' for com- 
pleting this curious and useful f object relating to the eye, he pro- 
mifed, in the preface, two other treatifes, one, " De u(u partitun 
cculi ;'' and the other, u De ejufuern affect ibus :" neither of which, 
however, appear to have been ever publimed: but, in 1687, came 
out a ad edition of his " Ophthalmographia." Ke was afterwards 
made phyfician in ordinary to king William, and continued in great 
eiteem for his (kill in his profelfion till he died, Sept. 4, 1704. 


BRIL (MATTHEW and PAUL), natives of Antwerp, and good 
painters. Matthew was born in 1550, and iludied for the moft part 
at Rome. lie was eminent for Ins performances in hiftory and 
landfcape, in the galleries of the Vatican ; where he was employed 
by Pope Gregory XIII. He died in 1584, being no more than 
thirty four years of aire. Paul was born in 1554 ', followed his 
brother Matthew to Rome; painted feveral things in conjunction 
with him ; and, after his deceafe, brought himfelf into credit by 
his landfcapes, but efpecialiy by thofs which he compofed in his 
iatter time. The invention in 'them was more pleafant, the difpo- 
lition more noble, all the parts more agreeable, and painted with a 
better guiico, than his earlier productions in this way ; which was 
owing to hi? having (rudied t ie manner of Hannibal Carrache, and 
copied fome, of Titian's works, i-n the fame kind, He was much 
in favour with pope Sixtus V. and, for his fuccelTbr Clement VI II, 
painted the famous piece, ab >ut fixty-eight feet long, wherein the 
(a-nt of that name is reprdented cait into the fea, with an anchor 
abo;it his neck. Ke died at Rome in 1626, aged 72, 

BR.ISSP.NTUS 'BARXABYJ, prefident of the parliament of 
Pari>, and a moft eminent lawyer, was born at Fontenay in PoicV>u, 
about the middle of the fifteenth century. He appeared at fir (I 
'with great eclat at the bar of the parliament ; and by his knowledge 
and fkill in the law, recommended himfelf fo powerfully to Henry 
III. of France, that this prince made him his advocate general in the 
fur. p'-ice, then coiwifellor of /tare, and at bit in 1580 honoured him 

M m 3, 


with the digni 


ignity of prclidont of the- parliament. Sca^vola Sam- 
relates, how Henry III. declared in his hearing, that 
:c was not a prince in Chriftenddm, vvho could boalt of fo 
li arned a man asBarnaby Brillou. The king made ufe of him in 
fiveral negotiations, and lent him ambalfa.lor into England. At 
liio return, he employed him to make a collection ot his own or- 
dinances, a"; i'd of thofe of his predeoellurs, which he performed wiiri 
\vondoriul cxpeciitio.-. He wrote forne works "in law: " De ver- 
borum, buss ad jus pertinent, fignificatione. De formulis folem- 
iiibus pcpuii Romani verbis. De regio Pc-rfarum principatu, ccc." 
He gave ;;ii expectation of more confiJerable performance?, but his 
life was fhoitened by a very unfortunate accidenr. Living at P^ris 
when that rebellious city was befieged by Henry IV. he rer/., . . - 
tccl againft the treafonable practices of the leaguers w'.io, u-.Jer 
pretence of the Holy Union, contemned the royal authority, which 
\vasmuchmnre facred. Thefe religions traitors, being ditfatisfied 
v.-!-h hi loyalty, fell violent!}' upon him, dragged him to pfifon* 
a.. . -nidly ilrangled hi til the 151)1 of Nov. 1591. 

'NDLEY (jAMEs), a mo(l uncommon genius for mechani- 
cal ; .--entions, and particularly excellent in planning and cofjdu&- 
i ; I;T; i-:d navigat ions, was born, 17:6, ?r Tunfred in Dtrrbyihire. 
Throng the nliftrianag^ijnent of his father, lor there was loins 
lifle p'ropertvin his hoiife, his education i\-as totnlly neglected and, 
at Icventeen, he b'^u'i 1 hifinlelf apprentice to a nv.ll- wright, near 
Macc'esfield in Chef/! ire. lie feived his apptemicefhip , and, af- 
terward?, felting up for himfelf, advanced the miU-wrigfct buGnefs, 
by inventions and contrivances of hi-- own, to a degree of perfection, 
\vhich ii- h^d not attained before. His lame, as_a moii' ingenious 
ir.echanic, fpreadinij widely, his genius was no logger confined to 
the bufinefsof his profvilion : for, in 1752, lie creeled a very extra- 
ordinary water-engii.e at Clifton, in Lancalhire, lor the purpofe ot 
draining coal-mint--; and, in 1755, was erri ployed to execute the 
larger wheels for a new filk-miil, at Conglcton, in Cl'.cdiire. The 
potteries of Staffordshire were al'fo, about tnis time, indebted to him 
for fevcrai valuable additions in th.e ir.iils, ulld by' them for grind- 
ing flint-ftone:. In 1756, he undertook to erecl a fleam-engine 
near Newcastle under Line upon a mw plan; and it is believed^ 
that he would have brought this engine to a great degree of perfec- 
tion, if forne interefted engineers hid not oppofed him. 

His attention, however, was foon after called off to another ob- 
jcct, which, in it's conlequences, hath proved of high impoitance 
to. trade and commerce; namely, the projecting and executing 
a Intend navigation?." By thefe navigations the eXpence of car- 
j-iage is lefiened ; a communicarion i^ opened from one part of the 
kingdom to another, and from eacli of thefe parts t.o the fea ; and 
Kthce produces and rnahufaclurts are afforded at a modbratfc pric'e, 

5 This 

BRINDLEY (James}. 277 

. - ' jss 

The duke of Ijrivlgwater hath, at W< rHey, feven miles from Man- 
chefter, a !ai ; ; eilate abounding with coal, which had hitherto lain 
ufeleis, becaufb the expence at land-carriage was too great to find 
a market for conlnmptiun. The duke, wilhing to work thefe mines, 
perceived the nccelfitv ot" a canal from Worfley to Manchefter ; 
upon v. ' :c!i occafion Brindley, now become famous, was confulted ; 
and, declaring the fcheme practicable, an ai for this purpofe was 
obtained in 1758 and 1759. It being, however, afterwards difco- 
vered, that the navigation would be more beneficial, if carried over 
the river Irwell to NTancheiler, another acl was obtained to vary the 
ct-urfe of the canal agreeably to the rlew plan, and likewife to ex- 
tend a fide-branch to Longford- bridge in Stratford. Brindley, in 
the mean time, had begun thefe great Works ; being the firft of the 
kind ever attempted in England, \v;th navigable fubterraneous tun- 
nels and elevated aqueducts ; and as, in order to preferve the level 
e)f the water, it fhouM be free from the ilfual obilrucboris of locks, 
he carried the canal over rivers, and many large and deep vallies. 
When it was completed as far a$ Barton, where the Irwell is na- 
vigable for large veifels, he propofed to carry it over that river, by 
an aqueduct ot thirty-nine feet above the furface of the water ; and 
though this project was treated as wild and chimerical, yet,-fupport- 
ed by his noble patron, he began his work in Sept. 1760, and the firft 
boat failed over it in July 1761. The duke, afterwards, extended 
his ideasto Liverpool ; and obtained, in 1762, aa adl for branching 
liis canal to the tideway in the Merfey: this part of the canal is 
carried over the rivers Merfey and Bollan, and over many wide and 
deep vallies. 

The fuccefs of the duke of Bridgwater's undertakings encouraged 
a number of gentlemen manufacturers in StafFurdfhire, to revive the 
idea of a canal navigation through thai county } and Brindley was, 
therefore, engaged to make a furvey from the Trent to the Merfey. 
In 1/66, this canal was begun, and conducted under Brindley 's di- 
feclion as long as he lived; but fihifhed, after his death, by his 
. brother-in-law Mr. Henfhall, of whom he had a great opinion, in 
May 1777. The proprietors called it " the canal from the Trent 
to the Mfrfey ;" but the engineer, more emphatically, " the Grand 
Trunk Navigation," on account of the numerous branches, which, 
as he judly fuppcfed, would be extended every way from it. It is 
riinety- three miles in length ; and, befides a large number of bridges 
over it, has feventy-iik. locks and five tunnels. The mofc remark- 
able of the tunnels is the fubterraneous pafDge of Harecaftle, being 
2880 yards in length, and more than 70 yard's below the furface of 
the earth. The fcheme of this inland navigation had employed the 
thoughts of the ingenious part of the kingdom for up wards of twenty 
years before ; and fome furveys had beeti made : but Harecaftle-hill, 
through which the tunnel is constructed, could neither be avoided 
or overcome by any expedient the moft able engineers could devife. 


: 7 S 


2t was Brindley alone who furmounted this and other the like chf- 
ficu!tie, arillngfrom a variety of itrata andqtiickfands, which no one 
but hirafelf would have attempted to conquer. He died at Turn- 
luirft, in Staffbrdfhire, Sept. 27, 1772,111 his 56th year. 

BRISSOT (PETER), an eminent phyfician, was born at Fon* 
tenai-le-Compte, in Poitou, 1478. About 1495 he was lent to 
Paris, where he went through a courfe of philofophy under Ville- 
mar, a famous profelfor of thofe times. By his advice Briifot re- 
f(,'!ved to be a phyfician, and ftudied phyfic there for four years. 
Then he began to teach philofnphy in the imiverfity of Paris ; and 
after he had done this for ten years, he left it off, in order to pre- 
pare for the examinations neceffary to his doctor of phyiic's degree, 
which he took in May 1514. Being one of thofe men who are not 
contented with cuftom and tradition, butchufe to examine for them- 
felves, he made an exact comparifon between the practice of his own 
times, and the dolrine of Hippocrates and Galen; and he found 
that the Arabians had introduced many things into phyfic that were 
contrary to the doctrine of thofe two great mafters, and alfo to the 
knowledge which reafon and experience might fuinifh. He fet 
himfelf therefore to reform phyfic ; and for this purpofe undertook 
publicly to explain Galen's books, inftead of thofe of Avicenna, 
Rhafis, and MefuY, which were commonly explained in the fchools 
of phyfic. He found himfelf obstructed in the work of reformation 
by his ignoraqce of botany, and therefore refo'ved to travel, in order 
to acquire the knowledge of plants, and put himfelf into a capacity 
of correcting pharmacy. But, before he left Paris, he undertook to 
convince the public of an inveterate error. The conftant practice of 
phyficians, in the pleurify, vfas to bleed from the arm ; not on the 
fide where the difiemper was, but on the oppofite fide. Brifibt clif- 
puted about it in the phyfic fchools, confuted that practice, and 
fhewed, that it is falfely pretended to be agreeable to the doctrine of 
Hippocrate^ and Galen, Ke left Paris in 1518, and went to Por- 
tugal. He flopped there at Ebora, where he practifed phyfic; but 
his new way of bleeding in the pleurify, notwithstanding the great 
fuccefs he had found by it, did not pleafe every body. He received a 
long and difobliging letter about it from Denys, phyfician to the king 
of Portugal ; but he justified it by an apology, which he would have 
publifhed, if death had not prevented him in 1522. It was printed 
three years after, at Paris, and reprinted at Bafil in 1529. Renatus 
Moreau publifhed a new edition of it at Paris, 1622, with a trearife 
of his own, " De miffione fanguinis in pleuritide," and the " Life of 
BrilTot ;" cut of- which thefe memorials of him are taken. He 
never would marry, being of opinion that matrimony did not well 
agree with finely. One thing is related of him, which deferves to 
be taken notice of> becaufe it is linguhr in the men of his profef- 

- i and it is ; that he did not love gain. He cared fo little for it, 


BRITANNICUS (702w). 279 

they fay, that when he was called to a Tick perfon, he looked into 
his pnrfe, and if he found but two pieces of gold in it, refiifed to 
go. This was owing to his great love of ftudy, from which it was 
very difficult to take him. 

It is remarkable, that the difpnte between Denys and BrifTot raifed 
a kind of a civil war among the Portuguefe phyficians. The bu- 
ll nifs was brought before the tribunal of the univerfity of Sala- 
manca, where it was thoroughly difcufled by the faculty of phyfic ; 
but while they were canvaiiing the reafons pro and con, the parti- 
sans of Denys had recourfe to the fecular power, and obtained a de- 
cree, forbidding phyficians to bleed on the fame fide on which the 
pleurify was. At laft the inuverfity of Salamanca gave their judg- 
ment ; importing, that the opinion of Briifot was the true do&rine 
of Hippocrates and Galen. The followers of Denys appealed to 
Cos far about 1529 : they thought themfelves fupeyor both in autho- 
rity and number, fo that the matter was brought before Charles V, 
They were not contented to call the doclrine of their adverfaries 
falfe ; they faid, moreover, that it was impious, mortal} and as per- 
nicious to the body as Luther's fchifm to the foul. They did not 
only blacken the reputation of their adverfaries by private arts, but 
alfo openly accufed them of ignorance and rafhnefs, of attempts on 
religion, and of being downright Lutherans in phyfic, 
. It fell out unluckily for them, that Charles III. duke of Savoy, 
happened to die of a pleurify, after he had been bled according to the 
practice which Briifot oppofed. Had it not been for this, the em- 
peror, it is thought, would -have granted every thing that Briffot's 
adverfaries deGred of him ; but this accident caufed him to 'leave the 
thing undecided. 

Two things occur in this relation, which all wife men muft 
needs condemn ; namely, the bafe, the difmgenuous, the unphilo- 
fophic cullom of intereiling religion in diTputes about {cience, an4 
the folly and abfurdity of magiftrates to be concerned in fuch dif- 
putes. A magiftrate is for the moft part a very incompetent judge 
of fuch matters ; and, as he knows nothing of them, fo he ought to 
imitate Gallic, in this at leafr, that is, not to care for them, but to 
leave thofe whofe bufinefs it is to fight it out among themfelves. Be- 
fides, authority has nothing to do with philofophy and the fciences ; 
it fhouki be kept at a great diftance from them, for the fame reafun 
that armed forces are removed from a borough at the time of a ge- 
neral alfize; namely, that reafon and equity may have their full 

BRITANNICUS (joHN),an Italian critic and grammarian, was 
born at Palazzolo near Brefcia> about the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. He publifhed notes on fome ciafiical authors, on Perfeus, Te- 
rence, Statius, Ovid, and Juvenal, fome rules of grammar, feverai 
Hi tie tracts and letters, auU a panegyric upou Bartholomew Gajetan, 

a brave 


a brave and learned man. He taught with great application in 
Brefcia, and disd in that city 1510. When he dedicated his Com' 
jnentary QII Juvenal to the fenate and city of Brefcia, he gave a, 
reafon for it; which was, that the commentaries he had already de r 
dicated to them had procured him a confiderable prefect. Britan- 
nicus took liis name irom his anceltors being of Great Britain, 
which gives him 3, particular right to. a place in fuch 3, work as ;he 

BRITTON (THOMAS), the famous mufical fmall-coal man, 
was a mod fingular perfonage, He was born at or near Higham 
Ferrers, in Northamptonfhire, about the middle of the feventeenth 
century, ami went from thence to London, where he bound himfelf 
apprentice to a fmall-coal man. He ferved feven years, and re- 
turned to Northampton (hife, his mailer giving him a fum of money 
not to fet up; but, after this money was fpent, he returned again to. 
London, and fet up the trade of fmall-coal, which he continued to the 
end of his life. Some time, however, he applied to cherniftry; and, 
by the help of a moving elaboratory contrived by himfelf, performed 
fuch things in that profeffiop as had never been done before. But 
his principal objeCt was tnufic ; in the theory^f which he was very 
knowing, in the practice not inconfiderable. He was fo much ad- 
diCted to it, that he pricked with hi$ own hand, very neatly and accu- 
rately, and left behind him a collection of mufic, moftly pricked by 
himfelf, which was fold for near lool. He left an excellent col- 
lection of printed books, both of chetniftry and mufic ; not to men- 
tion that he had, fome years before hi^ death, fold by auction a col- 
lection of books, moft of them in the Roficiucian faculty, of which 
he was a great admirer. But what diftinguilhed him moft of all, 
was a kind of mufical meeting, held at his own little houfe, and kept 
up at his own charges, tor many years. This fociety was fre- 
quented by gentry even thofe of the belt quality, with whom hecon- 
verfed familiarly, and by whom he was much efteemed ; for Britton, 
was as refpcCtable for moral endowments, as he was curious for 
intellectual. The fmgularity of his character, the courfe of his 
{Indies, and the collections he made, induced fufpicions that he was 
not the man he feemed to be ; fome thinking his mufical aflembly 
only a cover for feditious meetings, others lor magical purpofes ; 
and that Button himfelf was aja Atheiit, a Preibytei ian, and a Jefuit. 
But thefe were ill-grounded conjecture.?, he being a plain, iimple, 
hpneft man, perfectly inoffenfive, and greatly loved by all who knew 
him. The circum fiances of his death are not lefs remarkable than 
thofe of his life. There was one Honeyman, a blackfmith, who 
was famous for fpeakingas if his voice proceeded from fome diftant 
part of the houfe; a ventriloquift, or fpeaker from his belly, as 
thefe perfons are called. This man was ferret ly introduced by 
Robe, a Middtefex juftice, who frequently played at Brittqa's cpn- 


feROC ARDUS ( James ) . 

cert, for the i>)k- .ur ( ,oie of terrifying Bmton, and he fucceeded in 
it entirely; for ;ii!ieyu<an, without moving his lij:)S, or fee m ing to 
fpeak, announce-i, as from afar 6f^ the de^th of poor Britton within 
a fevv hours ; \v,-h an intimation, that, the only way to avert his 
doom, was to tall on his knees immediately, and fay the Lord's 
Prayer. Tne p >or man did fo, but it did not avert his doom ; for, 
taJctng to his bed, he di.d in a feVv days', leaving Juitice Robe to en- 
joy the fruits of hi minh. His death happened in September 

Blitton's wife furvived her hufband. He left little behind him, 
except his bo<>ks, his collection 'of manufcript and printed mufic, 
and mafjcal irtitrurfientS; ail of which were (old by auction, and ca- 
talogues of them are in the hands of many collectors of curiofuies. 
His inftrumental mufic confiils of one hundred and fixty articles, 
his vocal of torty-two, eleven fcores, inftruments twenty-feven. All 
thefe are fpearied in Hawkins's " HHlory of Mufic." 

BROC ARDUS (JAMES), an honeit vifionary of Venice, was 
born in the beginning of the fifteenth century. He embraced the 
Protefrant religion, and expreiled a great zeal againft Popery. He 
publiihed feveial books in Hollaud, wherein he maintained, that the 
particular events of the fifteenth century had been foretold by the 
prophets. After tie had applied Scripture, as his fancy directed, to 
things that had already happened, he took the liberty to apply it to 
future events; and, by virtue of certain paffages, he foretold, that 
certain things would happen to the prince of Orange, Philip II. 
queen Elizabeth of Ergland, the emperor, &c. He fucceeded fo 
far, as to delude a French gentleman of noble extraction, and a 
Proteftant, into a perfuafion, that a Proteflant prince would quickly 
overthrow the pope's kingdom, and make himielt the head of all tl e 
united Chriitians. Segur Pordaillan was the name of this gentle- 
man. He was a faithful fervant to the king of Navarre, afterwards 
Harry IV. and thought heaven defigned his maiter for the glorious 
enterprize which Brocardus had foretold. Big with thefe hopes, 
he propofed to him to fend an embaffy to the Proteftant princes, 
offering to be his arnbaifador ; and there being nothing in his pro- 
pofal hut what fuited with the exigences of the time, it was approved 
of, and he was actually deputed to thofe princes in 1583. It was 
afterwards known upon what motive he undertook the embaliies, 
and we may be fure there were not wanting perfons enough to ridi- 
cule him. 

The Catholic writers have abtifed Brocardus as an impofbr, and a 
promoter of wars and infurretions ; but though he might have been 
thecaufeof difturbances, as (uch men often are, he does not appear 
to have been a knavifh impoltor. He feems to have been fincere, 
and to have believed what he taught. He retired to Nuremberg at 
the latter end ot his life, where he met with perfons who were very 

Vol.. II. N n kind 


kind and charitable to him. " I hear," Jays Bongars, in a letter to 
Carreranus, " that your republic has kindly received the good old 
man J. Brocard, who, in his youth, appeared among the mult polite 
and learned men." This letter fe dated Feb. 3, 1591. He ex- 
preifes the fame afttftion for Brocard in another, dated July 24, 
1593. " I am mightily pleafed with the great afrtdlicn )ou exprtfs 
for Brocard. He certainly deferves that fome perfons of fuch pro- 
bity as your's fhould take care of him: as for me, I am hardly in a 
capacity to oblige him. I leave no (tone unturned to procure him 
the payment of three hundred gold crowns, which Mr. Segur left him 
by his will." He died foon after. 

Among the works publifhed by Brocardus, which were moft of 
them printed at Segur Pordaillan's expence, were his " Commen- 
tary on the Revelations of St. John," and his " Myflical and Pro- 
phetical Explication of Leviticus." Thefe both came out at Ley- 
den, in 1580; as did fome other things, not worth mentioning, the 
fame year. The fynods of the United Provinces were afraid, not 
without reafon, that people would think they approved the extra- 
vagant notions advanced in them, if they were wholly filent about 
them ; a.nd therefore the national fynod of Middleburg condemned, 
in 1581, that method of explaining the fcripture; enjoining the di- 
vinity prof'eflbr at Leyden to fpeak to Brocard about his vifions. It 
has been faid, that Brocard, not being able to anfwer the objections 
raifed again ft his fyftem, promifed to leave off meddling with pro- 

BRODEAU (JOHN), in Latin Brodaeus, a great critic, on whom 
Lipfius, Scaliger, Grotius, and all the learned, have beftowed high 
encomiums, was defcended from a noble family in France, and born 
at Tours in 1500. He was liberally educated, and placed lender 
Alciat, to ftudy the civil law; but foon forfaking that, he gave him- 
felf up wholly to languages and the belles lettres. He 'travelled into 
Italy, where he became acquainted with Sadolet, Bembus, and other 
famous wits ; and here he applied himfelf to the ftudy of philo- 
fophy, mathematics, and the facred languages, in which he made no 
fir.all proficiency. Then returning to his own country, he led a 
retired, but not an idle life; as his many learned lucubrations abun- 
dantly teitify. He was a man free from all ambition and vain 
glory, and fuffered his works to be publifhed rather under the fanc- 
tion and authority of others, than under his own: a fingular 
example of modefly in this age, when men feek glory not only from 
riches and honours, but even from letters and that too with a vanity 
which difgraceth them.'' Thefe areThuanus's words : what would 
1 huanus have laid if he had lived in thefe times, where he might 
have feen men not only feeking glory from letters, and in the vaineft 
and moft ofteniatious manner, but writing anonymous pamphlets in 
praife of themfelves, and for the fake of faying fuch things as even 



flatterers would deferve to be whipped fer? Brodasus died a ba- 
chelor, in 1563, and left behind him, Tome published, and fume un- 
publiihed, notes and co:nmc-:itarics upon various authors of anti- 

BROKESBY (FRANCIS), a native of Stoke in Leicefterfhire, 
fellow of Trinity college, and afterwards retor of Rowley, in the 
Ealt Riding of Yorkshire, was author of a " Life of Jefus Chrilt," 
and a principal alliitant to Mr. Nelfon, in compiling his admirable 
volume on the Feafts and Faiis of the Church of England. He was 
alfo author of " An Hiftory of the Government of the Primitive 
Church for the three firft Centuries. Mr. Brokefby fell into great 
{traits; but as thefe arofe from his principles as a Nonjuror, he was 
of courfe patror^ed by the moft eminent perfons of that perfuafion. 
The houfe of the benevolent Mr. Cherry, however, was his afylum; 
and there he formed an intimacy with Mr. Dodwell (a pillar of that 
caufe), whole Life he afterwards wrote, and with Mr. Nelfon, to 
whom the Life of Dodwell is dedicated. He died fuddenly foon 
after that publication. 

BROME (ALEXANDER), an author who flourimed in the reign 
of Charles I. was born in 1620, and died in 1666 ; fo that he lived 
through the whole of the civil wars and the protelorfhip, during all 
which time he maintained his loyalty untainted. He was a warm, 
cavalier, and author of innumerable odes, fonnets, and little pieces, 
in which the Roundheads are treated with great keenneis and feve- 
rity. Thefe, with his epiftles and epigrams, were all printed in 
one volume 8vo. after the Restoration. He publifhed alfo a verfion 
of Horace, by himfelf and others; and a comedy, called " The Cun- 
ning Lovers," 1651. 

BROME (RICHARD), who lived alfo in the reign of Charles I. 
and was contemporary with Decker, Ford, Shirley, &c. His ex- 
trailion was mean, tor he was originally no better than a menial 
fervant of Ben Jonfon, He wrote himfelf, however, into high 
repute, and is addrefled in fome lines by his quondam matter, on 
account of his comedy called " The Northern Lafs." His genius 
was entirely turned to comedy, and we have fifteen of his produc- 
tions in this way remaining. They were acled in their day with 
great applaufe. He died in 1652. 

BROOKE (Sir ROBERT), fon of Thomas Brooke, of Claverley, 
in Shropftiire, was born at Claverley, and educated at Oxford. F;otn 
thence he removed to the Middle Temple, and became one of the 
moft eminent lawyers of his time. In 1552 he was called to be fer- 
jeant at law ; and in 1553, being the firft year of Queen Mary, \vas 
made lord chief juftice ot the Common Pleas, about which time h* 

N n 2 was 


\vas knighted. He was not only efteemed a g eat man in his pro- 
fellion, but hn.l likewife a good character for integrity and juftice, 
bpth at the Kir and bench. He wrote, i. An Abridgement, cnn- 
tain-ng an A! flrac! of the Year-Books till the > \n-.e of Quf-en 
MM\. 2. Certain Cafe? adjudged in the Time of Henry VIII. 
Kdvard VI. an! Queen Mary, from the fixth o f Henry VIII. to 
the fourth ofQu?rn Mary. ^. Reading on the Statute of Limi- 
tations, made 32 Henry VIII. c. 2. Sir Robert died a judge, 
1558, and in his will remembered the church and poor of Putney, 
ne>ir London. 

There was another Robert Brooke, ferjcant at law, and recorder 
of London, under whofe name there is publifhed a Reading upon the 
Statute of Magna Charta, chap. 16. 

BROOKE (FRANCES), was the daughter of the Rev. Mr. Moore, 
a refpech.b!e clergyman. She was as remarkable for her virtues, 
and fuavity of manners, as for her great literary accomplith merits. 
J"Ier firft performance, \*hich introduced her to the notice and con- 
feq-ient clteem of the public, was " Julia Mandeville;" a woik con- 
cerning which there were various opinions, but which every body 
read \\ith eagernefs. It has been often wiihed that me had made the 
cataftrophe lefs melancholy ; and we believe that fhe was afterwards 
of the fame opinion, but fhe thought it beneath her character to alter 
it. She foon afterwards went to Canada with her hufband, who 
was chaplain to the garrifon at Quebec; and here fhe faw and loved 
thofe romantic characters and fcenes which gave birth to " Emily 
Montague;" a work mod defervedly in univerfai efteem, which has 
pailed through feveral editions, and which is now not eafily met 
v.irh. On her return to England, accident introduced her, and con- 
g^ niar fentiments attracted her, to Mrs. Ya^es; and an intimacy 
v> as formed which terminated only with the life of that lady. Mrs. 
Brooke, in eonfequence ot this connection, formed an acquaintance 
with Mr. Garrick, and wrote fome pieces for the (tage. She had, 
however, great reafi/n to be diflati.^fied with his behaviour as a ma- 
nager, and fhe made "The Excurfion," a novel which fhe wrote at 
mis time, the vehicle by which fhe exhibited to the public her 
complaints and anger s;-/ainii the king of Diury. Her anger, we 
believe, was juft, but the retribution was too fevere. She herfelf 
Afterward thought fo; for fhe lamented and retracted it. Her firft 
dramat'C performance was the tragedy of "Virginia," 1756. Her 
Dc-xt effort in that line was " The Siege of Synope," a tragedy intro- 
duced by Mr. Harris, and written principally with a view of placing 
Mrs. Yate* '!) acpnlpicuou: cirai 'citr. Tins did not altogether fail, 
but it did ii' >i b-C'j^it. popular; it wanted energy, and it had not 
livich oiia n .l;;y ; was little to disapprove, but there was no- 

thing lo adii' ia.. Her next, aod moll; p;>pu'ar production, was Ro- 
; whicii, ;a a very liberal Uiann<.r, ihe prefcr.ted to Mr. Harris. 


BROOME ( William). 2 85 

Few modern pieces have been equally fuccefsful. In 1788 alfo, a 
miifical piece oi her's, entitled Marian, was introduced, which is now 
occaMonailv exhibited, for which we believe Shield is principally 
to be tanked. Mrs. Brooke was alfo the tranilaror of" various books 
from Hi-: French. She was efteertied by Dr. John (on, valued by 
Mifs Seward, and her company courted by all tiie firit characters of 
her time. She d:ed Jai>uary 2">, 1789, five days after her hulband. 

BROOME (WILLIAM), wa? born in Chefhire, of mean parents. 
He was e.lucared upon tiie foundation at Eton, and was captain of 
the fchool a whole year, without any vacancy, by which he might 
have obtained a fcholarfhip at King's college. Being by this delay, 
fuch as is fai 1 to have happened very rarely, fuperannuated, he was 
fent to St. John's college by the contributions of his friends, where 
he obtained a fmall exhibition. 

At his college he lived for fome time in the fame chamber with 
the well-known Ford, bv whom Dr. Johnfon heard liim defcnbed as 
a contracted fcholar, and a mere veitifier, unacquainted with life, 
and unflcilful in converfation. His addition to metre was then 
Inch, that his companions familiarly called hi-n Poet. 

He appeared early in the world as a tranflitor of the Iliads into 
profe, in conjunction with Ozell and OldiTworth. How their 
feveral parts were distributed is not known. This is the tranflation 
of which Ozell boafted, as fupe.-ior, in Toland's opinion, to that of 
Pope : it has long fmce vanilhed, and is now in no danger from the 

He was introduced to Mr. Pope, who was then vifiting Sir John 
Cotton, at Madirsgley, near Cambridge, and gained io much of his 
efleem that he was employed to make extracts from Euftathius for 
the notes to the tranilation of the Iliad; and in the volumes of po- 
etry published by Lintot, commonly called " Pope's Miicellanies," 
many of his early pieces were inferred. 

Pope and Hroome were to be yet more clofely connected. When 
the fuccefs of the Iliad gave encouragement to a verfion of tiie 
OdyiTey, Pope, weary of the toil, called Fentpn and Broome to his 
affiftance; an i, taking only half the work upon himfelf, divided the 
other half between his partner-, giving four books to Fenton, and 
eight to Broome. The price at which Pope purchafed this aflill- 
ance was thr.e hundred pounds paid to Fent'.m, and five hundred tc 
Broome, with as irnny copies as he wanted tor his friends, which 
amounted to one hundred more. Tiie payment made to Fenton is 
knovvn only by '-ear-fay ; Broovne's is very dilriti&iy told hy Pnpe, in 
the notes to the Dunciad. It i^ evide-i that, according to Pipe's 
own t-fl'.mate, Broome was unkindly treated. If four books could 
rriirr:t three hii '!-..: red oouruis, ei ;b.t, and all the'noies, equivaleat at 
Jea'r to lour, had certainly a ri^iit to more than fi\. 

B.ooaie pro'jabiv confide.'txl himfeit as injurctl, and there was 

I to 


fur fome time more than coldnefs between him and his employer. 
He always fpoke of Pope as too much a Ipver of money, and Pops 
pur fuecl him with avowed hollility ; for he not only named him dif- 
refpetfully in the Dnnciad, but quoted him more than once in the 
Bathos, as a proficient in the Art of Sin-king ; and in his enumeration 
of the different kinds of poets diftifiguiflied for the profound, he 
reckons Broome among "the parrots who repeat another's words in 
fuch a hoarfe odd tone as makes them feem their own." It has 
been faid that they were afterwards reconciled ; but we are afraid 
their peace was without friendfliip. He afterwards publifhed a 
Mifceliany of P>>ems, and never rofe to very high dignity in the 
church. He was fome time redlor i-f Sturfton, in Suffolk, where 
he married a wealthy widow-, and afterwards, when the king vi filed 
Cambridge, 1728, became doctor of laws. He was, 1733, pre- 
fented by the crown to the rectory of Pulham, in Norfolk, which he 
held with Oakley Magna, in Suffolk, given him by the lord Corn- 
wallis, to whom he was chaplain, and who added the vicarage of 
Eye, in Suffolk; he then refigned Pulham, and retained the other 
two. Towards the clofe of his life he grew again poetical, and 
amufed himfelf with tranilating Odes of Anacreon. He died at 
Bath, Nov. 16, 1745. 

BROSSETTE (CLAUDE), of France, was born at Lyons, in 1671. 
He was at fir ft a Jefuir, but afterwards an Advocate. He was of 
the academy of Lyons, and librarian of the public library there. In 
1716 he publilhed the works of B >ileau, in two volumes quarto, 
with hiftorical illuftrations; and alter that he did the fame for the 
\vorks of Regnier. He purged the text of both thefe authors from 
the errors of the preceding editions, and fea foiled lus notes with 
many ufeful and curious anecdotes of men and things. His only 
fault, and it is the fault oi a'unoft all commentators, is,, that he 
did not ufe the co!lec?ti ;ns he had made with fufficient fobriety and 
judgment; for want of which he has inferted many things no ways 
neceffary to illuitrate his authors, and fome that are even frivolous. 
He wrote alfo " L'Hifloire abregee de la Ville de Lyon," with 
elegance and precifion; and died there in 17.46. He had a friend- 
fhip and correfpondence with many of the literati, and particularly 
with Rouffeau the poet, and Voltaire. 

BROSSIER (MARTHA), a very remarkable woman, who pre- 
tended to be poffefled by the dtvil, and had like to have occafioned 
great diford; j rs in France, towauU tin. * end of the fixtec j nth 
century. The French hi(to;in;>s hive given an account of her ; 
and Thuunus has bten vuy p,ir, icnhr. Her father was a weaver at 
Romojantin ; but as Martha IVK! she sr' of making a thoufand dif- 
tortions, he frtnid it more Cf r-vrnient and profitable to ramble about 
with her, than to fhy at home and trjinJ his trade, Gluing from 


BROSSIER (Martha). 287 

town to town therefore, and (hewing his daughter Martha as a wo- 
man pollefled by the titvil, and needing the exorcifm of the church, 
a prodigious multitude of people reforttd to him. The cheat was 
found out at Orleans ; and, for that rtafon, in 1598, all the prielts 
of the diocefe were forbid to proceed to exorcifms, on pain of ex- 
.communication. Nor was the bilhop of Angers more eafy to be 
impofed up'>n, but quickly detected the cheat: for, having invited 
Martha to dinner, he caufed fome holy water to be brought her in- 
flead of common water, and common water inflead ot holy water. 
Martha was catched : ihe was not at all affected when fhe drank 
the holy water, but made a great many diftortions when the common 
water was preft-med to her. Upon this the prelate called for the 
book of exorcifms, and read the beginning of the Mne\d. Martha 
was catched again ; for fuppofing thofe Latin veries of Virgil to be 
the beginning of the exorcifm, (he put herfelf into violent poftures, 
as if fhe had been tormented by the devil. The bifhop, convinced 
that (lie was an importer, -only reproved her father in private, and ad- 
vifed hina to go back to Romorantin with his daqghjtjer. The knave 
did not care to do that; on the contrarv, he carried her to Paris, as- 
a more proper theatre for her to act on, where he hoped to be fup- 
ported by credulous and ill-affected -people, anr > Lhofe whom the 
edict of Wcmtz had lately exafperated 2gair.l1 the king. He pitched 
upon St. Geneyieye's church to act his farce in, and it fucceeded 
mightily. The capuchins, who immediately took up the bufinefs, 
loR no time, but quickly exorcifed the wicked (pint of Martha, 
without any previous enquiry, though it is ordered by the church. 
The poihires Ihe made, while the excrcifts performed their function, 
eafily perfuaded the common people that (he was a real demoniac ; 
and the thing was quickly noifed a!! over the town. The bi(hop, 
willing to proceed orderly in the matter, appointed five of the rr.oit. 
famous pbyficians in Paris to examine into it; v.ho unanimously 
reported, " that the devil had no hand in the matter, but that there 
was a great deal of impoflure, and fome diftemper in it." 

Two days after, two of thofe phyficians feerned to waver ; and, 
before they anfwered the biiliop, de fired the three others mig'y be 
fent for, and time granted them till the next day. On the fmt ot 
April, 1599, r ^ G fKU! g u ' as to be tried; when Father Seraphin, on 
the one fide, renewed his exorcifms, and Martha, on the other, her 
convulfions. She rolled her eyes, lolled out her tongue, quaked all 
over her body, and, when the father came to thefe words, " Et homo 
faflus e/i, "-'--" and was made man," (he fell down, and toffed her- 
felf about from the altar to the door of the chapel. Upon this, the 
exorcift cried out, " That if any one perfifted (Hil in his incredulity, 
he needed only to fight that devil, and try to conquer him, if he 
,durft venture his life." Marefcot, one or the five phyficians, an- 
fwered that he accepted the challenge, and immediately took Martha 
by the throat, and bid her Itop. She obeyed, and alledged i'or an 



e xcufe, that the evil fpirit had left her, which Father .^eraphin con- 
firmed; bur Marcfcoi in fitted, that he had- frighted the devil a v\ ay. 
People remained divided in their opinions of this woman; and though 
thcfe and other notorious proofs of im'pofture were produced, )et 
many believed her to be an actual demoniac. At length, there be- 
ing reafon to tear that fome anfwers might be fuggefted to her 
which might raile a ftdition under pretence of the edidt granted to 
the Proteitants, Henry IV. was adviled not to neglecl the matter. 
He enjoined the parliament of Paris to ufe their authority ; upon 
which the parliament ordered her to be confined. She was io tor 
forty days ; during which time they (hewed her to the befl phyfici-r 
ans, who aflerted, tb.jt there was nothing fupernafural in her cafe. 
In the meantime the pi etchers gave themfelves a prodigious liberty ; 
crying out, that the privileges of the church were incroached upon, 
and that hu h proceedings were fiu <jxft<.d by the heretics. "I hey 
\verefilencedhoweverafrer much ado ; and, on the 24-th of May, 
Brofller was ordered to be carried with his daughter to Romorantin, 
and forbid to let her go abroad, without leave from the judge, on 
pain of corporal puniftiment. Notwithftanding that prohibition, 
the father and daughter went, and under the fandtion ot Alexander 
de la Rocheioucaud, abbot or St. Martin's, into Auverne, ar,d then 
to Avignon. The parliament of Paris fummoned the abbot twice, 
and ordered at lait that the revenues of his benefices fhould be feized 
for contempt of the court : neverthelefs thefe people proceeded in 
their journey, and went to Rome; thinking, fays Thuanus, that 
Martha would act her part much better on that great ftage, and find 
more credulous perfons in that place, which is the fountain of belief. 
The bifhop of Clsrmont, brother to the abbot, and afterwards n 
cardinal, was fo much fufpeted of having fuggeltf-d this foolifn 
defign to his brother, that he was likewif- deprived of his eccle- 
fiaitical revenues. Henry IV. well infi.rrmd of what was goir.g 
forward, countermined them at Rome; fo that the pope, who was 
forewarned, did nothing contrary to the (entence given by the par- 
liament of Paris againlt the pretended demoniac. Not long after 
the abbot fell (ick, and died, it is faid, of grief, for having under- 
taken fo long a journey to make himfelt d-..fpi!ed: and Martha and 
her father, being foifaken by every body, lock fanctuary in the 

BROUGHTON (HuGH), anEnglilh divine, who died in 1612, 
was very learned, and published a great number of books. He was 
fo laborious, that, unlek he was hindered by fome particular bufinefs, 
he ftudied twelve, or fourteen, or lixteen hours a day. His t( Com- 
mentaries on the Apocalypfe and the prophet Daniel" are very poor ; 
and if we may believe the Scaligerana, he is a very furious and abufive 
writer. H- was extraordinarily attached to the difcipline of the 
church of England, aad rigoroufly condemned that of theprefby- 


terians. The oration he addre-ffes to the inhabitants of Geneva 
fhews it in a very lively manner. It was printed in Greek at Mentz, 
1601, under the title, when tranfiated into Englifli, " An Ora- 
tion to the inhabitants of Geneva, concerning the fignification of 
the expreffion of defcending into Hell." He aimed particularly at 
Theodore Beza, whom he reproached elfewhere for continual ly 
altering, in every edition,, his notes n the New Teftament. He 
wrote him very rough letters, and communicated copies of them to 
the Jefuit Serrarius, with full permiflion to pubiiih them. 

BROUGHTON (THOMAS), a learned divine, was bojn at 
London, July 5, 1704, in the parilh of St. Andrew, Holborn ; of 
which parilh his father was minifter. At an early age he was feat 
to Eton fchool, where he foon diftinguifhed himfelf by the acute- 
nefs of his genius, and the ftudioufnefs of his difpofition. Being 
fuperannuatecl on this foundation, he removed, about 1722, to the 
univerfity of Cambridge ; and, for the fake of a fcholarfhip, entered 
himfelf of Gonville and Caius College. Here two of the principal 
objects of his attention were, theacquifition of the knowledge of the 
modern languages, and the ftudy of the mathematics, under the 
famous Profeffor Sanderfon. May 28, 1727, Mr. Broughton, after 
taking the degree of bachelor of arts, was admitted to deacon's or- 
ders. In the iNcceeding year, Sept. 22, he was ordained prieft, and 
proceeded to the degree of M. A. At this time he removed from 
the univerfity, to the curacy of Offley, in Hertfordfbire. In 1739, 
he was inftituted to the relory of Stepington, otherwife Stibington, 
in the county of Huntingdon, on the prefentation of John duke of 
Bedford, and was appointed one of that nobleman's chaplains. 
Soon after, he was chofcn reader to the Temple, by which means 
he became known to bifhop Sherlock, then mafter of it, and who 
conceived fo high an opinion of our author's merit, that, in 1744., 
this eminent prelate prefented Mr. Broughton to the valuable vi- 
carage of Bedminfter, near Briftol, together with the chapels of St. 
Mary RedclifFe, St. Thomas, and Abbot's Leigh, annexed. Some 
fhort time after, he was collated, by the fame patron, to theprebend 
of Bedminfter and Redclirf. in the cathedral of Salifbury. Upon 
receiving this preferment, he removed from London to Briftol, 
where he married the daughter of Thomas Harris, clerk of that city, 
by whom he had feven children, fix of whom furvived him. He 
refided on his living till his death, which happened Dec 21, 1774, 
in the 71(1 year of his age. 

Mr. Broughton, form: little time before his death, compofed 
" A fhort View of the Principles upon which Chriftian Churches 
require, of their refpedive Clergy, Subfcription to eitabiifhtd Ar- , 
tides of religion;" but this work never appeared in print. He 
poffeflTed, like wife, no inconfiderable talent for poetry, as is evident 
many little fugitive nieces in manufcripr, found among his 
T '- Go papers 5 


papers ; and particularly from two unfinifhed Tragedies, both 
written at the age of feventeeh. When he was. at Eton fchool, 
Mr Broughton was of the fame year with Dr. Ewer, late Bifhop 
of Bangor ; Dr. Sumner, late pravoft of king's college, Cambridge ; 
and Dr. Sleech, late provoft of Eton : and during his refidence in 
London, he enjoyed the efteem and friendfhip of moft of the literary 
men of his time. He was a great lover of mufic, particularly the 
ancient ; which introduced him to the knowledge and acquaintance 
of Mr. Handel, whom he furniChed with the words for many of 
his compofitions. Mr. Broughton, befides many other works in 
which he was concerned, allifted as a writer in the Biographia 

tinguifhed fcholar in Holland, was born Nov. 20, 1649, at Amster- 
dam, where his father was a clerk in the admiralty. He karaed. 
the Latin tongue under Hadrian Junius, and made a prodigious 
progrefs in polite literature; but, his father dying when he\\as 
very young, he was taken from literary purfuits, and placed with 
an apothecary at Amfterdam, with whom he lived fume years. 
Not liking this, he went into the army, where his behaviour raifed 
him to the rank of lieutenant-captain ; and, in 1674, was fent with 
his regiment to America in the fleet under admiral de Ruyter, but 
returned to Holland the fame year. In 1678, he was fent to the 
garrifon at Utrecht, where he contracted a friendfhip with tl 12 ce- 
lebrated Graevius ; and here, though a perfon of an excellent temper, 
he had the n. Li,, .tune to be fo deeply engaged in a duel, that, ac- 
cording to the laws of Holland, his life was forfeited : but Grsevius 
wrote immediately to Nicholas Heinfius, who obtained his pardon 
from the Sradtholdtr. Not' long after, he became a captain of one 
of the companies then at Amfterdam ; which port placed him in an 
eafy fituaVion, and gave him leifure to purfue 'his ftudies. His com- 
pany being difbanded in 1697,3 penfion was granted him; upon 
which he retired to a country-houfe near Amfterdam, where he faw 
but little company, and fpent his time among his books. He died 
Dec. 15, 1707. . 

a claffical editor, he is diftinguifhed by his labours upon Ti- 
bullus and Propertius ; the latter was publifhed in 1702, the former 
in 170? He was an excellent Latin poet himfeif: a volume of 
his poems was publifhed at Utrecht 1684 in 121010 ; but a very no- 
was given by Van Hoogftraeten ar Amfterdara, 
1711, in 4to. His '< Dutch Poems" were a!io pubiiihed at Amlter- 
TI, 1712, in 8vp by the fame perfon, who prefixed, his life, ex- 
traded from Peter Burman's funeral oration upon him. Brouk- 
huiuis was a 1 Co aa editor of Sanr.azaiv.Vs ar).d Palearius's Latin 



BROUNCKER (WILLIAM), vifcount Brouncker, of Caftle 
Lyons in Ireland, fon ot fir William Brouncker, afterwards made 
vifcount in '6^5, was born about 1620; and, having received an. 
excellent e locution , difcovered an early genius for mathematics, in 
which he afterwards became very eminent. He was created doctor 
of phyfic at Oxford June 23, 164.6. In 1697 and 1658, he was 
engaged in a correfpondence ot letters on mathematical fubjefls 
with Dr. John Wallis, who publifhed them in his " Commercium 
Epiftolicnm," printed 1658, at Oxford, in 410. His own as well 
as his father's loyalty to the royal family having been conftant and 
fleady, he, with others of the nobility and gentry who had adhered 
to king Charles I. in and about London, figned the remarkable de- 
claration publifhed in April 1660. 

After the Reiteration, he was made chancellor to the queen con- 
fort, and a commiffioner of the navy. He was one of thofe great 
men who fir ft fcrmed the Royal Society, and, by the charter of July 
15, 1662, and that of April 22, 1663, was appointed the firft pre-. 
fident of it: which office he held with great advant-age to the fo- . 
ciety, and honour to him fell", till the anniverfary election, Nov. 30, 
1677. Betides the offices mentioned already, he was mailer of t>t. 
Katheri ne's near the Tower of London ; his right to which poll, 
after a long con reft between him and Sir Robert Atkyns, one of the 
judges, was determined in his favour, Nov. 1681. He died at his 
houfe in St. Jarnes's-ftreet, Weilminiter, April 5, 1684. 

He pubiifhed fome papers in the " PhilofophicalTran factions," 
of which the chief is his " Series for the quadrature of the Hyper- 
bola," which was the firft feries of the kind upon that fubjet. 

BROUSSON (CLAUDE), a French proteftanr, was born at 
Nii'Vies in 1647. He \vas an advocate, and difringuiihecl by his 
pleadings at Caitres and Touloixfe : and it was at his houfe, that 
the deputies of the protcihn.t churches a (Tern bled in 1683 ; where 
they tor.k a refolution to continue to affemble, although their 
churches were deinolilhed. The execution of this project occafioned 
violent conflict, feditions, executior>s, and maffacres, which ended 
bv an anineily on the part of Lewis XIV. BroutTon retired then to 
Nifrnes: but, fearing to be apprehended with the principal authors 
of thi c project, who do not feem to have been comprifed within the 
x amnefty, he became a refugee at Geneva rirlt, and thence at Lau- 
faune. He ihifted afterwards from town to town, and kingdom to 
kingdcTi; to folicit the con>pa(lion of protertant princes towards 
his lufFcring brethren in France. Returning to his own country, 
he nn tf>ro igh feveral jirovinces, exerciied iome time the miniflry 
in the Ccvennes, ap.^ared at Orange, and paiied to Berne, in crrl^r 
to-efcape his purfuers. He was at length taken at OJeron in 1698, 
and removed to Montpellier ; where, being convicted of having for- 
merly held fecret corrcl^oadenc. h iiie enemies of ihe ftate, 

O o a 


' '"__'^'_ U ! TTM1 Ll"l H IIIIMIMWBmi^iMMaaii^imgiTTll ~ ' :l~U ~ 

of having preached in defiance of the edits, he was broke upon the 
wheel the lame year. He was a man of great eloquence as well as 
zeal, greatly efteemed among Grangers, and regarded as a martyr 
by thofe of his own perfuafion. The States of Holland added fix 
hundred florins, as a penfion for his widow, to tour hundred which 
had been allowed to her hufband. 

Brouffon was the author of many works in favour of the Cal- 
vinifts : i. The ftate of the Reformed in France. 2. Letters to the 
Clergy in France. 3. Letters of the Proteftants in France to all 
other Proteftants. 4. Remarks upon Amelote's tranflation of the 
New Teftament. 

BROUWER (ADRIAEN), an eminent Dutch painter, was born 
at Haerlem, in 1608 ; and betides his great obligations to nature, 
was much beholden to Frans Hals, who took him from begging 
in the ftreets, and inftructed him in the rudiments of painting. To 
make him amends for his kindnefs, Brouwer, when he found himfelf 
fufficiently qualified to get a livelihood, ran away from his mailer 
into France, and, after a fhort flay there, returned, and fettled at 
Antwerp. Humour was his proper fphere ; and it was in little 
pieces that he ufed to' reprefent his pot-companions drinking, 
fmoaking tobacco, gaming, fighting, &c. He did this with a pen- 
cil fo tender and free, fo much of nature in his expreffion, fuch 
excellent drawing in all the particular parts, and good keeping in 
the whole together, that none of his countrymen have ever been 
comparable to him upon that fubjece. He was extremely facetious 
and pleafant over his cups, {corned to work as long as he had any 
money in his pocket, declared for a fhort life and a merry one ; 
and, refolving to ride poft haile to his grave by the help of wine 
and bram;y, he got to his journey's end in 1638, only thirty years of 
age. He died fo very poor, that contributions were raifed to lay 
him privately in the ground ; from whence he was foon after taken 
up, and, as it is commonly, faid, very har.dfomely interred by Ru- 
ber.s, wfy> was a great admirer of his happy genius for painting. 

BROWN (ROBERT), a famous fchifmatic, from whom the fe6t 
of the Brownifts derived it's name, was fon of Anthony Brown, of 
To!thorpin Rutlandfhire, Efq. flndied divinity at Cambridge, and 
w?.s afterwards a fchoolmafte/ in Southwark. He fell at firft into 
Cartwright's opinions ; but, refoiving to refine upon them, began 
about 1580 to inveigh openly againil the difcipline and ceremonies 
of the church of England, as antichriilian and fuperttitious. He 
made h;s firfr eilay upon the Dutch congregation at Norwich, many 
of whom were inclined to anabaptifm ; a:id, having raifed himfelf 
a character for zeal and fanUry, his own countrvmen began to 
follow htm: i:pon which he called in the aP.iftance of one Richard 
Harrifon, a country fchoolmaltcr, Brown auu ihi^ iran foon worked 


BROWN (Robert). 

up their audience to feparate entirely from the church of England, 
and to form a fociety among themfelves. Brown was convened 
before Freake, biihop of Norwich, and other eccleftaftica! com- 
miflioners ; and having not only maintained his fchiim, but alfo 
mifbehaved to the court, was committed to the cuftody of the fherrfF 
of Norwich : but the lord treafurer Burlci-gh, to whom he was near- 
ly related, forefeeing, that this treatment would :ath< r iervc to pro- 
pagate, than ftifle "his errors, wrote a letter to the biihop of Nor- 
wich, which procured his enlargement. After this, his lord/hip 
recommended him to archbi (hop \Vhitgift for infiruclion and coun- 
iel ; but Brown, who looked upon himfelf as infpired by the fpirit 
of God, and judged the archbishop's counfels to be fuperfiiious, and 
his practice antichriftian, loon left London, and fetticd at Mid- 
dleburgh and Zealand, where he arrd his followers obtained leave 
of the State?, to form a church according to their own model. They 
equally condemned epifcopacy and prefbytery as to the jurifdidion 
of ccnfiiVjries. chiles, and fynods ; and \vould not join with any 
other- reformed church, becaufe they v/ere not inflicienrly a'Inred of 
the fanclity and probity of it's members, holding it an impiety to 
communicate with finners. Their form of church-government was 
democrat ica!. Such as defiredtobe rnsrrib^rs of their church made 
a confeffion of their -faith, and figned a covenant o' 'hemfelves 

to w : alk together in the order ot the gofpel. The whol-i power of 
admitting and excluding members, with the decifion of all contro- 
verfies, was lodged in the brotherhood. Their church officers for 
preaching the word, and taking care of the poor, werechofen from 
among themfelves, and feparated to their feveral offices by fatting, 
prayer, and impofition of hands from fome of the brethren. They 
did not allow the prieithood to any diftinft order, or to give any in- 
delible character ; but as the vote of the brotherhood made a man 
a minifter, and gave authority to preach the word and adniinifter the 
facraments among them; f.i the fame" power could difcharge hirn 
from his office, and reduce him to a mere layman again. As thev 
maintained the bounds of a church to be no greater than what wo 
contain as many as could meet together in one place, :?nd join in < . 
communion, fo the power of th-Jr officers was prefcnb'e.l within the limits. The minifter or paftor of a church c,';u]d not admi- 
nirter thefacrament to, nor baptize the children of, any b;;t thofe of 
his own fociety. A lay brother was allowed the liberty of giving 
a word of exhortation to the people; snd it ivas ufunl for fo oe of 
them, after fermon, to aik queitions, ar.d reafon upon the doctrines 
that had been preached. 

Brown appears to have been in England in 1585, for in that year 
he was ci-eu to appear before archbifhop Whitgift, to anfwer to 
certain tenets contained iu a book, by him published: and b^ ; n.^ 
brought by this pre!a-e's reafoning to a toierab'e compliance with 
the church of England, the -lord trealurtr Buileigh fent Lii/i ;., i,j s 

fathe r 


father in the country, with a letter recommending him to his favour 
and countenance. Brown's errors had taken too deep root in him 
to be ealily eradicated : he foon relapfed into his former opinions ; 
and his good old father, refolving to own him for his fon no longer 
than his Ion owned the church of England for his mother, difchar- 
'ged him from his family. After wandering tip and down for fome 
time, and enduring great hardfhips, he at length went to live at 
Northampton ; but whilfl he was induftrioufly labouring to pro- 
mote his feel, Lindfe!l,bifhop of Peterborough, fent him a citation 
to come before him, which he not obeying, he was excommuni- 
cated for his contempt. The folemnity of this cenfure affected him 
fo deeply, that he made his fubmiilion, and, receiving abfolution, 
was admitted into the communion of the church about 1590, and 
foon after preferred to a rectory in Northarnpton(hire. Fuller is of 
opinion, that he never formally recanted his opinion, with regard to 
the main points of his doctrine; but that his promife of a general 
compliance with the church of England, improved by the counte- 
nance of his patron and kinfman theeail of Exeter, prevailed upon 
thearchbifhop, and procured this extraordinary favour for him. He 
adds, that Brown allowed a (alary for one to difcharge his cure, and 
though he oppofed his pa* im'iGrrris in judgment, yet he agreed in 
taking their tithes. Brown was a man of good parts and fome learn- 
ing, but of a nature imperious and uncontroulable, and fo far from 
the fabbatarian ftrictnefs afterwards elpoufed by fnne of his follow- 
ers, that he rather feemed a libertine therein. In a word, fays Ful- 
ler, he had a wife with whom he never lived, and a church in which 
he never preached, 1 though he received the profits thereof: and, as 
all the other fcenes of his life were turbulent and :!:ormy, fo was 
his end ; for the conflabie of his parifti requiring fomewhat roughly 
the payment of certain rates, his paflicn moved him to blows. 
Of this the confhble complained to juflice Su John, who was in- 
clined rather to pity than punifh him ; but Brown behaved with fo 
much infolence, that he was lent to Northampton-gaol, on a fea- 
ther-bed in a carr, being very infirm, and aged above eighty years ; 
where he foon after fickened and died, in 1630, after boafting that 
he had been committed to thirty -two prifons, in forne of which he 
could not fee his hand at 'noon-clay. 

The chief of his works is a fmall thin quarto, printed at Middle- 
burgh in 1582, containing three pieces, i. " Atreatife of reformation 
without tarrying for any, and of the wickednefs of thofe preachers 
who will not reform thomfelves and their charge, bccauf&'they will 
tarry till the magistrate command and compel them. 2. " A Treatife 
upon the 23d chapter of St. Matthew, both for an order of ftudy- 
iogand handling the fcriptures, and a! fo for avoiding the popifti dif- 
orders, and ungodly communion of all falfe chriftians, and especially 
of wicked preachers and hirelings." 3. " A book which Iheweth 
the life and manners of all true chriftians, and how .unlike they are ' 

4 unto 

BROWN (Thomas). 

unto Turks and Papifts, and heathen folk. Alfo the points and 
parts of all divinity, that is, of the revealed will and word of God, 
are declared by their feveral definitions and divifions." 

BROWN (THOMAS), of facetious memory, was the fon of 3 
confiderable farmer in, Shropfhire, and educated at Newport fchool 
in that county; from whence he was removed to (Thrift-church in 
Oxford, where he foon diftinguiflied him felf by his uncommon at- 
tainments in literature. He had great parts and quicknefs of 
apprehenfion, nor does it appear that he was wanting in applica- 
tion ; for we are told, that he was very well {killed in the Latin, 
Greek, French, Italian, and Spaniih languages, even before he was 
fent to Oxford. The irregularities of his liie did not fuffer him 
however to continue long at the univerfity ; but he was Toon obliged 
to quit that place, when, inftead of returning home to his father, 
he formed a fcheme of going to London, in hopes of making his 
fortune fome way or other there. This fcheme did not anfwer. 
He was very foon in danger of ftarving ; upon which he made an 
intereft to be fchoolmafter of Kingfton-upon- Thames, in which pur- 
fuit he fucceeded. But this was a profeffion very unfuitable to a man 
of Mr. Brown's turn, and a (ituation that mult needs have been ex- 
tremely difagreeable to him ; and therefore we cannot wonder, that 
he foon quitted his fchool, and went again to London ; and as he 
found his old companions more delighted with his humour, than 
ready to relieve his neceffities, he had recourfe to that laft refuge of 
half-ftarved wits, fcribbling for bread. Ke publilhed a great va- 
riety of pieces, under the names of " Dialogues, Letters, Poems, 
&c." in all of which he difcovered no fmall erudition, and a valt 
and exuberant vein of humour : for he was in his writings, as in his 
converfation, always lively and facetious. In the mean time Brown 
made no other advantage of thefe productions, than what he derived 
from the bookfellers ; for though they raifed his reputation, and 
made his company exceedingly fought after, yet as he poiTdled lefs 
ot^he gentleman "than wits ufually do, and more of the fcholar, fo 
he was not apt to chufe his acquaintance by intereft, but was more 
folicitous to be recommended to the ingenious who might admire, 
than to the great who might relieve him. An anonymous author, 
who has given the world fome account of Mr. Brown, fays, that 
thougha good-natured man, he had one pernicious quality, which 
was, rather to lofe his friend than his joke. He had a particular 
genius for fatire, and dealt it out liberally wi,' r, \vr l.c could hod 
occafion. He is .famed for being the author of a libel, fixed one 
Sunday morning on the doors of Weftmihftsr-abbey ; and of many 
others againft the clergy and quality. H" tiled to t;edt religion 
very lightly, and would often fay, that he '.ii.U'.irflo'x! the world bet- 
ter, than to have the imputation of righteoufnefs laid to his charge. 
. -. .ertnelefs, upon the approach of death, it is foui, tha'. his heart 



mifgave him, a^ if all was not right within, and he began to exprefs 
fentitfients of remorfe for his paftlife ; the common end of all thofe 
who feoff at religion becanfe it is the fafnion, or becaufe they would 
feem wifer and more {harp-fighted than /heir neighbours. Such 
men are generally Thraio's in phil: i. nhy ; and however they may 
bully and defy the devi! at coffee-houfes and taverns, are all the 
while fecrctly afraid of him, and dare fcarcely venture themfelves 
alone, for fear he fhould furprife them with his cloven feet. 

Towards the latter end of Brown's life, we are informed by Mr. 
Jacob, that he was in favour with the earl of Dorfet, who invited 
him to dinner on a Chriftrnas-day, with Dryden, and other gen- 
tlemen celebrated for ingenuity: when Brown, to his agreeable 
furprife, found a bank note of 50!. under his plate ; and Dryden at 
the fame time was p;efented with another of lool. Brown died in 
1704, and was interred in the cloyfter ot Weitminfter-abbey, near 
the remains of Mrs. Behn, with whom he was intimate in his life- 
time. His whole works were printed in 1707,- confifting of 
" Dialogues, Effays, Declamations, Satires, Letters from the dead 
to the living, Tranftations, Arnu foments, &c.". in four vols. 

- ~ 

BROWN (JOHN), an i: Jifh \vriter, was born in 

Northumberland, Nov. 5, 1715, at iv'jthbury ; of which place his 
father was curate,, but removed almolv immediately after to the 
vicarage of Wigton in Cumberland. Here, at a grammar fchool, 

,:ng Brown received the fir ft part ef his education ; and was 
thence removed, in 1732, to St. John's college in Cambridge. He 
r;-r.: -incdhere, till in 1735 he took the degree of bachelor of arts : 
then returned to Wigron, zi\d foon after went into orders. His 
firft fettlement was in Carliile, being choien a minor canon and 
lehirerin the cathedral there. In 1739, he-tcok a m after of arts 
degree at Cambridge. Im the rebellion ot" 1745, he acled as a vo- 
lunteer at the fiege of Carliile, and behaved himfelf with great in- 
trepidity ; and, after the defeat of the rebels, when fomeofthem 
were tried at Carliile in 1746, he preached two excellent fermons 
in the cathedral, " en the mutual connection between religious truth 
and civil freedom ; and between fuperftition, tyranny, irreligion, 
nnd licentioufnefs." Thefe are to be found in the volume of his 

Thus diftinguiQied, he fell under the notice of Dr. Ofbaldifton ; 
who, when railed to the Ice of Carlifk, made him one of his chap- 
lains: he had before obtained lor him from the chapter of Carlifle 
rig of v!orek-.nd in WeftmoTeland.' It is probably about 
t'iis inre, that IK- wrote his poem, entitled " Honour ;" to (hew, 

1 true honour can only be founded in virtue: it was infer i bed 

to lord LonfJi^:. His next poetical production, though not irn- 

f'Ci !, was, his " Ellay on Satire," in three parts : it 

as addreifedio Dr. W'afburtoni " v ' ino thereupon introduced him to 


BROWN (John). 297 

Mr. Allen of Prior Park near Bath. While at Mr. Allen's he 
preached at Bath, April 22, 1750, a fermon for promoting the fub- 
fcription towards the general holpital in that city. The year after, 
appeared the " EfFay on Satire," prefixed to the fecond volume of 
Pope's works by Warburton. 

Brown now began to figure as a writer ; and, in 1751, publifhed 
his " Eflays on Shaftfbury's Characleriftics :" a work written 
with elegance and fpirit, and fo applauded, as to be printed a fifth 
time in 1764. It is in one volume, 8vo. He is imagined to have 
had a principal hand in another book, publifhed alfo the fame year, 
and called " An Eflay on Mufical Expreilion " though the avowed 
author was Mr. Charles Avifon. In 1754, he printed a fermon, 
" On the ufe and abufeof externals in Religion ; preached before 
the bifhop of Carlifle, at the Confecration of St. James's church 
in Whitehaven." Soon after this, he was promoted to Great 
Horkefley in ElFex ; a living in the gift of the prefent lord Hard- 
wicke. His next appearance in the world was as a dramatic wri- 
ter ; and, in 1755, his tragedy, " Barbarofla," was produced upon 
the ftage, and afterwards his " Athelftan" in 1756. Thefe trage- 
dies pallid well enough upon the ftage, under the management of 
Garnrk, but were attacked by criticifm and ftridures upon their 

Our author had taken his doctor of divinity's degree in 1755. 
In 17^7, came out his famous work, entitled, " An Eftimate of 
the Manners and Principles of the Times," 8vo ; famous, we call 
it, becaufe feven editions of it were printed in little more than a 
year, and becaufe it was perhaps as extravagantly applauded, and 
asextravagamly cenfured, as any book that ever wrs written. The 
defign of it was to fhevv, that " a vain, luxurious, and felfifh ef- 
feminacy, in the higher ranks of life, marked the character of the 
age ; and to point out the effects and fources of this effeminacy." 
And it mu(t be owned, that, in the profecution of it, the author 
hath given abundant proofs of great dilcernment and folidity of judg- 
ment, a deep infight into human nature, an extenfive knowledge of 
the world; and that he has marked the peculiar features of the 
times with great judnefs and accuracy. Pity it is, that fuch a fpirit 
oi felf- importance, dogmaticalnefs, and oftentimes arrogance, fhould 
mix itfelt in what he fays ; for this air and manner feems to have 
clone more towards (harpening the pens of his numerous adverfa- 
ries, and to have ra:fed more difguit and offence at him, than the 
fubjeft matter objected to in his work. In 1758, he publifhed a 
fecond volume of " The Eftimate,&c." and, aher-vvards, " An Ex- 
planatory Defence of the Eftimate, &c." 

Between the firft and fecond volume of the " Edimare," he re- 
publifhed '< Dr. Walker's Diary of the S^ege of L-mdonderry ," 
with a " preface," pointing cut the nfeful purpof;:s to which the 
penifa! of the " Diary" migiit be applied. H^ was, about thi< 

Vol. II. P p 


time, presented by the bii.; o CarLflc to tjie vicarage of St. N. 
cholas in Newcastle upon Tyne, reiigrjing Great Horkefley in Ef- 
fe.x ; and made one of the chaplains in ordinary to his prefent rna- 
jei'ty. Thefe were all the preferments our author ever received ; 
and, as this was fuppofed to be no fmall mortification to a man of 
Dr. Brown's high fpirit, fo it was probably this high fpirit, which 
was .the caufe of it. In 1760, he ptiblilhed " An additional .Dia- 
logue of the Dead, between Pericles and Arifiides, being a fcquel 
to a Dialogue of Lord Lyttelton's between Peikles and Coftno." 
This is fuppofed by fome to have been defigned as a vindication of 
]\;-. Pitt's political ch^racler and conduct, ap.rirtl lorr.e hints of 
di Approbation by lord Lutelton ; while others have not excluded a 
private motive oi relentment. His next publication was "The 
Cine <>* Saul," a facred ode ; which was followed the fame year by 
* c A Diliertation on the r;fe, union, and power, the progiei'fion?, 
fep.irations, and corruptions, of Poetry and Mufic," 4-0. This is 
a pltafing performance, difplays great ingenuity ; and, though not 
without miftakes, very mitrudirig as well as atnufjng upon, the. 
whole. " Obfervations" were printed upon it, and Dr. Brown- 
defended himfelf in " Remarks." He publiuK'd in Svo, 1764, 
" The Hiftory of the Rife and Progreis of Poetry through it's fe- 
veral Ipecies :" being the fubftance of the above work concerning 
poetry only, for the benefit of cluilical reader?, not knowing in muGc, 
The fame year a volume of fermons ; molt of which had been 
printed feparately. In 1765, " Thoughts on Civil Liberty, Li- 
centioufntis, and Faction ;" a piece, which, though drawn up with 
great parade, and affuming a fcientific form, is little more than a 
parjy-pamphlet ^ intended tccenfnre the oppofers of athn in iff ration 
at time. A fcrmon " On the Female characler and eu'nca- 
tio:.," pie. .!i :d the ioth of May 1/65, before the guardians of the 
afylum fr-r def< ited female orphans. 

His bii publication, in 1766, was "A Letter to the Rev. Dr. 
Lowth_, occaiiontd by his late Letter to the Right Rev, author of 
the Divine Legation of Mofes." Dr. Lowth had pc-inted at Dr. 
Brown, as one of the extravagant flatterers and creatures of War- 
burton ; and Dr. Brown defended himfelf againft the imputation, 
as an attack upon his moral character. To GO him all judice, he 
had a fpirit too {Irong and independent, to bend to that literary fub- 
je&ion, which the Author of the Divine Legation expecleu fruai 
his followers. K^ infitted upon the prerogative of his own opi- 
> ninn ; toair-rit and diifer.t, wltenever he (a.vcaiife, in the m(;ft nn- 
rtferved manner: and this was to Dr. Brown, as it was to rnauy 
other^, the canfe of miflinderQanding und d-.irance with Warbnrton. 
Ecfidcs the works mentioned, he publrih.-d a poem "On Liberty," 
ami fome anonymous pamphlets. At the end of his later writing, 
he.advertifed L;; intencion of pub'ii'lii :g " Principles oi: Chriiti-sn 
Legiflation,V but pieven'.ed by death. H'e ordered, however, 


BROWNE (George). 299 

by his will, that the work fhould be publifhed after his deceafe ; but 
this was not dor>e. 

Before we conclude with Dr. Browhj we muft not omit one very 
memorable circurntfance of his life, and that was, his intended ex- 
pedition to RuiTia. While Dr. D ; )marefq refided in Ruffia, 1/65, 
whither, having been chaplain to our factory at St. Peterfburgh, 
from 1747 to 1762, he had been invited the year before by the ein- 
prefs, to affift in the regulation of feveral fchools (he was about to 
eftablifh; a c orrefpondent in England fuggcfted the idea to him of 
communicating the affair to Dr. Brown, as a proper perfon to con- 
fult with, b^-caufe he had publifhed fome fermons upon education. 
This brought on a correfpondence between Dr. Dumarefq and Dr. 
Brown; the refult of which being communicated to the prime rni- 
nifter at St. Peterfburgh, was follor.^d by an invitation from the 
emprefs to Dr. Brown alfo. Dr. Brown, acquainting the Ruffian 
court with his delign of complying with the emprefs's invitation, 
received an anfvver from the minilter, fignifying how pleafed her 
Imperial majefty was with his intention, and informing him, that 
file had ordered to be remitted to him, by her minifter in London, 
one thoufand pounds, in order to defray the expences of his jour- 

In confequence of the above proceedings, while he was ardently- 
preparing for his journey, aad almoft on the point of fetting out for 
St. Peterfburgh, the gout and rheumatifm, to which he was fubjedl, 
returned upon him with violence, and put a ftop to the affair for the 
prefent, to his no fmall difappointment : this difappointment con- 
curring with his ill ftate of health, was followed by a dejection of 
fpirit*, which caufed him to put an end to his life, September 23, 
1766, in his 5ift year. He cut the jugular vein with a razor, and 
died immediately. He had, it feems, a conftitutional tendency to 
in fanny, and from his early life had been fubjecl: at times to difbr- 
ders in the brain, at lea ft, to melancholy in it's excefs ; of which he 
ufed to complain to his friends, and to exprefs his fears, that one* 
time or another tome ready mifchief might prefent itfelf to him, at 
a time when he was who'iiy deprived of his reafun. 


BROWNE (GEORGE\ archbifhop'of Dublin, and the firfr pre- 
late who embraced the Reformation in Ireland, was originally an 
'Auftin friar of London, arid-received his academical education in the 
home <;t his order, near Halywell, in Oxford. He afterwards be- 
came provincial of the Auftin monks in England, and having taken 
the degree of doftor in divinity in fome foreign univerfuy, was ad- 
mitted to the fame degree at Oxford, in i^j^, s:>.:i alfo at Cam- 
bridge. After reading fome of Luther's wr ; , he began to in- 
culcate into the people that they o:;ght to mi:, ir applications 
'.v to Chrift, and not the Vir^n Mary, or the f.)M;ts. This re- 
iiieii'.ied him to Henry VIII. who- promoted hun in March, 

i'P 2 1534--S, 


1 534~5' to tne archbifhoprick of Dublin, and a few months alter 
his arrival in Ireland, fignified to him, by the lord privy-feal, that, 
having renounced the papal fupretr.acy in England, it was his plea- 
fure, that his fubjecls of Ireland fhnuld obey his commands in that 
refpecl as in England ; and nominated him one of the commif- 
fioners for the execution thereof. 

When the monafteries in England and Ireland began to be fup- 
preffed, Archbifhop Browne removed all fuperftitious reliques and 
images out of the two cathedrals of St. Patrick's and the Holy 
Trinity, in Dublin, and out of the other churches in his diocefe; 
placing in their room the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten 
Commandment?, in gold letters. In 1541 the king converted the 
priory of the Holy Trinity into a cathedral church, confiftirig of a 
dean and chapter ; and our archbifhop founded in it, three years 
after, the prebends of St. Michael's, St. John's, and St. Michan's, 
from which time it hath taken the name of Chrift-church. Sir An- 
thony St. Leger, governor of Ireland, having, by command, notified 
to all the clergy of that kingdom the order of King Edward VI. that 
they mould ufe in all their churches the liturgy he had caufed to be 
compiled, and publifhed in Englifh, and the Bible in the vulgar 
tongue, it was warmly oppofed by the popifli party, but readily re- 
ceived by Aichbifhop Browne. Upon Eafier-day following the 
liturgy was accordingly read, for the firfr time, in Chrift-church, 
Dublin, in prefence of the mayor and bailiffs of that city, and the 
lord deputy St. Lcger ; on which occafion the srchbifhop preached a 
fermon againft keeping the fcriptures in the Latin tongue, and the 
worfhip of images, which is printed at the end of the archbimop's 
life. Dowda;, primate of Armagh, being, on account of his violent 
oppofition to the king's order, deprived of the title of primate oi all 
Ireland, it was, Odober 1551, conferred on Archbiihop Browne, 
who did not long enjoy it, beini^ deprived both of thnt dignity and his 
archbiihoprick in 1554, the firit of Queen Mary, under pretence of 
.his being married, but, in truth, on account of his zeal in promoting 
the Reformation. He died about the year 1556. 

BROWNE (WILLIAM), an Engliih poet, wasborn at Taviftock 
in Devonfhire, and, after palling through a grammar fchool, fent to 
Exeter college, Oxford. Before taking a, degree, he removed to the 
Inner Temple, London, where he feems to have devoted himfelf to 
iheMufes and pclite literature, inftead of law ; for in 1613 he pub- 
limed the tirii pnrt of his " Britannia's Paftorals," a confidtrrable 
portion of which appears to have been written before his twentieth 
year. To thefc were prefixed, in the publication, rerfes by Dray- 
ton, SeHen, and other ingenious friend?. In 1614 he piib.ifh-.-d 
" The Shepherd's Pipe," in leven eclogues; ami two vears alter 
the fecond part of his ".Britannia's P^fiorals." Thefe works gained 
him great reputation, li: 1624 he returned to his collie, became 

t u tor 

BROWNE (Sir Thomas}. 301 

tutor to that earl of Caernarvon who was killed at the battle of 
Nevvbury, in 1643, and of whom Clarendon fpeaks fo highly, and 
the fame year was created mafter of arts. He aferwards went into 
the family of the earl of Pembroke, and in time got wealth, and pur- 
chafed an eftate. He is fuppofed to have retired into his own 
country, and to have died there in 1645. 

BROWNE (Sir THOMAS), an eminent writer and phyfician, 
was fon of Mr. Thomas Browne, a merchant, defcended from an 
ancient family at Upron in Chefhire, and born in the parifh of St. 
Michael, Cheapfide, the igth of October, 1605. His father died 
whilft he was very young, leaving him a fortune of fix thoufand 
pounds. His mother, who inherited a third of her hufband's for- 
tune, married Sir Thomas Dutton, who held a port under the go- 
vernment in Ireland ; and her fon, who was thus deprived of both 
his parents, was left to the rapacity of a guardian, by which he was 
a confiderable fufFcrer. He'was placed at Wincheiter-fchool, and 
entered as a gentleman commoner at Broadgate-hall, fmce ftyled 
Pembroke college. He was admitted to the degree of bachelor 
of arts, January 31, 1626-7; and having afterwards taken that of 
mafter, he turned his ftudies to p'hyfi-:, and practifed it for fometime 
in Oxfordshire. He quitted his fettlement in the country to accom- 
pany his father-in-law to Ireland : which country offering, at that 
time, very little worthy of the obfervation of a man of letters, he 
palled into France and Italy ; and after making fome ftay at Mont- 
pellier and Padua, at that time the celebrated fchools of medicine, in 
his return home through Holland, he was created doctor of phyfic 
at Leycien. It is fuppofed that he arrived in London about 163/1, 
and that next year he wrote his celebrated piece called " Religio Me- 
dici," the Religion of a Phyfician. 

In 1636 he fettled at Norwich, by the perfuafion of Dr. Lufh- 
ington, I is tutor, who was rector of Barnham Weftgate, in that 
neighbourhood; and in 1637 he was incorporated doctor of phyfic at 
Oxford. In 1641 he married Mrs. Dorothy Milcham, of a good 
family in Norfolk ; ami five years after he fent abroad his " Treatife 
on Vulgar Errors," the fixth edition of which was publilhed in, 
1763,. with fome additions and improvements. 

His practice as a phyfician was very extenlive, and many patients 
reforted to him. In 1655 he was chofen honorary fellow- of the 
College of Ph)ficians, as a man eminently embellifhed with lite- 
rature and virtue. In 1658 the difcovery ot fome ancient urns in 
Norfolk g' jve l''- m occnlion to write " Hydriotophia, Urn-burial ; 
era Difcoujfe upon Sepulchral Urns." In 1671 he received at Nor- 
wich the .honour of knighthood from Charles Jl. Thus he lived in 
high reputation, when, in his feventy-jfixth year, he was feized with 
a colic, \\hich, after having tortured him for about a wc^k, put an 
end to hisliie at Norwich, OD his birth-day, October 19, 1682. 



BROWNE (EDWARD), an eminent phyfician, fon of the pre- 
ceding, was born about 1642. He was inftructed in grammar 
learning at the fchool of Norwich, and in 1665 took the degree of 
bachelor of phyfic at Cambridge. Removing afterwards to Merton 
college, Oxford, he was admitted there to the fame degree in 1666, 
and the next year created doctor. In 1668 hevifited part of Ger- 
many, and the year following made a wider excurfion into Auftria, 
Hungary, and Theffaly, where the Turkifh fuhan then kept his 
court at Larifla. He afterwards palled through Italy. Upon his 
return, he praclifed phyfic in London, was made phyfician firft to 
Charles II. and afterward?, in 1682, to St. Bartholomew's hofpital. 
About the fame time he joined his name to thofe of many other 
eminent men, in a tranilation of " Plutarch's Lives." He was firft 
cenfor, then elect, and treaiurer of the College of Phyficians ; of 
which, in 1705, he was chofen prefident, and held this office till his 
cleach, which happened in Augult 1708, after a very fliort illnefs, at 
his feat at Northfleet, near Greenhithe, in Kent. He was ac- 
quainted with Hebrew, was a critic in Greek, and no man of his 
age wrote better Latin. High Dutch, Italian, French, &c. he 
fpoke and wrote with as much eafe as his mother tongue. Phyfic 
\vas his bufmels, and to the promotion thereof all his other acqui- 
litions were referred. 

BROWNE (SIMON), a dilfenting minifter, was born at Shepton 
Mallet in Somerfetlhire, 1680. Grounded ar.d excelling in gram- 
matical learning, he early became qualified for the miniftry, and 
actually began to preach before he was twenty. He was firft called 
to be a pallor at Portfmouth, and afterwards removed to the Old 
Jewry, where be was admired and elteemcd for a number of years. 
But the death of his wife and only fon, which happened, in 1723, 
affected him fo as to deprive him of his reafr.n; and he became from 
that time loft to himfelf, to his family, and to the world. His con- 
gregation at the Old Jewry, in expectation of his recovery, delayed 
tor fome time to fill his port; yet at length all hopes were over, 
ind Mr. Samuel Chandler was appointed t;> fucceed him in 1/25. 

This double misfortune afeiSied him at fir ft in a manner little dif- 
ferent from diffraction, but afterwards funk him i'nto a fer.led me- 
lancholy. He quitted the duties of his function, and would not be 
perfuaded to join in any act of-worfhip, public or private. He ron- 
iidered himfelf no longer as a moral agent, or fubject of either re- 
ward or punifhment. In this way of thinking and talking he unal- 
terably and obftinately perfifte'dtcfthe end of his life* 

Some time after his feccillnu from the Old Jewry he retired to 
Shepton Mallet, his native ui.ce;. and 'though in this retirement he 
was. perpetually contending t h a t his powers of reafon and ima- 
gination were gone, yet he as' cor.!t?.nrly exerting both with 
much activity and vigour. He a am fed hunieif ibmetimes with tran- 
-..... Hating 

BROWN E ,' Peter). 3 03 

flaring parts of the ancient Greek/and Latin poets into Englilh verfe; 
he cornpofed little pieces for the ufe of children ; " An Englifh Gram- 
mar and Spelling-Book ; : ' " An Abltract of the Scripture Hiftory," 
and " A Collection of Fables," both in metre ; and with much learn- 
ing he brought together, into a ihort compafs, all the " Themata" 
"of the Greek and Latin tongues, and alfo compiled a " Dictionary'* 
to each of thofe works, in order to render the learning of both thefe 
languages more eafy and compendious. 

But what ihewed the ftrength and vigour of his underftanding, 
while he was daily bemoaning the lofs ot it, were two works, com- 
pofed during the two bit years of his life, in defence of Chriftianity, 
againft Woolilon and Tindal. Rewrote an anfwer to Woolfton's 
firth " Difcourfe on the Miracles of our Saviour," entitled, " A fit 
Rebuke for a ludicrous Infidel, with a Preface concerning the Pro- 
fecution of fuch Writers by the Civil Power." The preface con- 
tains a vigorous plea for liberty, and is ftrongly againft profecutions 
in matters of religion; and in the '* Ar.lvver" Woolfton is as well 
managed as he was by an" of his re filters, and more in his own way 
too. His book again li Tindal was called " A Defence of the Re- 
ligion of Nature and the Chriftian Revelation, againft the defective 
Account of the one, and the Exceptions again it the other, in a Boftk 
entitled Chriftianity as old as the Creation '' and it is allowed to be 
as good a one as that conrroverfy produced. 

A complication of diitempers, contracted by his fedentary lite (for 
he could not be prevailed on to refrefh him felt with air and exer- 
cife), bi ought on a mortification, which put a period to his labours 
and forrows about the latter end of 1732. He was unqueftionably 
a man of uncommon at Titles and learning: his management of 
Wool (ton (hewed him ailij to have vivacity and wit ; and, notwith- 
ftanding that ftrange concert which poiFeiiecl him, it is remarkable 
that he never appeared feeble or ab.furd, except when the objedt of 
his phrenzy was before him. Belid^s the two pieces above-men- 
tioned, and before he was ill, he had publifhed fome lingle Sermons, 
together wit* a Colleclion of Hymns and Spiritual Songs. 

BROWNE (PETER), a native of Ireland, was at firft provofl of 
Triniiy college in Dublin, and afterwards bifhop of .Cork; in the 
palace of which fee he died in 1735, after having diftmguilhed him- 
ieir by fome writings, i . "A Refutation of Toland's Chriitianity not 
r^ly^ x Lriou^." Tiiis was- the foundation of his preferment ; which 
occaiioned him to fay to Toiand lu'mfclf, that it was he who made 
him bifhup of Cork. 2. " The Progrcfs, Extent, and Limits of the 
Human Underftanding." This was meant as a fupplernenta! work, 
difplaying more at large \\~is principles on which he had confuted 
Tolaiiu. 3. " Sermons." He publifeed all .,-;.. A littie volume in 
12mo. " Againft t lie Cuftom of Drinking 'to the Memory of the 



Dead." It was a fafhion among the Whigs of his time, to drink 
to the glorious and immortal memory of King William III. which 
greatly difgufted our hi (hop, as well as other orthodox and Jaco- 
bitical prelates, and is fuppofed to have given rife to the piece in 

BROWNE (ISAAC HAWKINS], an ingenious poet, was born at 
Burton upon Trent, Staffbrdfhire, January 21, 1705-6; of which 
place his father was the minifter. He received his grammatical in- 
ftitution firft at Lichfield, then at Weftmirifter ; whence, at fix- 
tcen years of age he was removed to Trinity college, Cambridge, of 
which his father had been fellow. He remained there till he had 
taken a mafter of arts degree; and in about 1727 fettled himfelf 
in Lincoln's Inn, where he teems, like many others, to have devored 
more of his time to the Mufes than to the law. Soon after his ar- 
rival there, he wrote a poem " On Defign and Beauty," which he 
addrelr.d to Mr. High more the painter, for whom he had a great 
friendfhip. Several other poetical pieces were written here, and 
particularly his " Pipe of Tobacco. "This is an imitation of Cib- 
per, Ambrofe Phillips, Thorn fon, Young, Pope, and Swift, who 
were then all living, and is reckoned one of the molt pleafing and 
popular of his performances. In 1743-4 he married the daughter 
of Dr. Trimnell, archdeacon of Leicefter. He was chofen twice 
to ferve in parliament, firit in 1744, and afterwards in 1748; both 
times for the borough of Wenlock, in Shropfhire, near which place 
he pofTefifed a confiderable eflate, which came from his maternal 
grandfather, Ifaac Hawkins, fq. In 1754 he publifru-d, what 
has been deemed his capital work, " De Aniini Immortalitate," in 
two books ; in which, befides a molt judicious choice of matter 
and arrangement, he is thought to have (hewn himfelf, not a i.rvile, 
but happy imitator of Lucretius and Virgil. The univerfal ap- 
plaufe and popularity of this poem produced feveral Engliih tran- 
fiations of ir, in a very fliort time. Mr. Browne died, after a lin- 
gering illnefs, the 141*1 of February, 1760, in his 55th year, much 
regretted by all his friends. 

BROWNE {SiR WILLIAM), a phyfician of our own times, was 
fettled originally in that line at Lynn in Norfolk, where he pub- 
lifhed ' Dr. Gregory's Elements of Catoptrics and Dioptrics, 
tranfiated from the Latin Original, by William Browne, M. D. at 
Lynn Regis in Norfolk." By whom is added, i. A Method for 
finding the Foci of all Specula, as well as Lenfes univerfally; as alfo 
magnifying a given Objcdt by a given Speculum, or Lens, in any 
afligned Proportion. 2. A Solution of thofe Problems which Dr. 
Gregory has left u; deihonft rated. 3. A particular Account of Mi- 
crokopes and Telefcopes, from Mr. Huygens; with the D;fco- 

4 vjfcs.- 


verics made by Catoptrics and Dioptrics. The fecond edition, iJ- 
luRrated with ufefuj cuts, ourioufly and correctly engraven by Mr. 
Senex, 8vo. 

Having acquired a competence by his profeflion, he removed to 
Queen's-fquare, Orrnond-ltreef, London, where he refided till his 
tleath, which happened March ic, 1/74) at the age of 82. By his 
will he left two prize-medals to be annually contended tor by the 
Cambridge poets. 

A great number of lively effays, both in profe and verfe, the pro- 
duction of his pt'n, were printed, anil circulated among his friends. 

BROWNRIG, orBROUNRIGTRALPH), bifhop of Exeter, 
was Ton of a merchant at Ip'fwich, and born 1592. At fourteen he 
\vas fent to Pembroke-hall in Cambridge ; of which he fucceflively 
became fcholar and fellow. He was appointed Prevaricator, 
when James I. vifired the univerfity. He was firft collated by Dr. 
Felton, bifhop of Eiy, to the rectory of Barley in Herefordfhire, 
and, in 1621, to a prebend in the church of Ely. He took the de- 
gree of doctor in divinity at Oxford in 1628; and the following 
year was collated to a prebencl in the church of Litchfield, which he 
quitted on being made archdeacon of Coventry in 1631. He was 
Sikewife matter of Catherinehall in Cambridge, and in the years 1637, 
1638, 1643, and 1644, difcharged the office of vice-chancellor. In 
1641, he was prefented to a prebend in the church of Durham, by 
Dr. Morton, bifhop of that fee, and the fame year nominated to 
fucceed Dr. Hall, tranflated to the bifhoprick of Norwich, in the 
fee of Exeter, to the liking of all good men, favs Wood. Upon 
the breaking out of the civil war, his relation Mr. John Pym, and 
others of the preibyterian ftamp, by whom he had formerly been 
much efteeaied, forfook him, and fuffered him to be deprived of the 
revenues of his fee ; and about 1645, the parliamentary party, tak- 
ing offence at fome paffages in a fermon preached by him before the 
univerfity, on the king's inauguration, femoved him from the maf- 
terfhip of Catherine-hall. After this he fpent leveral years at the 
houfe of Thomas Rich, of Sunning, efq. in Berkfhire, and at Lon- 
don, at Highgate, and St. Edmundfbury. It is faiH, he had the 
courage to aciviie Oliver Cromwell to reftore Charles II. to his juft 
rights. About the year before his deceafe, he was chofen preacher 
at the Temple in London. A violent fit of the (lone, his old dif- 
temper, attended with the drop fy, and thu infirmities of age, put an 
end to his life in 1659. 

BRUEYS (DAVID AUGUSTIN), a French writer of a fingular 
h!ft( ry and character, was born at Aix in 1640, and trained in 
Calvinifm and controverfy. He wrote agai.nrt BoOTuet's " Expo- 
fition de la Foi," or " Expofition of tlie Faith ;" b'it the prelate, 
inftead of anfweimg, converted him. Brueys, become Catholic, 

VOL. II. Q_q combated 


combated with the protefhnt minifters, with Jurieu, Lenfant, and 
La Ro-he ; but his airy fpirit not rightly accommodating itfelf to 
ferious works, he quilted theology for the theatre. He compofcd 
jointly with Palaprat, his intimate friend, feveral comedies full of 
wit and gaiety. We have alfo of this writer a profaic paraphrafe of 
Horace'~s " Art of Poetry," which is properly nothing but a c< n- 
tinued commentary upon it. In his latter year, he became again 
a controverlial writer in the religious way ; and thus may be laid 
to have imitated Bcllannine and Moliere by turns. He died at 
MontpeHier in 1723, agtd 83. 

BRUIN (JoHN DE), profeilor of natural philofophy and ma- 
thematics at Utrecht, was born at Gorcutn 1620. He went 
through a courfe of philofophy at Leyden ; and then purfued his 
fludies at Bois-le-duc, where he was very much efteemed by Samuel 
des Marets, who taught philofophy and divinity in that place. He 
went from thence to Utrecht, where he learnt the mathematics, 
and then removed to Leyden, where he obtained leave to teach them. 
He was afterwards made proteilbr at Utrecht ; and becaufe the pro- 
fefibrs had agreed among themfclves that every one might teach at 
home futh a part of philofophy as he mould think fit, De Bruin, 
not contented with teaching what his public profefforfhip required,. 
madealfodiirelions, and explained Grotius's book ' De Jure Belli 
ct Pads." He had uncommon Ikill in dille6ling animals, and was 
a great lover of experiments. He made alfo obfervations in aftro- 
nomy. He publiihed dilfertations *' De vi altrice, De corporum 
gravitate & levitate, De cognitione Dei naturali, De luciscaufa & 
origine, &c." He had a difoute with liaac Voilius, to whom he 
wrote a letter, printed at Amlterdam 1663 ; wherein he cites Vof- 
fius's book " De mttura & proprietate lucis," and Hrenuoufly 
maintains the hypothefis of Doicartes. He wrote alfo an apology 
for the Cartcfian philofophy againft a divine, named Vogeifang. 
He died in 1675. 

BRUMOY (PETER), a very diltingmfhed Frenchman, was born 
at Royen in 1688, and entered into the fociety of the Jefnits in 
1704. After teaching the belles iettres in the country, he was 
called at length to Paris, and charged with the education of the 
Prince of Talmont, as alfo with fome articles in the " Journal de 
Trevoux." He died in 174.2, after having fignalized himfelf by 
certain literary productions ; the chief of which are, i. " Le 
Theatre des Grecs, &c. or, Theatre of the Greeks, containing 
tranflations of Greek Tragedies, with difcouvfes and remarks upon 
the Greek Theatre." This is a very profound and well-reafoned 
work , the tranllations are as elegant as faithful, and the whole is 
full of taite, 2. " Un Recueil de diverfe* pieces en profe verfe." 
i. e. " A Collection cf divers pieces in profe and verfe." 



BRUN (CHARLES LF), an iikilhions French painter, was of 
Scotlifh extraction, and born in 1619, His father was a Itatuary 
by profellion. At three years of age it is reported that he drew 
figures with charcoal ; and at twelve he drew the picture of his 
uncle fo well, that it paiTes ftill for a fine piece. His father being 
employed in the gardens at S.guier, and having brought his fon aion< 
with him, the chancellor ot that name to;>k a liking to him, and 
1 laced 'rrn withSirrv n Vouet, an eminent painter, who was areatly 
lurprifrd at young Le Brim's amazing proficiency. He was after- 
vvaids lent to Fontainbleau, to make copies of fome of Raphael's 
pirces. The chancellor fcnt him next to Italy, and fupported hiiTi 
there for dx years. Le Brun, i;i his return, met with the celebrated 
Pouffin, by whofe converfation he greatly improved hirnfelf in his 
art, and contracted a friendihip with him which lafted as loner as 
their lives. Cardinal Mazarine, a good judge of painting, took 
great notice of Le Brim, and often fat by him while he was at work. 
A painting of St. Stephen, which he finilhed in 1651, raifed his 
repi.tarion to the higheft pitch. Soon after this, the king, upon 
the reprefentation ot Mr. Colbert, made him his firlt paimer, and 
conferred on him the order of St. Michael. His majcity emploved 
two hours every day in looking upon him, whillt he was painting 
the family of Darius at Fontainbleau. About 1662, he began his 
five large pieces of the hiflory of Alexander the Great, in which he 
is fuid to have fet the actions of that conqueror in a more glorious 
light than Qninius Curtius in his hiftory. He procured feveral Ad- 
vantages for the royal academy of painting ar.d fculpture at Paris, 
and formed the plan of another for the ftudents of his own nation 
at Rome. There was fcarce any thing done for the advancement 
ot the fine arts in which he was not conftilted. It was through 
the intereir. of M. Colbert, that the king gave him the direction'of 
all hi.-, works, and particularly of his royal manufactory at the 
Gobelins, where he had a handfome houfe, with a genteel (alary 
aflignedto him. He was alfo made director and chancellor of the 
royal academy, and ihewed the greateft zeal to encourage the fine 
arts in France. He was endowed with avail inventive g -riius, 
which extended itfelf to arts of every kind. He was veil acquain- 
ted with the hi (lory and manners of all nations. Betides his ex- 
traord.nary talents, his behaviour was fo genteel, and his add'-efs 
fo pleafing, that he attracted the regard and affection of the whole 
court of France : where, by the places and penfions conferred on 
him by the king, he made a verv considerable figure. He .'ied at 
his houfe in the Gobelins in 1690, 'caving a wife, but no chiid-en. 
He was author of a curious treatife " Of Phyfiognomy ;" and of 
another, " Of the Charafters of the Paflions."' 

BRUNO (JORDANO), was born at Nola, in the kingdom of 
Naples. About the year 158:, he began to call in queftion fome 

O G 2 ,.c 



ot the tenets of the Romifh church, which occafioned his retiring 
to Geneva. After two years ft ay here, he expreffed his diflike to 
Calvinifm in fuch a manner, that he was expelled the city. He 
went firft to Lyons, Afterwards to Tonloufe, and then to Paris, 
he was made profelfbr extraordinary, becaufe the ordinary pro- 
feffors were obliged to a Milt at mafs. From Paris he came to Lon- 
don, and continued two years in the houfe of M. Caftelneau, the 
French anibalfacior. He was very well received by queen Eliza- 
bith and the politer part of the court. His principal friends were 
Sir Philip Sidney and Sir Fulke Greville. At Sir Philip's requefr, 
he compofcd his " Spaccio della beftia trimnphante," which was 
printed in 8vo, 1584., and dedicated to that gentleman. From 
England he removed, in about two years, to Witternberg, where 
he was profeffor for the fpace of two years more. He next went 
to Prague, and printed in that city fome tracts, in which he openly 
difcovered his atheiftical principles. After vifiting fome other towns 
of Germany, he made a tour to Venice, where he was apprehended 
by order of the inquifition, tried, and convicted of his errors. Forty 
days being allowed him to deliberate, he promi fed to retract them. 
At the expiration of that term, he {till maintained his errors, and 
obtained a further refpite for forty days. appearing that 
he impofed upon the pope in order to prolong his life, fenrence was 
finally palled upon him on the Qth of February, 1000. He made 
no offer to retract during the week that was allowed him afterwards 
for that purpofe, but underwent his punifhment on the I7th, by 
being burnt at a ftake. 

BRUSCHIUS (CASPAR), a Latin hiftorian and poet, was born 
at Egra in Bohemia, 1518. He was devoted to books from his 
childhood, and efpecially to poetry ; in which he fo happily (uc- 
ceeded, that he could make a great number of verfes, and ihole not 
bad ones, extempore. He began early to publifh fome of them on 
feveral ftibjecls ; and he got fo much reputation by them, that he 
attained to the poetical crown, to the dignity of poet laureat, and 
of count palatine. He received that honour at Vienna from Fer- 
dinand of Auftria, king of the Romans, in 1552. His bufmefs 
thither was to prefent a work to Maximilian, king of Hungary, 
which he had dedicated to him. It was the " Firil Century of the 
German Monafteries." In his return from Vienna, he Stopped at 
Paffau ; where, finding a patron in Wolfgang bifhop of S-^ms, he 
refolved to fettle, and to remove his library and family. He hoped 
that he could better go on there with a great work he had under- 
taken, which was, " The hiftnry of all the bifhoprics and bifhops 
of Germany." He had travelled much, and looked into fcvcral 
records and libraries, to gather materials for his purpofe. How long 
he flayed there does not appear ; but he was at Bafil in June 1553. 
and lived in the citadel of Oporin, that famous printer's houfe. Here 


BRUTUS (Jobn-Michael). 309 

he publilhed writings he had rimlhed at Paffau, fome in profe, and 
others in verfe. Brufchius was married, but had no children. He 
was far from being rich ; fo far that, if his poetical patrons had not 
afliitcd him, he would have had much ado to have maintained him- 
felf. He received prefents alfo from the abbots and abbeffes, whofe 
manafteries he defcribed. He was very well received by the abbefs 
of the convent of Caczi: he fupped and danced with her, and ob- 
tained fome prefents from her. This, Melchior Adam fays, was 
owing toh'is having ddcrib^d the antiquities of that convent. The 
liberalities of fome abbots, while he was with Oporin at Bafil, 
enabled him to buy a new fait of cloaths ; but when he found 
that appearing well-dreffed in the flreets procured him many marks 
of refpeci from the vulgar, he tore his new finery to pieces, as flaves 
(fays the fume author) that had ufurped their matters honours." 
Brufchius feems to have been too great a philofopher for the age 
he lived in, or indeed for any age ; for what is it that procures a man 
refpeft and deference from the vulgar, the great vulgar and the fmall ? 
nothing a jot fuperior to fine cioaths. We think that Brufchius 
had better have preferved his cloaths: for the veneration they pro- 
cured him could do him no harm, it might do him good ; and then 
it would be far preferable to the veneration of judges and critics, 
when it furfer^ a learned and deferving man, as it does but too often, 
to want almolt the common neceflaries of life. This unhappy n an 
was murd-reu in the foreft of Scalingenbach, between Rottemberg 
on the Tauber and Winfheim: and it was believed that this alfef- 
fmation was concerted and carried into execution by fome gentle- 
men againft whom Brufchius was about to write fomething. 

BRUTUS (JOHN-MICHAEL), a very learned Venetian, was born 
about 15 1 8, and Itudied at Padua. It appears from his letters, that 
he was obliged to leave his country in fuch a manner, that he was 
looke i upon as an exile : but he does hot fay on what account, only 
that it was without any blemifh to his honour. In 1562 hepub- 
lilhed hi-; " Hiil > y ot Florence." He travelled much, palling part 
of his life in Spjm, England, France, Germany, Tranfylvania, and 
Poland. Notwithftanding this itinerant kind of life, he made him- 
feif v-ry learned, as appears from his notes on Horace, Caefar, Ci- 
cero, &c H"- was in Tranfyk'kniaJn 1574; having been invited 
thither by prince S-ephen, in order .to compofe a hiftory of that 
country. One of his letters, dated from Cracow, Nov. 23, 1577, 
informs us, that he had followed that prince, then king of Poland, 
in the expedition into Pruflin. He had a convenient apartment 
aligned him in the Caltie of Cracow, that he might apply himfelf 
t!v.- better to his function of hiftoi iographer. He left Poland ^.fter 
the death of that monarch \ and lived with Wil'iam or Sr. Clement, 
m':',.:.i. ' >r irom the king of Spain to the Imperial court. He 
s honoured with the title of his Imperial majcfty's h:f- 

J toriugrapher. 


tnriographer. He was at Prague Jan. 1590; but what became of 
Jiim afterwards, and when and where he died is ur.certnn. 

.His writings, become very fcarce, were fo earned I y fought after 
Lv the belt judges, that there was great joy in the republic of letters, 
rn hearing that Mr. Cromer had undertaken to publiili a new edi- 
tion of them. 

BRUYERE fJoHN DF. LA), a celebrated French aurlvr, was 
b">rn at Donrdan ab >ut 1644. He wrote characters, or ihkribed 
the manners of hi age, in imitation of Theophraftu?, w!:i :h cha- 
j-cters were not always imjginarv, hut defcriptive of real perl"ons. 
In 1693, he was, by an order of the kin^, chofen a member of the 
French academy, and died 1696. Father B;>uhours, Menage, and 
other French critic?, have faidvrft things of his characters ; and 
Monf. 1'Abbe Flenri, who fucceeued him in the academy, and ac- 
cording to cuitom made hiselogy, calls his bock " a work very Sin- 
gular in it's kind, ar.d, in the opinion of fi>me judges, even fuperior 
ju that great original Theophraitus, whom the author himfelf atfirlt 
did only propofe to imitate." 

" The Characters of Bruyere (fay^ Voltaire) may juftly be ranked 
among the extraordinary productions of this age. Antiquity fur- 
ruthes no examples of fuch a work. A Ityle rapid, concife, and 
nervous ; expref&ons animated and pichirefque ; an u(e of language 
aitogethtr new, without offending again it it's eftablifhed rules, (truck 
the public at firft ; and the allulions, which are crowded in a! molt 
every p^g-', completed it's fuccefs."' 

BUC (GEORGE), a learned antiquary, was defcended of afi 
ancient family, a; d born in Lincolnshire. In the reign of James 
I he was made one of the gentlemen of his majefty's privy chamber, 
anil knighted : he was alfo appointed malter of the revels. His 
\vritingsare, I. "The Life: and Reign of Richard III." in five books. 
This is properly a defence of that king, whom he would not allow 
to have had any deformity in body or mind. 2. " The Third uni- 
verfiy of England ; or, A treatife of the foundations of all the col- 
Itjjes, ancient fchools of privilege, and of houfes of learning and 
liberal arts within and ub >ut the moft famous city of London. 
With a brief report ot the faiences, arts, and faculties there. n pro- 
fclicd, ftudiqfl, and pradiltcl."' He alib wrote " A Treatiie of the 
art of Revels." 

BUCER (MABTiw), was born in 1-191, a* Scheleftadt, a town 
of Alface. At the age of feven he took ilic religious habit in the 
order of S(. Dominic, and with the leave of the prior of his con- 
vent went to Heidelberg to learn logic and phi lofophy. Having 
applied. himfelf afterwards to divinity, he made it his endeavour to 
acquire -a thorough knowledge oi' ti'e Greek and Hebrew. About 



this time f>>me of Erafmus's pieces came abroad, which he read 
greedily. Meeting afterwards with certain traces of Luther, and 
comparing the doctrine there delivered with the facred fcripture, 
he began to entertain doubts concerning fl-veral tilings in the popiih 
religion. His uncommon learning and his eloquence, which was 
abided by a ftrong and mufical voice, and his tree cenfure of the 
vices of the times, recommended him to Frederick elector palatine, 
who made him one of his chaplains. After fome conferences with 
Luther at Heidelberg in 1521, he adopted mod of his religious no- 
tions, particularly thofe of jollification. However, in 15^52, he 
gave the preference to the fentiments of Z'.iinglius concerning re- 
ligion; but ufed his utmoft endeavours to reunite the two parties, 
who both oppofed the Roniilh relig'vjn. He is looked upon as one 
of the firit authors of th^ Reformation at S:rafburg!i, where^he taught 
divinity for twenty years, and was one of the minifters of the town. 
He affii'ted at many conterences concerning religion, and, in 1548, 
Vv'as lent for to Augfburgh to fign that agreement betwixt the uro- 
tcibntsand papilts, which was called the Interim. His warm op. 
pofition to this projeft expofed him to many difficulties and hard- 
fhips ; the news of wh'ch reaching England, where his fame had 
already arrived, Cranmer, archbifliop of Canterbury, gave him an 
invitation to come over, which he v readily accepted. In 1549, an 
han.lfome apartment was affigned him in the univerfity of Cam- 
bridge, and a Hilary to teach theology. King Edward VI. had the 
grcateft regard for him : being told that he was very fenfible of the 
cold of this climate, and (uffered much for want of a German Move, 
he lent him an hundred crowns to purchafe one. He died of a 
complication of diforders in 155!) and was buried at Cambridge 
with great funeral pomp. Five y^ars after, in the reign of queen 
Mary, his body was dug up and publicly burnt, and his tomb derno- 
lilhed; but it was afterwards fjt up again by order of queen Eli- 
zabeth. He married a nun, by whom he had thirteen children. 
This woman dying of the plague, he married another, and according 
to fome, upon her death he took a third wife. 

BUCHANAN (GEORGE), an illuftrious perfon, was born near 
Kelh-rne, in the ihire of Lenox, in Scotland, 1506. His family, 
never very rich, was foon after his birth reduced to great (traits, bv 
the bankruptcy of his grandfather, and the dsath of his father, who 
left a widow with five funs aud three daughters, whom, neverthelefs, 
Die brought up by her prudent management. Her brother Mr. 
James Hcriot, obferving a prbrnifing genius in George wh: j n at 
fchool, fent him to Paris ior his education; but in two year? the 
death of his uncle, and his own bad ftate of health and want of mo- 
ney, forced him to return. About the year after he made a cam- 
paign with the French auxiliaries, in which he fufFered fo many 
Jiardihips that he was confined to his bed by ficknefs all the enfuing 



-- ' - - ~ ... .-.: 

winter. Early in the fpring he went to St. Andrew's to learn logic 
under Mr John Mair, whom he followed in fummer to Paris. 
Here he embraced the Lutheran tenets, which at that time began to 
fpread ; and, after ftrugglingfor near two years with ill fortune, he 
went in 1526, to teach grammar in the college of St. Barbe, which 
he did for two years and an half. The young earl of CaiTels 
meeting with him, took a liking to his ccnverfation ; and valuing 
his parts, kept him with him for five years, and carried him into Scot- 
land. Upon the earl's death, about two years after, Buchanan was 
preparing to return to France to refume his ftudies ; but James V. 
detained him, to be preceptor to his natural fon James, afterwards 
the famous earl of Murray, regent of Scotland. Some farcafms 
thrown out againft the Francifcan friars, in a poem, entitled, " Som- 
nium," which Buchanan had written to pafs an idle hour, fo highly 
exafperated them, that they reprefented him as an atheift. This 
ferved only to increafe that diflike, which he had already conceived 
againft them, on account of their irregularities. Same time after, 
the king having difcovered a confpiracy againft his perfon, in which 
he was perfuaded fome of the Francifcans were concerned, com- 
manded Buchanan to write a poem againft them. Our poet, un- 
willing to difoblige either the king or the friars, wrote a few verfes 
fufceptible of a double interpretation. But the king was difpleafed, 
becauie they were not fevere enough ; and the others held it a ca- 
pital offence fo much as to mention them but to their honour. The 
king ordered him to write others more poignant, which gave occafion 
to the piece, entitled, " Francifcanus." Soon after, being informed 
by his friends at court, that the monks fought his life, and that car- 
dinal Beaton had given the king a fum of money to have him exe- 
cuted, he fled to England. But things being there in fuch an un- 
certain ftate that Lutherans and Papifts were burnt in the fame fire 
on the fame day, whilft Henry VIII. ftudied more his own intereft 
than the purity of religion, he went over to France. On his arrival 
at Paris, he found his inveterate enemy cardinal Beaton at that court, 
with the character of ambaffador : wherefore he retired privately to 
Bourdeaux, at the invitation of Andrew Govianus, a learned Portu- 
guefe. He taught in the public fchool lately erected there three 
years ; in which time he wrote four tragedies, which were after- 
wards occafionally publifhed. The " Baptifta" was the tirft writ-* 
ten though it was the laft publifhed, and then the " Medea" of 
Euripides. He wrote them to comply with the rules of the fchool, 
which every year demanded a new fable ; and his view in choofing 
thefe fubjedls was, to draw off the youth of France as much as pof- 
fible from the allegories, which were then greatly in vogue, to arj 
imitation ot the ancients, in which he fucceeded beyond his hopes. 
Mean while cardinal Beaton fent letters to the archbifhop of Bour- 
deaux, to caufe him to be apprehended ; but thefe luckily fell into 
the hands of fome of Buchanan's friends, who prevented their effect. 


BUCHANAN (George). 313 

Not long after he went into'Portugal with Andreas Govianus, who 
had received orders from the king his matter to bring him a cer- 
tain number of men able to teach philofophy and claffical learning, 
in the univerftty he had lately eftabhfhed at Coimbra. Every thing 
went well whilft Govianus lived; but after his- death, which hap- 
pened the year following, the learned men wh followed him, and 
particularly Buchanan, who was a foreigner and had few friends, 
fuffered every kind of ill ufage. His poem againft the Francifcans 
was objected to him by his enemies, though they knew nothing of 
it's contents ; the eating of flefli in Lent, which was the common 
cuftom throughout the kingdom, was charged upon him as a crime ; 
fome things which he had kid glancing at the monks, but at which 
none but a monk would have been offended, were alfo objected to 
him. It was reckoned a heinous offence in him to have faid, in a 
private conversation with fome Portuguefe youths, that he thought 
St. Auftin favoured rather the Proteftant than the Popifh doctrine of 
the Eucharift ; and two men were brought to teftify, that he was 
averfe to the Romifh religion. After cavilling with them a year 
and a half, his enemies, that they might not be accufed of ground- 
lefsly harraffing a man of reputation, lent him to a monaltery for 
fome months, to be better inftriicT.e.1 by the monks, who indeed 
were not bad men, Buchanan tells us, but knew nothing of religion. 
It was chiefly at this time that he tranilated the " Pfalms of David" 
into Latin verfe. Upon obtaining his liberty, in 1551, he applied 
to the king for a paifport, to return to France ; but his majefty 
afked him to (lay, and fupplied him with money for his current ex- 
pences, till he could give him a place. Tired out with delays, 
Buchanan went aboard a (hip, which brought him to England, 
where things were in fuch confufion during the minority of Edward 
VI. that he refufed fome very advantageous offers to (lay here, and 
xvent to France in the beginning of 1552. In July 1554, he pub- 
liihed his tragedy of " Jephtha," with a dedication to Charles 
cb Coffi, marlhal of France; with which the rnarflial was fo much 
pleafed, that the year fallowing he fent tor Buchanan into Piedmont, 
and made him preceptor to hss ion. He Spent five years in France 
with this youth, employing his leifure hours in the finely of the 
Scriptures, that he might be the better able to judge of the contro- 
verfies which at that time divided the Christian world. He re- 
turned to Scotland in 1563, and joined the reformed church in that 
kingdom. In 1565 he went again to France, whence he was re- 
called the year fr!io\/irg, by Mary '^)ueen of Scots, who had fixed 
upon him to be preceptor to her fou, when that prince fhouU be of 
a proper age to be put under his care. In the mean time fhe made 
him principal of St. Leonard's college, in the univerfity of St. An- 
drew's, where he rcf'.icd four years ; but, upon the niisfor^nes of 
that queen, he joined the party of the earl of M :rray, by whole 
order he wrote his <( Detection," refle&ing .on - .en's cha- 
VQL. II. R ; ra-ater 


rafter and conduct. He was by the dates of the kingdom appointed 
preceptor to the young king, James Vh He employed the laft 
twelve or thirteen years of his life in writing the hiftory of his 
country, in which he happily united the force and brevity of Salliift, 
with the perfp-cuity and elegance of Livy. He died at Edinburgh, 
February 28, I $82. The popifh writers, angry at the part he acted 
\vitii regard to Queen Mary, reprcfent him in the molt odious co- 
lours ; but Sir James Melvil, who was of the oppofite party to him, 
and therefore cannot be fuppoftd to be partial in his favour, telis us 
that Buchanan w; r a man of norable endowments for his learning 
and knowledge in Latin poefy, much honoured in other countries, 
and rc]igiL>ufly difpoicJ. 

BUD/EUS (WiLHAMJ, was defcended of an ancient and 
illuftrious family, and born at Paris, in 1467. He was placed young 
under rnafters ; out barbarifm prevailed fo much in the fchools of 
Paris, that he took an utter dii^ike t> them. He was then fent to the 
univerfity of Orleans, to fiudy lav,-, where he palled tftree years with- 
out adding to his knowledge ; for his parents, fending for him back 
to Paris, found his ignorance no lefs than before, and his reluctance 
to fiudy, and love cf gaming and other pleafures, much greater. 
They talked no more to him of learning of any kind ; and as he 
was heir to a large fortune, left him to follow his inclinations. He 
was paffionately fond of hunting, and took great pleafure in horfes, 
dogs, and hawks. /The fire of youth beginning to cool, and his 
ufual pleafures to pall upon his fenfes, he was fuddenly feized with 
an irrefiftible paffiun for fhidy. He immediately difpoied of all his 
hunting equipage, and even abftradled himfelf from all bufinefs, to 
apply himfelf wholly to letters, in which he made, without any af- 
fiftance, a very rap'd and amazing progrefs, particularly in the La- 
tin and Greek languages. The work which gained him greateft 
reputation was his treatife " De a(Te." His erudition and high 
birth were not his only advantages; he had an uncommon mare of 
piety, modefly, gentlenefs, and good- breeding. He tooft a fingular 
pleafure in ferving his Triends, and procuring eflabiilliments for men 
of letters. Francis I. often fent for him, am', at his perfuafion, 
and that of Du-Belay, founded the royal college of France, for 
teaching the languages and fcienccs. The kins ilnt him to Rome, 
with the charadter of his ambaffador to Leo X. and in 1522 made 
him matter of requefb. The fame year he was cholcn prow ft of 
the merchants, iie died at Paris, i;. 1540. 

BUDGELL 'EusTACF.}, t!q. a very ; ngeni' us and polite writer, 
was born at St. Thomas near Exeter, about 1685, a;id educated at 
Ciint-chuiC!), Oxford. Ht^ fatner was CiilbeVc i/.nigeil, doctor of 
divinity, dc., d of an ancient family in Devon Ih ire ^ lus mother 
Mary, only daughter of Dr. ViMhum Guhton, bilhpp of BriiloK 

BUDGELL (Euflace). 3 1 5 

whofe lifter Jane married Dean Addifon, and was mother to the fa- 
mous Addi'on. After fome years ftay in the univerfity, Mr. Bud- 
gell went to London, and was entered of the Inner Temple, in order 
to be bred to the bar, for which his father always intended him ; 
but, in (lead of the law, he followed his own inclinations, which 
carried him to the ftudy of polite literature, and to the company of 
the genteeleft perfons in town. During his ftay at the Temple, he 
contracted a ftricr intimacy and friendihip with Addifon, who was 
firfl coufin to his mother; and when Addifon was appointed Secre- 
tary to Lord Wharton, the lord lieutenant of Ireland, he made an 
offer to his friend Euftace of going with him, as ene of the clerks of 
his office, which Mr. Budgell readily accepted. This was in April 
1710, when he was about twenty-five years of age. He had by this 
time read the dairies, the moft reputed hiftorians, and tfce belt French, 
Englilh, and Italian writers. It was now that Mr. Budgell com- 
r-i.'iiced author, and became concerned with Steele and Addifon in 
writing the Tatler. The Spectators being fet on foot in 1710-11, 
Mr. Budgell had likewife a fhare in them, all the papers marked 
with an X being written by him ;. as was indeed the whole eighth 
To'.ume by Addifon and himfelf, without the affiftance of Steele. 
Several little epigrams and fongs, which have a good deal of wit in 
them, together with the epilogue to " The Diftreffed Mother," 
which had a greater run than any thing of the kind befo>e, were alib 
written by Mr. Budgell near this time; all which, together with the 
kno'/vn affection of Addifon ior him, raifed his character fo much, 
as to make him very generally known and talked of. Upon the 
laying down of the Spectator, the Guardian was fet up; and in this 
work our author had a hand along with Addifon and Steele. In the 
preface it is faid, that thofe papers marked with an aiterifk were 
written by Mr. Budgell. 

Having regularly made his progrefs in the fecretary of ffate's of- 
fice in Ireland, upon the arrival of his late majefly in England he 
was appointed under fecretarv to Addifon, and chief fecretary to the 
lords jufiices of Ire-land. He was made likewife deputy clerk of 
the council in that kingdom, and foon after chofen member of the 
Irifh parliament, where he became a very good fpeaker. He ac- 
quitted himfelf in all thefe polls with great exa&nefs and ability, 
and with very fingular difintereftednefs. In 1/17, when Ad;iifon 
became principal lecrctary of ftaie in England, be procured for Mr. 
Budgeli the place of accornptant and comptroller-general of the re 
venue in Ireland, and might have had him for his finder fecretary, 
but it was thought more expedient for his majefty's fervice that he 
ihould continue w'aere he was. He held thcfe feveral places till 
1718, at which time the duke ot B.lton was appointed lord lieute- 
nant. His grace carried over with him one Mr. Edward Wc-bi'ter, 
Wrf'iom he made a privy councilor, and his fecretarv. A mifimtler- 
ftanding ariiing, on fome account or other, between this* gentleman 

R r 2 an i-l 

3 i6 


and Mr. Budgell, the latter treated Mr. Wi biter himfdi, histdu- 
c.iuon, his abilities, and family, with the utmoft contempt. M/. 
Bud^ell was indifcreet enough (tor he was naturally proud, and full 
of refentment), to write a lampoon ^prior to this, in which the lord 
lieutenant was not fpared ; and which he publiftied, in fpite oi all 
Addifon could fay againft it. Hence many difco-ntents arofe be- 
tween them ; till at length the lord lieutenant, in fupport of his le- 
cretary, fuperfeded Mr. Budgell, and very foon after got him removed 
from the place of accotnptanr-general. Mr. Budgell, not thinking 
it fafe to continue longer in Ireland, fet out for England, and very 
foon after his arrival publifhed a pamphlet, reprefenting his cafe, 
entitled, " A Letter to the Lord * * *, from Euftace Budgell, efq. 
Accomptant General of Ireland, and late Secretary to their Excel- 
lencies the Lords Juftices of that Kingdom ;" eleven hundred copies 
of which were fold off in one day, fo great was the curiofity of the 
public in that particular. Afterwards in the Poftboy of Jan. 17, 
1718-19, he publifhed an advertifement to jwilify his character 
againft reports which had been fpread to his difadvantage; and he 
did not fcruple to declare in all companies, that his life was attempted 
by his enemies, which deterred him from attending his feat in par- 
liament. His behaviour about this time made many of his friends 
conclude him delirious : his paffions were certainly very ftrong, nor 
were his vanity and jealoufy lefs fo. Addifon, who had refigned 
the feals, and was retired into the country for the fake of his health, 
fountl it impoilVoie to ftem the tide of oppofition, which was every 
where running againft his kinfman, through the influence and power 
of the duke of Bohon ; and therefore difluaded him in the flrongeft 
terms from publiftiing his cafe, but to no manner of purpofe. 

M;. Budgell's great and noble friend, L'rd Halifax, to whom, in, 
1713, he had dedicated a Tranflation 01 Theophraftus's Characters, 
was dead ; and Lojd Orrery, who held him in the highcfi efteem, 
}-ad it iiot in power to ferve him. Addifon had indeed got a 
promife train Lord Simderland, that, as foon as the prefent clamour 
u is a little abated, he would do fomething for him ; but that gen- 
tleman's d ; at!:, happening in 1719, put an end to all hopes of fuc- 
ceed::-.^ at c :urt, where he continued, neverthelefs, to make feveral 
atteir: (,-, but was conftantly kept down by the weight of the duke 
of I olton. In 1720, the faral year of the South Sea, he w;-s altnoft 
rune-.!, for he lott above tv. cir.y thoufand pounds in it. He tried 
atu-rwjuis to get into parliament, at feveral place?, and fpent five 
th pounds more ia -nfuccefsfu! attempts, which completed 

hi c riiin. And f r, m this period he began to behave and live in a 
different manner from what he had done before; wrote hbc-'lous 
F an Y-- linft Sir Robert V\'alpole uiul the mirniiiv, and d : d 

man) unjuii things in regard to hi- i^Iatio;^, btir.p. - ; ! ; n his 

own privacy fortuae, as indeed he was judged tu be iu ius K-U!'''S. 

BUDGELL ( Eujlace). 317 

In 1727 he had a thoufand pounds given him by the duchefs of 
Mariborough, to whofc hufband, the famous duke, he was related 
by his mother's fide, with a view to his getting into parliament. 
She knew tiiat he had a talent for fpeaking in public, that he was 
acquainted with bufinefs and would probably run any lengths agai.ift 
the minillry ; but this fcheme failed, for he could never get chnfen. 
In 1730 he doled in with the writers again!! the adminiftration, and 
publiihed many papers in the Craft (man. He publifhed alfo, about 
the fame time, many other pieces of a political natuie. In 1733 he 
began a weekly pamphlet entitled " The Bee," which continued 
for about a hundred numbers, that bound into eight volumes, 8vr>: 
Daring the progr^fs of this work, Dr. Tindal died, by whofc will 
Mr. Bu.igell haqj two thoufand pounds left him. 

It was thought he had fome hand in publishing Dr. Tindal's 
" Chriftianity as old as the Creation ;" for he often talked of ano- 
ther additional volume on the fame fubjecl:, but never, puhlifhed it 
However he ufed to inquire very frequently after Dr. Conybeare's 
health, who had been employed by her late ma jelly to anfwer the 
fir It volume, and rewarded .with the deanery of Child-church for his 

After the ceffation of " The Bee," he became fo involved in law- 
fuits, that he was reduced to a very unhappy lituation. He got 
himfelf called to the bar, and -attended tor fome time in the courts 
of law ; but finding hirnfelf incapable of making any progrefs, and 
being diftreiTed to the utmoif, he determined, at lengt'i, to make 
awav with himfelf. Accordingly, in 1736, he took a boat at So- 
mer'fct ftaits, after filling his pockets with Hones and ordered the 
waterman to llrujt the biidge ; and while the boat was going under, 
threw himfdf into the river, where he p;-rifhed immediately. Se- 
veral days before he had been vilib'y difhaded in his mind, and almoft 
rnad, which makes fuch an action th-e leis wonderful. He was never 
married, but left one natural daughter behind him, who afterwards 
took his name, and was fome time an aclrefs at Drury-lane. Ti e 
morning before he committed this acl; upon himL-li, he endeavour- d 
to perfuade this lady to accompany him ; which (he however veiy 
wifely refufed. Upon his bureau was found a flip of paper, on 
which were written thefe words: 

" What Cato did, and Adciifon approv'd, 
t( Cannot be wrong." 

Mr. Budgell,as a writer, is very agreeable ; nor argumen'arive or 
det-p, but ingenious and entertaining: and is liyle is fo peculiarly 
el-gant, that it may ;n that refped be al.r.i 11 rar.Led with Audi on's, 
and is certainly fuperi >r to t! '(-it E;^;!:!!: wiiters. A conufe 

epitaph, which i. r y oi a very fine you ig lad;. , is 

.. rth prefer vi no; : 




" She was, Ihe is, (what can there more be faid r) 
" On earth the firft, in heaven the fecond maid." 

BUFALMACO (BoNAMico), an eminent Italian painter, who 
was as pltafant in his converiation, as he was ingenious in his com. 
pofitions. A friend, whole name v/as Bruno, confulring him one 
day how he might give more exprefiion to his fubject, Bufa!m;*co 
anfwered, that he had nothing to do but to make the words corr. ; 
out of the mouths of. his figures by labels, on which they might be 
written. Bruno, thinking' him in earned:, did fo, as fereral foolilh 
painters did after him ; who, improving upon Brun;->, added anfwers 
to queftions, and made their figures enter into a kind of coii- 
verfation. Buialmaco died in 1-340. 

BUFFIER (CLAUDE), a French writer, and of French parents, 
was born at Poland, 1661 : he became a Jefiiit in 1679, and died at 
Paris in 1737. There are many works of this author, which (hew 
deep penetraiion, and accurate judgment ; the principal of which is, 
" A Courfe of Sciences upon Principles new and firnple." This 
collection includes an excellent French Grammar upon a new plan, 
a philofophic and practical Treatife upon Eloquence, the Art of 
Poetry, Elements of MetaphvHcs, an Exarnins-ion into Vulgar Pre- 
judices, a Treatife of Civil Society, and an xr>ofition of the Proofs 
of Religion ; all full of reflections jufi as well as new. He was 
the author of other works, in verfe and profe. 

Monthard, marquis of Rougement, an: -iicount of Quincy, the 
greateft natural hiftorian that ever appeared in any age or country, 
was the fon of Benjamin le Clerk de Buifon, counfellor in the par- 
liament of Burgundy, and was born at Monthard, in that province, 
on the 7th of September, 1707. His birth entitled him to afpire to 
the higlielt functions of magiftracy ; but the attractions of fcience 
were more powerful than the moft honourable pmfpects and lucra- 
tive advantages of the law. He profecuted his youthful ftudies at 
Dijon; and his indefatigable activity, his acutenefs, penetration, and' 
robijii constitution, fitted him to purfue bufinefs and pleasure with 
equal ardour. His.firft application was to the mathematics ; but he 
did not neglect the cultivation of other fcierues, although his genius 
did not yet irrefiflibly impel him to devote himfelf to any one in 
particular. At the age of twenty. one, he accompanied an Englifh 
nobleman and his governor to It^iy. On his return to France, he 
f. tight, on fome quarrel, with an Englishman, whom he 
wounded, a'id was obliged to repair to Par's, whne fie tr inflated into 
French Sir Ifaac Newton's Fluxions rind Dr. Hitch's Si-it, cs. At 
the age of twenty-five he v;!ited I'iiH^-" 1 ^. r ' !u l h^ relidcnce here, 
which was three months, terminated his travels. 


BU FFON ( Gewge Lewis le CM, Count dc}. 719 

Li L . de Buffbn was appointed inten-Jant of the'.s gar- 

dens ; cabinet of natural hilt^y. This appointment tixed his 
talk .a the ftudy of natural hiltory only ; at leaft, the other faiences 
were only fo far attended to, as they had any relation to the grand 
object of his attachment. The firlt volume of hi: " >T "il Hif- 
tory," the refuit of the moft arduous refearches, did not appear tin 
ten years after. The other volumes, to the number of thirty-three, 
followed at fucceffive per ' 

At the age of twenty- , rvT. de Buffbn loft his mother, whofe 
maiden name was Merlin: from her he inherited an eltate, valued at 
three hundred thoufand livres, or 13,125!. fterling. In 1757 he 
married mademoifelle -.^ St. Belin, whofe birth, as well as perfonal 
and intelietu~.l charm' . , compenfated for her want of fortune. 
Not withstanding the uiiparirv of their years, this lady evinced, on all 
occafioris, the molt tender alfVttion for her hufband, and (like Cali- 
phurnia, the wife of Pliny) the molt earne/t folic'itude for his fame. 
Each new work of her nufband's, every frefh laurel added to his 
renown, was to her a fource of the moft exquifite enjoyment. M. 
de Buffon lived long exempt from the infirmities of sge, enjoying all 
his ienfes and faculties to perfection. At laft, however, he was at- 
tacked by the {tone, and refuting to fubmit to the operation of cut- 
ting, he fell a victim to that diforder, April 16, 1788, in the eighty- 
fecond year of his age. He left one fon, who was fecond major in the 
regiment of Aogoumois, and who bore with honour, in a different 
career, a name immortal in the annals of fcience, letters, and phi- 

This illuftrions philofopher was treafurer-perpetual of the Aca- 
demy of Sciences and of the French Academy; fellow of the Royal 
Society of London, and of the Royal and Literary Societies of Ber- 
lin, Peterfburgh, Bologna, Florence, Edinburgh, Philadelphia, 
Dijon, &c. In point of Ityle, he was one of the molt elegant writers 
in France; a man of uncommon genius,, snd tranfcendent eloquence ; 
the moit aftohifhirig interpreter of nariire that ever exiiied. Ke 
niigiu have laid, *' je > e d'As qii a moi feul toule ma renommee" " 1 
am indebted for my fame to myfelf alone." Notwithstanding the 
nature and extent of his works, his application \vas indefatigable, 
and his life, even to a few months before his death, conihntly de- 
voted to the fciences. His body, embalmed, vas prefented o.i the 
1 8th at St. Mcuard's church, and conveyed afterwards to Mont /an! 
in Burgundy, where he had requcfted in his will to be interred, in the 
favie vault with his wife. His funeral was attended with a p^mp 
rareiy beftowed on digni'y, opulence, or power. A numerous con- 
courie of academicians, and perfons diftinguiihed by rank and polite 
literature, met, m oider to pay the iincerc.- homage due to fo great a' 
philufophcr. Full twenty thoufaml fpedlators crowded the itrcets 
through wliich the iiearfe was to pafs, and expreir^d the fame onrio- 
fity as if the ceremony had Jbeea fur a muiuich. Such is the reve- 



rencc we feel for the learned in general : nor ought an anecdote to 
be omiued, that fully evinces the truth of this affertion. During 
the la ft war, the captains of Englifh privateers, whenever they found 
in their prizes any boxes addreifed to the Count de Buffon (and 
many were addre-fful to him from every part of the world), imme- 
diately f -n*-ankd them to Paris without opening them ; whereas 
thofe c! ire died to the king of Spain were generally feized : and thus 
did the commanders of cruizing veifels fhew more refpect to genius 
than to fovereignty. 

The Count de Bi'ffon was in his perfect fenfes till within a few 
hours of his difTolution : the very morning of the I5th he ordered 
fome work to be done in the botanic garden (Jardtn an RclJ. At 
the opening of the corpf^, fifty-{even fiones were found in his blad- 
der, fome as large as a ftnall bean: thirty f them were cryllallifed 
in a triangular form, and weighed altogether two ounces and fix 
drachms. All his. other parts were perfectly found. The brain 
was found of a fize rather greater than ordinary. The gentlemen 
of the faculty, who were prefent at the opening of the body, una- 
nimoufly agreed that he might have been ealily cur, and without the 
lead danger ; but M. de Buffon'? conftant doubts of the exifknce oi 
fuch an obftruftion; and his dreadful apprehenfions for the luccefs of 
the operation, made him perfift in letting Nature perform her func- 
tions undifturbed : he repeatedly. faid, he would trull to her. And 
indeed none could rely fo well on the effecls of bounteous Nature as 
the count, for none had me more liberally gratified. On his manly 
and noble figure Ihe had damped the exterior indications of un- 
common underfjanding, 

The fovereigns, and foreign princes that vifited France, were 
ever eager to pay their homage to the il!u:trious Buffon. The em- 

Erefs of Ruffia bviihed upon him the mo it i.rkcling marks of appro- 
ation : Ihe fent to him, from ail parts of her vail territories, what- 
ever could excite and gratify his curiofhy. 

Le Comte de la Cepede, in his d^K-ripti^n of the four lamps 
fuipended in the Temple of Genuis, creeled in the bofom of France, 
has given a pompous eulogy of Mvu.i.fqui; u, \ , Roufleau,arfd 

Buffim. We (hull conclude this iubjeil by tranflatiug the lair. 
* l It was no longer night : a ftar, created by nature to illuminate the 
liniverle, fhone with majeUy. His courfc v/as marked by dignity, 
his motion by harmony, and his repofe by ferenitv : every eye, even 
the weakdr, was eager to contemplate it. From Iv.s car, refplen- 
dentover theuniverie, he fpread his magnificence. As God inclofed 
in the ark all the works pi creation, lie collected on t!ie bank? of 
the Seine, the animals, vegetables, and miricsais, difperfed in the four 
quarters ot ti'.e globe. Every form, ev.ry colour, all the riches imd 
iiiftir.cls of i.'it world wei i- offered to.quj. eyes; and to our under- 
ftaudings. Every thing was revealed, every thing c*;r.ubkj, eveiy 


BULL (John and George). 321 

thing rendered interefting, brilliant, or graceful. But a funeral 
groan was heard ; nature grieved in filence : with Buffon the lad 
lamp was extinguiflied !" 

BULL JOHN), a celebrated mulician, was born in Somerfetfhire 
about 1563, and educated under Blitheman, org'anill of Queen Eli- 
zabeth's chapel. In 1586 he was admitted bachelor of mufic at 
Oxford, haying been a practitioner fourteen years ; and, we are told, 
would have proceeded in that univerfuy, " had he .not met/' fays 
Wood, " with clowns and rigid puritans there, that could not en- 
dure church mufic." In 1591 he was appointed organift of the 
queen's chapel ; and the year after, was created doctor in the uni- 
verfity of Cambridge. He was greatly admired for his fine hand 
upon the organ, as well as for his comp'ofitions. Upon the efta- 
blifhment of Grefham college, he was chofen the firlt profefTor of 
mufic there ; and, not being able to fpeak Latin, was permitted to 
deliver his leclures in -Englifh : this was through the management of 
Queen Elizabeth, who had recommended him. In 1601 he went 
abroad for the recovery of his health, and travelled into France 
and Germany, \i here he diftinguifhed himfclf in his art, to the 
artonifhment of foreigners. Ward relates, that, upon the deceafe of 
Elizabeth, he became chief organift to King James : he was cer- 
tainly in the ftrvice of Prince Henry, his name (landing Tuft in the 
lift of that prince's mu.iicians in 1611, with a falary of 40!. per 
annum. In 1613 he quitted England, perhaps becaufe his art grew 
out of fafhion, ami went to reticle in the Netherlands, where he was 
admitted into the fervice of the archduke. Wood fays he died at 
Hainburg ; other-, at Lubec. There is a picture of him yet remain- 
ing in the mufic fchool at Oxford. Ward has given a longJift of 
his competitions in manufcript ; but the only works in print are his 
Jettons in the collection entitled " Parthenie ; or the Maidenhead of 
the firll Mufic that ever was printed for the Virginals." He ap- 
pears, from fome lefions in this work, to have poffefled a power of 
execution on the harpfichord iar beyond what is generally conceived 
of the matters of that time. 


BULL (GEORGE), bifhop <-f St. David's, dcfcemifd from an an- 
cient family in Sornrrfetli/irc, was born at Wells in that county, 
March 25, 1634.. His lather dying when he was but four years 
of age, he was left, with an e'ftate of two hundred pounds 4 
year, to the care of guardians, by whom he was firft placed cu a- 
gramrmr- fchool i;i \Vell,, and afterwards at the free- fchool at 1 i- 
verton in Devonshire. He was entered a commoner in Exeter 
C< liege, Oxford, July 10, 1648. Being now tranfplanted from the 
ih-icteit (iiCciplinc to more manlv liberty, he \\>. ^U .:ted his iiu'lie-.- to 
purtue nk-afurej but I'iil his genius discovered itfelf. As he 
naturally a dole,' ftrong wsy <f" reafoning, he fobn made himielr 

VOL ."II. - , maftcr 


mafter of logic, and gained the reputation of a fm^rt difputant. 
Refilling to take the oath to the commonwealth of England, 
he ret, mi in January 1649, with his tutor, Mr. Arkland, to 
North C.-.dbury, in Somerfetihire. In this retreat, which lafted till 
he was nineteen years of age, he had frequent converfation with 
one of his fillers, whcfe good fenfe and incomparable parts were 
directed by the moft folid piety. By her affectionate recom- 
mendation to her brother of that religion her own conduct fo much 
adorned, the won him from every tincture of lightnefs and vanity, 
and influenced him to a ferious pro'fecution of his ftudies. He now- 
put himfelt, by the advice of his guardians, under the care, and 
boarded in the houfe, of Mr. William Thomas, rector of Ubley, in 
Somerfet(hire,from whom he received little or no real improvement ; 
bm the acquaintance he made with his tutor's (on, Mr. Samuel 
Thomas, made fome amends. This gentleman perfuaded him to 
read Hooker, Hammond, Taylor, and Epifcopius, with which he 
fupplied him, though at the hazard of his father's difpleafurc, wh.*- 
never found any of th >fe books in his lludy withoiar difcoyering vi- 
fible rrh-.rks of his difpleafure; and eafily gueffing from \vhat quar- 
ter th;:y came, wo'.tld often fav, " My ion will corrupt Mr. Bull." 
About two years after he had quitted Mr. Thomas, he was by Dr. 
Skinner, the ejected bilhop of. Oxford, ordained deacon and prielt in 
one day, being at that ti r ne twenty-one years of age; after which 
he accepted the benefice of St. George's, near Briilol, worth about 
thirtv pounds a year. A little occurrence, foon alter his coming to 
this I'ving', contributed greatly to eftablifh his reputation as a 
preacher. Onr Sunday, when he had begun his fermon, as he was 
turning over his Bible to explain (ome texts of fcripture which he 
had quoted, his notes, which were written on feveral ("mail pieces of 
p-per, flew out of his Bible into the middle of the church. Many 
of the congregation fell itno laughter, , concluding that their young 
preacher would be-nonplufled fur want of materials ; but fome of 
the more fober and better-Matured fort gathered up the fcattered 
nou.-.s, and carried them to him in the pulpit. Mr. Bull took 
t!:-.;r ; arid perceiving that moft of the audience, confifting chiefly of 
fea-faring perfons, were rather inclined to triumph over him under 
that lurprize, he clapped them into his book again, and ihut it, and 
then, ivithour referring any moie to them, went on with the fubjecl 
he had begun. 

The prevailing fpirit of thofe times would not admit of the public 
an-i regular life of the B >ok of Common Prayer; but Mr. Bull 
formed all hi? public devotions out of the B::,'k of Common Prayer, 
and was commended as a perfon v. ho prayed by the Spirit, by many 
who condemned ti;c Common Prayer as a beggarly element and 
carr:.;i performance. 

In 1058 Mr. Bull married a daughter of Mr. Alexander Gre- 
gory, minilter oi Circnccftcr, and the Tame year was prd'cnted by the 



lady Poo! to the rL-ftory of Suddington St. Mary, ne:;r Cirehceftef'. 
In 1659, b'.-ing privy to the defigns in favour of King Charles, his 
houfe was chofe for one of the places of meeting. After the Re- 
floration, in 1662, he was preferred by the lord chancellor to the 
vicarage of Suddington St. Peter's, at the requeft of his diocefan, 
Dr. Nicholfon, bifhop of During the twenty-feven 
years Mr. Bull was rector of Suddington, he compofed mod of his 
works, feveral tra6ls of which are entirely loft, through his own 
neglect in preferving them. In 1669 hepublifhed his " Harmonia 
Apoftolica." In 1675 came abroad his " Examen Cenfuras," &c. 
and " Apologia pro Harmonia;" in anfwer to two authors who had 
written againlt his Apoftolical Harmony. About three years after, 
he was promoted by the earl of Nottingham, then lord chancellor, 
to a prebend in the church of Gloucester. In 1685 he publifhed 
his " Defenfio Fidei Nicenae." Five years after the publication of 
of this book, Mr. Bull was prefcnt^d by Philip Sheppard, Efq. to 
the living of Avening in G! luceiterlhire, worth 200). a year. 

June the icth, ths tiniyerfity of O;ctord, for the great fervices he 
had done the wholechurch, by his excellent defence di theNicene faith, 
conferred on him the degree of dolor of divinity ; and the 2o:h of the 
larae month, he was inftalled inta thj archdeaconry of Llandarr, to 
which he v/as preferred by Archbifhop Sancroft. He preached very 
warmly againlt popery in King James the Second's reign, and after 
the Revolution was put into the commiffion of the peace. In 1694, 
while of Avening, he publi 'lied his " JuJicium ecclefia? Ca- 
tholica;." His lafh woik was, " Primitiva apoftolica traditio dog- 
ruatis in ecc'eda catholica recepri de J. C. falvatoris noftri' divi- 
nationc ;" which, with his other Latin works, was printed in 1703. 
April 29, 1705, he was promoted to the fee of St. D.uicTs. A few 
months after his confecration he went down to his cliocefe, where he 
conltantly after refided till his dtrath, F.-b. 17, 1709. 

BULLIALDIJS (!SMAEL], a very celebrated adronomcr, was 
born at Laon, in iheifle o;" France, 1605. He travelled in his youth 
for the lake of improving himfelf in narura! knowledge, and after- 
v/ards pubiifhed feveral works. I. De natura lucis, at Paris, in 
1638. 2. Phiiolaus, divided into four books ; in which he endea- 
vours to efbblifh the Philolaic fyitem of the world, which Coper- 
nicus had revived: Amlterdam, 16^9. 3. Aftronomia Philoiaica ; 
opus novum, in quo motus planetarum; per novam veram iiypothefin 
cfemonftrantur, ^:c A Jditur nova methodus computandi eclipfes 
folares, &c. Paris, 164.5. In the prolegomena to this work, he 
defcnbes curi<rily the rifs and progrefs of aftronomy. He takes 
particular notice oi Kepler, whole f::gacity in eftablifhing the fyf- 
tem of til.-- world he greatly admires; yet complains of him, and 
jutily, for fvjmetinaes dilcrtirig geometrical, and having recourie to 
phyiica! ibluuons. Rijviolus, in hi-; preface to his Almagefl, tells 

S s 3. us, 


us, that Bullialdus had fcarcery published his new method of calcu- 
lating eclipfes, when he had the mortification to obferve an eclipfe of 
the lun, deviating confiderably from his own calculations. This 
eclipfc happened upon the 2ift of Auguft, in 1645. 4- Afironomia? 
Philolaicse fnndamenta clarius et explicata et alTerta adverfus Sethi 
\Vardi impugnationem. Paris, 1657. In the beginning of this 
work, he fnewed from four eitablifhedobfervations pfTycho Brahe, 
ihat Ward's hypothefis could not be brought to agree with the phe- 
nomena of Mars. This was Seth Ward, bifhop of Exeter, ar.d af- 
terwards of Salifbury. Builialdus published alfo another piece or two 
upon geometry and arithmetic. In 1661 he paid Hevelius a vifit at 
Dantzic, for the Take of feeing his optical and aftronomical appa- 
ratus. Afterwards he became a prefbytcr at Paris, and died there 
in 1694. . 

BULLEYN (WILLIAM;, a learned phyfician and botanrft, was 
defcended from an ancient family, and born in the I fie of Ely, about 
the beginning of Henry the Eighth's reign. He was bred up at 
Cambridge, as fome fay; at Oxford, according to others ; but the 
truth fcems to be, that both thofe nurferies of learning had a (hare in 
his education. We know but little of this perfon, though he was 
famous in his profefiion, and a member of the College of Phyficians 
in London, except what we are able to collect from his works. 
Tanner fays, that he was a divine as well as a phyfician, that he 
wrote a book againft tranfubftantiation, and that in June 1550 he 
was indu&ed into the rectory of Blaxhall in Suffolk, which he re- 
figned in November 1554.. From his works we learn, that he had 
been a traveller over icveral parts of Germany, Scotland, and efpe- 
Qially England; and he Teems to have made it his bufinefs to ac- 
quaint himfelf with the natural hiilory of each place, with the pro- 
duels of it's foil, efpeciaily vegetables. }r appears, however, that he 

more permanently fettled at Durham, where hepra&ifed phyfic 
with great reputation; and, among others of the moft eminent in- 
habitants, was in great favour with Sir Tineas Hilton, knight, ba- 
ron of Hilton, to whom he dedicated a book in the laft year oi Queen 
Mary's reign. In 1560 he went to London, where, to his infinite 
furprife, he found himfelf accufed, by ?Ir. William Hilton of Bid- 
dick, of having murdered his brother, the baron aforefaid; who 
really died among his own friends, of a malignant fever, ihe inno- 
cent duct ;r wj. cafily cleared : yet did not his en-.-my ceafe to third 
after hi? :>!oo,I, but hired fnne r to aflaffinate hirp. But this 

alfo proving inefFeftuai, the fa;d William Hilton arrefted Dr. Bul- 
Icyn in an ,icl:on, .. ..1 hirrj m pnfon a long time, where he 

wrote f.T.i.. . . . [ tr riles which Hull be mcnMonca j:;'.t 

r.ovv. He \y.fs a very Ufi'me;d, xpt . ', and able phytician. He 
\va very intimate w:>h the vrork of t:vj an - T phylu ui\s anU na- 
turaliits, bjth Gredi, Ro;uan, -r.d A/a'jiaii. H was aho a man of 


BULLINGER (Henry). 325 

-* I^M^a i my n, ~- T , r - , _ n ^ ~.~- \ mif - " "m^I ~J. -7.1,1. '.^~^ .-._^ i~i Mania 11 I'-ir^t^ 

probity and piety ; and, though he lived in the times of popery, 
does not appear to have been tainted with it's principles. He died 
in 1576, and was buried in (he fame grave with his brother Richard 
Bulleyn, a divine, who dieei 13 years before, in the church of St. 
Giles's, Cnpplegate. 

He wrote, i. The government of health, 1558, Svo. 2. Regi- 
men again ft thepleurify, 15 '2, Svo. 3. Bulwark, of defence againfl 
all ficknefs, forenefs, and wounds, that daily aflault mankind, &c. 
1562, folio. This work confifts of, firfl, " The book of com- 
pounds," with a table of their names, and the apothecaries rules or 
terms ; fecondiy, " The bonk of the ufe of fick men and medicines," 
before which is prefixed a wooden print of an old man, in a fur 
gown, and a fiat bonnet, ' pmie or fcrip by his fide, funporting 
himfeifon a Raff, and a cv.^tb/s head at his feet. Thefe are both 
com p- fed in dialogues between fick nefs and health. Then follows, 
thirdly, "The book of iirr, -s," being an Herbal in the form of a 
dialogue; at the end of whic are the wooden cuts of fome plants, 
and of fome limbecks or ftilf. and fourthly, " A dialogue between 
Sorenefs and.Chirurgery, concerning impofthurnations and wounds, 
and their caufes and cures." is trait has three wooden cuts in 

it ; one repfefenting a man's ho,/, on the forepart full of fores and 
fwellings ; the other, in like, behind: the third is alfo a 
human figure, in which the vein.s aje feen directed to, and named, 
which are to be opened in phlebotomy, 4. A dialogue both plea- 
fan t and pitiful, wherein is mewed a godly regimen againl'c t ..- 
plague, with confolations and comfort againft death, 1564, Svo. 
Some other pieces of a fmaller nature are afcribed to Dr. Bulleyn. 

BULLINGER (HENRY), was born at Bengnrten, a village 
near Zurich, in Switzerland, July 18, 1504. At the age or 12. 
he was fentby his father to Embrick, to be inflrucled in grammar- 
learning. After continuing here three years, he went to Cologn. 
At this time his father, to make him feel for th>.- diitn.- fes oi" others, 
and be more frugal and modefl in his drefs, and temperate i:i 
diet, withdrew that money with wliich he was wont to iiipply him, 
fo that Bullmger \vas forced, according to the cuitr/r. of iholt ur^c^, 
to fub(i!l on the alms he got by ringing from dcor to door. 
Cologn h.e flu-died logic, and commenced B. A. at 10 ye^rs r 
Ke afterwards betook himfelf to the ftuciy of divinity and canon Saw. 
and to the reading oi the fathers. He had eari I: < <ned a dc. : 
turning Carttiuiian, but the writings of Me'andthon and oth?: re- 
formti h rjiucie him change his resolution, and gave him a diuike to 
the doctrines of the church ol Pvome, from which, however, he did 
rot immediately ft-parate. In 1522, he commenced M- A. and 
returning hc:ne, he fpent a year in his father's houfr, wholly em- 
ploying himfelf in his iludie c . 'The year af<er, he v.-as ca'it, 1 
J^n^r abbot ofKapella near Zurich, tu ttach :h his conveiu, 



he did u-ith great reputation t >r four , :i- 

mental in caufing the reforma ion < f Z i ,-vius to be i i , .5:6, 
in the abbey of Kapella. la 1527, Me a-ten-le;! tru- i Zu- 

inglius at Zurich, during five months H.- -A as wit L lingiius at 
the famous difputation, held at Bern in 1528. T;ie yeai foil v- 
ing, he was called to be minifter of th< proteftant church, iii 'his 
native pla, e at Bengarten, and married a wiic, w'u> hr .ugnt tn 
fix fons, and five daughters, and die.) in 15 6 4- H. alet with great 
oppofition from the papifh and anabaptifts in h:b panfh. The 
victory gained by the Romifh cantons over the proteftants in a bat- 
tle foughr 1521, forced him, together with his father, brother, and 
colleague, to fly to Zurich, where he was chofcn pallor in the- room 
of Zmn^ius, (lain in the hue battle. He died September 17, 1575. 
Befides printed works, which fill ten volumes, he left many in 
manufcript. He greatly aflifted the Engliih divines who fled into 
Switzerland from the perfections raifed in England bv queen Mary. 
His confutation of the's bull excommunicating queen Eliza- 
beth, has been tranilate-1 intoEnglifh. 'The magistrates of Zurich, 
by his perfuafion, erecled a new college in 1538 He allb pre- 
vailed with him to erect, in a place that had formerly been a nun- 
nery, anew fchool, in which fifteen youths vere trained up under 
an able matter, and fupplied with food, raiment, and other necef- 
faries. In I5!9> he by his influence hindered the Svvifsfrom re- 
newing their league with Hen. II. of France ; reprinting to them, 
that it was neither juft nor lawful for a man to fufFer himfelf to be 
hired to Ihed another man's blood, who generally was innocent, and 
from whom himfelf had never received any injury. 

BUNEL (PETER), was born at Touloufe in 1499. He ftudied 
in the college of Coqueret at Paris, where he was oiitinguifhed by 
his fine genius. On his returning to Touloufe, rinding his family 
unable to maintain him, he went to Padua, where he was fupported 
by Emilius Perrot. He was afterwards taken into the family of 
Lazarus de Buif, the French ambattador at Venice, by whofe gene- 
rofity he was not only fubfifted, but enabled to fludy the Greek 
tongue. Afterwards he ftudied Hebrew. George de Selve, bifhop 
of Lavaur, who fucceeded de Bait" as an ambaffador, retained Bunel 
in his fervice, and when his ernbaily wasfiniihed, carried h'm with 
him to Lavaur. Upon the death of that prelate, which happened 
in 154.1, Buntl returned to Touloufe, where he would have been 
reduced to the greatcft indigence, had not Meffieurs de Faur, the 
patrons of virtue and fcience, extended their liberality to him un- 
aflced. One of thefe gentlemen appointed him tutor to his fons ; 
but whilfl he was making the tour of Italy with them, he was cut 
off at Turin by a fever, in 1546. He was one of the politefl wri- 
ters of the Latin tongue in the fixteenth century ;. but though he 
\vas advantageoufly diitinguiihed by the eloquence of his Ciceronian 


BUNYAN (John). 327 

ftile, he . 11 more fo by t'v- <tr.6tneis of his morals. The ma- 
gift: native town of Toulpufe fet up a marble ftatue to 
his :i rinry in ihe<r t -v. n-houfe. He left fotne Latin epiftles 
written w 1*1 the i:;-rr!i pur.ty, whiai -erefirft publilhed by Charles 
Stevens in 1521, an i aff.rvaads b, Henry Stevens 101581. 

BLT^YV V T (JOHN), 'tirhor of ih> j.iilly ad r'.red allegory of the 
iim'i- iVoc.iv>, \v--b mat Eiftow, near Bedford, 1628. His 
pareritr, : '.; gh very tr.-.ii, t .> >k care to give him that learning 
which was hi'.-- ible to ih.-T co-vision, bringing him up. to read and 
write: he- / forgot b'>th, abandoning hi, nf-li: to all manner 
of \vi k. ':'ci'.- but not wiinout fr-jquent checks of confcience. One 
day v 'a with Mis companions (the writerof his life tells us) 

a v. ! nly t; in -, irom heaven into his foul, faving, " Wilt 

thon !<e;., r s <ind g to he:;ven, or have thy fins and go to hellr' ? 

Thi pi i Mi'o 'ii'o fuch a cor u te-nati >n, that he immediately left 
his 1^,)! t , ai'.I looking up to heaven, th night he favv the Lord Jefus 
lookin^ .1 .on nun, as one highly difpleafed with him, and 
threatening him with forne grievous punifhment for his ungodly 
practices. A.'. 'i:v^n?r ti'.ne, whilft he was belching out oaths, he 
was feverrly r proved by a woirun, vvlo was herfelf a notorious fin- 
ner : (lie ro'd hi.n he \vas the ugiieft fellow for fwearing that ever 
fhe heard in ail her !> e, that he was able to fpoil all the youth of 
the town, if they came but into his company. This reproof coming 
from a wuin-.ii, whom he knew to be very wicked, filled him with 
fecretfharri'; and made him, from that time, very much refrain 
from it. His father brought him up to his own bufinefs, which 
was that of a tinker. Being a foldier in the parliament army, at the 
fiege of Lficeiter, in 1 645, "he was drawn out to ftand centinel ; but 
another foldier of his company defired to take his place, to which 
he agreed, and thereby efcaped being fhot by a mufket-ball, which 
took off his comrade- About 1655, he was admitted a member of 
a Baptiir. congregation at Bedford, and foon after chofen their 
preacher. In 1660, being convicted at the fedlons of holding un- 
lawful alTemblies and conventicles, he was fentenced to perpetual 
banifhment, and in the mean time committed to gaol, from which 
he was difcharged after a confinement of twelve years and an half, 
by the compallionate interpofition of Dr. Barlow, bi(hop of Lin- 
coin. During his imprifonment, his own hand miniftered to his 
neceiTuies, making many an hundred grois of long-tagged thread 
lace?, which he had learned to do fince his confinement. At this 
time he alfo wrote many of his trails. Afterwards, being at liberty, 
he travelled into fjveral parts of England, to vifitand confirm the 
brethren, which procured him the epithet of bilhop Banyan. 
When the declaration of James II. for liberty of confcience was 
publiilitd, he, bv the contributions of his followers, built a meet- 


in^-houfe in Bedford, and preached coriiVahfJy to a numerous au- 
dience. He died in London of a fever, 1688, aged fixty. 

BURGH fjAMEs), a worthy and ingenious moral and political 
writer, was born at Madder*}', in Perthihire,- North Britain, in the 
latter end of the year 1714. After a fchool education at Madderty, 
-.vhere he difcovered great quicknefs and facility, he was removed to 
the univerfity of St. Andrew's, with a view of becoming a clergyman 
in the church of Scotland ; but did not continue long at the college, 
being obliged to leave it on account of bad health. This circnm- 
ftancie inducing him to lay afide the thoughts of clerical proieflion, 
he entered into trade in the linen way; which not proving fuccefs- 
ful, became to Engk v '. ere his nrfl employment was to correct 
the prefs for an eminar : nter ; and at his lei fure hours he made 
indexes. After being eng.-id about a year in this way, he removed 
to Great Marlow, as an'anntantat a tree grammar-fchool of that 
town; \vherehe nrfl commenced author, by writing a pamphlet, 
entitled, " Britain'^. Remembrancer," 1^46 ; Wnich went through 
five lar'e editions in tuo years, wss reprinted in England, Irelanti, 
and America ; was afcrib'ed to feveral bitnops ; and was quoted by 
churchmen and diflenters in their pulpits. 

When Mr. Burgh quitted Marlow, he engaged himfelf as an 
afiiilant to Mr. Kenrois at En field ; who at the end of one year, 
very generoufly told him, " that heoug"ht no longer to lofe his time,- 
by continuing in the capacity i>i an al'iftant ; that it would be ad- 
\i fable for him to open a boardirig-fchnoi for himfelf ; and that, if. 
he flood in need o{ it, he would .\Hift him with money tor that pur- 
pofe." Accordingly, in 1747, Mr. Burgh commenced mafter of an 
academy, at Sloke Newington, in Middlefex ; and in that year he 
wrote " Thoughts on Education." The next production of his 
pen was " An Hymn to the Creator of the world ;" to which was 
added, inprofe, " An Idea of the Creator, from his works." A fe- 
cond edition, in oclavo, was printed in 1750. After Mr Burgh had 
continued at Stoke Newington three years, hishoufe not being large 
enough to contain the number of fcholars that were offered to him, he 
removed to a more commodious one at Newington Green. Here, 
for nineteen years, he carried on his fchool with great reputation and 
fuccefs, many young per funs having been trained up by him to know- 
ledge and virtue. Few mailers have been animated with a more 
ardent folicitude for forming the morals, as well as the underfiand- 
ings of their fcholars. In 1751, Mr. B-.irgh married Mrs. Harding, 
a widow lady, who zealoufiy concurred in promoting his laudable 
and life! ul undertakings. In the fame year, at the requeft of Dr. 
S-'.-phcn Hales, ai:d Dr. Ilavr-. r, bifhr-p of Norwich, be pub'ifhed 
a (mail piece, in 12010, entitled, " A Warning to Dram Drin- 
Onr anther's next 'publication-was his great work, entitled, 
" The D gnity of Hiu:;.u:i Nature ; or, a brief Account of the 


BURGH (James). 329 

certain and ellablilhed means for attaining the true End of our Ex- 
irtence." This treatife appeared in 1754, in one volume quarto, 
and was reprinted in two volumes octavo, 1767. In 1756, < \outh's 
friendly Monitor," of which a fnrreptitious copy had been printed 
under a difguifed title, was publifhed by himfelf, in I2tno. In 
1758, he printed a pamphlet under the title of " Political fpecula- 
tions ;" and the fame year " The Rationale of Chriftianity," tho* 
he did not publifh this.lafl till 1760; when he printed a kind of 
Utopian Romance,- entitled, " An account of the firft Settlement, 
Laws, Form of Government, and Police, of the Ceffares, a people 
of South America; in Nine Letters, from Mr. Vander Neck, one 
of the Senators of the Nation, to his friend in Holland, with Notes 
by the Editor," 8vo. In 1762, Mr. Burgh published, in Svo. " The 
Art of Speaking;" of which a fifth edition was printed in 1782. 
The late Sir Fiancis Blake Delaval, who had ftudied the fubjedt of 
elocution, and who had diftinguifhed himfelf in the private ading of 
feveral phys, in conjunction with fume other perfons of iamion, 
had fo high an opinion of Mr. Burgh's performance, that he foiicit- 
ed, on that account, an interview with him. Our author's next 
appearance in the literary world was in 1766, in the publication of 
the firft volume, in I2mo, of " Ctito, or Eifays on various Sub- 
jects." To this volume is prefixed a dedication, not defritute of. 
humour, " To the Right Rev. Father (of three years old) his Roval 
Highnefs Frederic Biihop of Ofnaburgh." The Effays are three 
in number: the firft is of a political nature; the fecond is on the 
difficulty and importance of education, and the third upon the ori- 
gin of evil. In the fame year Mr. Burgh wrote " Propofals (hum- 
bly offered to the public) for an AfTociation againfi: the iniquitous 
practices of Engroflers, Foreftallers, Jobbers, &c. and for reducing 
the Price of Pruvifions, efpeci/ily Butchers Meat," Svo. In 1767 
came out the fecond volume of Crito, with a long dedication (which 
is replete with fhrev.dand fatirical obkrvations, chiefly of a political 
i.ind) " To the good people of Britain of the 2oth century." The 
re it of the volume ccn'.ains another Eilay on the origin of evil, and 
the rationale of Chriftianity, and a poiHcript, confiding of further 
explanations of the fubjeas before conlidered, and of detached re- 
marks on varioub matters. 

Mr. Burgh having for many years led a very laborious life, and 
having acquired a competent though not a large fortune, he deter- 
mined to retire from bufinefs. In embracing this refolution, his 
more immediate object was, to complete his " Political Diiqui- 
iltions," for which lie had, during ten years, been collecting f ;i li- 
able materials. Upon i|uitting his fchool in 1771. he fettled in 
Colebrooke Row, Iflingtqn, where he_,cpritinued till his deceafe. 
He had not been long in his new lituation, before he became con- 
vinced (of \vhr.t \\-as only Cufpe&ed before) that he had a (tone in 
his bladJer. With this dreadful irulady he was deeply afflicted 

VOL. T t 


for the four latter years of his life ; and for the two laft of thefe 
vears, his pain was exquifite. Ncverthelefs, to the aftonifhment 
of all who were witnefles of the mifery he endured, he went 
on with his " Political Difquifitions." The two firft volumes 
were published in 1774, and the third volume in 1775. He died 
Aug. 26, 17751 in the 61 ft year of his age. 

Befidesthe publications already mentioned, and a variety of ma- 
nufcripts which he left behind him, he wrote, in 1/53 and 1754, 
fome letters in the General Evening Poft, called " The Free En- 
quirer )" and in 1770* a number of papers, entitled, " The Con - 
ftituticnalift," in the Gazetteer ; which were intended to recom- 
mend Annual Parliaments, Adequate Reprefentation, and a Place 
Bill. About the fame time, he alfo published another periodical 
paper in the Gazetteer, under the title of " The Colonifts Advo- 
cate ;" which. was written againft the meafures of Government with 
refpec"l to the Colonies. He printed, like wife, for the fole ufe of 
his pupils, " Directions, prudential, moral, religious, and fcientific;" 
which were pirated IT a bookfeller, and afterwards publifhed by 
himfelf, under the tide of " Youth's friendly Monitor." 

BURGOYNE (JoHN), a privy counfellor, lieutenant-general in 
the army, colonel of the 4th regiment of foot, M. P. for Prefton, 
and author of a much celebrated comedy, entitled, " The Heirefs.'' 
In 1/74 we fee him conducting the fete champetre given by the earl 
of Derby at the Oaks, June 9 that year. The year following he 
was ordered on the fervice in America, where, after various futcefles, 
he was captured, together with his whole army. He returned from 
thence Dec. n, 1/76. In 1779 he refigned all his emoluments, 
10 the amount of 3500!. a year. He died in London, Aug. 4, 1792. 
His death was ocxafioned by a fuclden attack of the gout ; he had 
been out, apparently, in good health the day before. He died 
richer ineftetm than in money, for in the faving or fecuring of that 
he had no talent. His match with lady Charlotte Stanley having 
been an affair of love, contracted at Prefton, when the General was 
p. fubaltern, was, at firft , vehemently refented by the late earl of 
Derby, her father, who vowed never to fee them again. As time, 
however, unfolded the General's character, the earl became convin- 
ced that his daughter had married an accomplifhed gentleman, an 
able fcholar, and a benevolent mas. Lady Charlotte had accord- 
ingly, during his lordfliip's life, the fame Itipend as her fillers, 300!. 
per annum, and, at his death, the fame legacy, 25,000!. Her lady- 
{hip died, without iffue, June 7, 1776. 

BURJDAN (JOHN), a renowned French philofopher of the i4th 
century, was burn at Bethune in Artois. He difcharged a profenVr's 
place in the nniverfity of Paris with great reputation ; and wrote 
commentaries on A/ilioile's logic, etnics, and met.iphyfics, wi.ich 



were much efteemed. Some fay, that he was rector of the univer- 
fity of Paris in 1320. Aventinus relates, that he was a difciple of 
Ockam ; and that, being expelied Paris by the power of the Realilts, 
which was fuperior to that of the Nominalifts, he went into Ger- 
many, where he founded the tmiverfity ot Vienna. 

BURKITT (WILLIAM), a celebrated commentator on the 
New Teltament, was born at Hitcham in Ncrthamptonfhire, July 
25, 1650. He was fent firft to a fchool at Stow-marker, and from 
thence to another at Cambridge. After his recovery from the fmall- 
pox, which he catched there, he was admitted of Pembroke-hall, at 
the ape of no more than fourteen years; and upon his removal from 
the univerfity, when he had taken his degree, he became a chaplain 
in a pr